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A NEW 
Geographical, Hiftorical, and Commercial 

GRAMMAR; 

AND 

PRESENT STATE 

OF THE SEVERAL 

KINGDOMS OF THE WORLD. 

CONTAINING 

!• The Figures, Motions, and Dtftances of 



the Planets, according to the Newto- 
nian Syftem and the lateft Obfervations. 
JI. A general View of the Earth confidcrcd 
as a Planet ; with feveral ufeful Geogra- 
phical Definitions and Problems. 

III. The grand Divifions of the Globe into 
Land and Water, Ccntincnts and Iflands. 

IV. The Situation and Extent of Empires, 
Kingdoms, States, Provinces, and Colo- 
nies. 

y. Their Climate, Air, Soil, vegetable Pro- 
du£tions, Metals, Minerals, natural Cu- 
riofitics. Seas, Rivers, Bays, Capes, Pro- 
montories, and Lakes. 

VI. The Birds and Beads peculiar to each 
Country. 



VII. Obfervationc on the Changes that have 
been any where obfcrved upon the Face 
ofNature fince the moft early Periods of 
Hiftory. 

VIII. The Hiftory apd Origin of Nations : 
their Forms of Government, Religion« 
Laws, Revenues, Taxes, naval and mi- 
litary Strength. 

IX. The Genius, Manners, Cuftoms, and 
Habits of the People. 

X. Their Language, Learning, Arts, Sci- 
ences, ManufaAures, and Commerce. 

XL The chief Cities, StruAnrea, Ruins, 

and artificial Curiofities. 
XII. The Longitude, Latitude, Bearings, 

and Diftances of principal Places from 

London. 



WITH 

A T A B L E of the c o I N s of all Nations, and their Value in 

ENGLISH MONEY. 

By WILLIAM GUTHRIE, Efq. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH 

ANEW AND CORRECT SiLT OF MAPS, 
Engraved by Mr. K i t c h i n. 



LONDON: 
Printed for J. K N 6 X, at N" 148, near Somerfct-Houfe, in the Strand. 



MDCCLXX. 



t W 3 



THE 



PREFACE. 



TO a man finccrely interefled in the welfare of fociety and of 
his country, it muft be particularly agreeable to reflcdt on 
the rapid progrcfs, and general diffufionof learning and civi- 
lity, which, within the prefent age, have taken place in Great 
Britain. Whatever may be the cafe in fome other kingdoms of 
Europe, we, in this ifland, may boaft of our fuperiority to thofe 
illiberal prejudices, which not only cramped the genius, but four- 
ed the tempc; of man, and diiturbed all the agreeable intercourfe 
of fociety. Among us learning is no longer confined within the 
fchools of the philofophers, or the courts of the great j but like all 
the greateft advantages which heaven has beftowed on mankind, 
it is become as common as it is ufeful. 

This general diffufion of knowledge is one effc£k of that happy 
conftitution of government, which, towards the clofc of the laft 
century, was confirmed to us, and which makes the peculiar 
glory of this nation. In other countries, the great body of the 
people have little power, and confequently meet with little rcfpcclj 
in Great Britain the people have their due influence, and meet ac- 
cordingly with a proper fliare of attention. To their improve- 
ment, therefore, fome men of letters have lately haa an eye ; for 
the great body of the people, no lefs than the dignified, the learri- 
cd, or the wealthy few, had a title to be amu'i;.'. informed, and 
edified. Books were divcdied of the terms of the fchools, they 
were reduced from that fize which fuited them only, to the purles 
of the rich, and the avocations of the ftudious j they were adapt- 
ed to psrfons of more ordinary fortunes, and whofe attachment to 

A 2 other 



-«*- 



w 



PREFACE. 



other purfuits, admitted of little leifure for thofe of knowledge. 
It is to books of this kind, books adapted to the time, capacity, and 
other circumftances of the people, more than to the works of our 
Bacons, our Lockcs, and our Newtons, that the generality of our 
countrymen owe that fupcrior improvement,, which diftinguifhes 
them from the common ranks of men in all other countries. To 
promote and advance this improvement, is the principal dcfign 
of our prefent undertaking. No fubje£t appears more intcrefting 
than that we have chofen, and none fcems capable of being handled 
in a way that may render it more generally ufcful. 

The knowledge of the world, and of its inhabitants, though, 
not the fublimeft purfuit of mankind, is that which moft near- 
ly interefts them, and to which furely their abilities are beft 
adapted. Books of geography, v. ..ch defcribe the fituation, extent, 
foil, and produiflions of kingdoms ; the genius, manners, religion^, 
government, commerce, fcicnccs, and art:* of all the inhabitants 
upon earth, promife the beft afliftance for attaining this knowledge. 
The Compendium of Gfiography, we now offer to the public, dif- 
fers in many particulars from other books on that fubje£(. Befides 
endeavouring to exhibit an eafy, diftindt, and fyftematic account 
of the theory and prafticc of what may be called Natural GcO" 
graphy, we have attempted to render the following performance, 
yfl inftruftive, though compendious account of the general hifto- 
ry and fpirit of nations. The character cf nations depends on a. 
continuation of a great many circumftances which reciprocally 
affect each other. There is a nearer connexion between the 
learning, tae commerce, the government, &c. of aftate, than moft 
people feem to apprehend. In a work of this kind, which pre- 
tends to include moral, or political, as well as natural geography,, 
no one of thofe objeds fhould pafs unnoticed.. The omiiTion of 
any one of them would not only deprive us of x piece of know- 
ledge, interefting in itfelf, but which is abfolutely neceflary for 
enabling us to form an adequate and comprehenfive notion of the 
fubjc(ft in general. We have thought it neceflary, therefore, to 
add a new article to :his work, which comprehends the hiftory 
and prefent ftate of learning, in the feveral countries we defcribe,. 
with the characters of fuch pcrfons as have been moft eminent 
in the various departments of letters and philofophy. This fub- 
ie»a:,. confidcred by itfelf, may be of ufe, and muft appear altoge- 

2 tiieir 



PREFACE. 

ther trquifite iit this work, when we confider the powerful influ' 
ence of learning upon the manners, government, and general cha- 
ra<3er of nations. Theic objeAs, indeed, till of late, feUlom oc« 
cupieu any part in geographical performances ; and, even where 
(hey have been introduced, are far from being bandied in the moft 
entertaining or in(lru<Stive manner. Neither is this to be altoge- 
ther imputed to the fault of geographical writers. The greater 
part of travellers, ading folely under the influence of avarice, tbc 
paflion which Hrfl induced them to quit their native land, were 
at little pains, and indeed were very unqualified to collc£t fuch 
materials as arc proper for gratifying our curiofity, with regard to 
thefe particulars. The geographer then, who could only employ 
the materials put into his hand, was in no fil <. ion to give us very 
important information upon fuch fubje<Sb. In the courfe of the 
prefent century, however, men have begun ti/ travel from different 
motives. A thirft for knowledge, as v^ell as for gold, has leJ 
feveral into diilant lands. Thefe they have explored with a phi- 
lofophic attention ; the internal fprings of k£l;ion, by which the 
inhabitants are dire«^ed, their external beha^'lour in public and 
private life, thefe have been laid open, and exhibit a natural and 
ftriking picture of human maimers, under the various flages of 
barbarity or refinement. Without manifeft impropriety, we could 
not but avail ourfelves of thefe accounts, by means of which, we 
have been enabled to give a more copious, and a more perfed ac- 
count of what is called Political Geography, than has hitherto 
appeared. 

In confidcring the prefent flate of nations, few cIrcumAances 
are of more importance than the mutual intercourfe between 
them. This is chiefly brought about by commerce, the prime 
mover in the ceconomy of modern ftatcs, and oF which therefbrc 
we have never loft light in the prefent undertaking. 

We were (enfible that a reader could not examine the prefent 
ftate of nations v/ith much entertainment or inftrudlion, unlefs 
he was alfo made acquainted with their former condition, and of 
the various revolutions and events, by the operation of which 
they have afTumed their prefent form and appeatance. This has 
given rife to the hiftorical part of th's Work, a part which we 
have endeavoured to execute iii a very different manner from what 

is 



M 



P R £ F A c C. 



is ufual. Inftcad of fatiguing the reader with a dry detail oT 
iicws-p-ip-T occurrences, occurrences no way conne«Sled with one 
anotl: 1, cr with a general plan of the whole, we have mention- 
ed only fuch fails" as are interefting, cither on their own account, 
or 1)V their relation to objcfts of importance. Inftcad of a meagre 
inc^cx ff incoherent incidents, wc have drawn up a regular and 
conne(^led epitome of the hiftory of each country, fuch an epi- 
tome as may both be read by itfelf with advantage, and when 
confidcred us an introdu<5lion to more copious accounts. 

Having, through the whole of the work, mentioned the antient 
names of countries, aiKi in treating of their particular hiftory 
have fometimes carried our rcfearches beyond the limits of modern 
times, we have thought it neceflary, for the fatisfaftion of fuch 
readers as are unacquainted with clafllcal learning, to begin our 
hiftorical Introdudlion with the remote ages of antiquity. By 
inferting an account of the antient world in a book of geography, 
we afford an opportunity to the reader, of comparing together not 
only the manners, government, and arts of different nations, as 
they fubfift at prefent, but as they fubfifted in antient ages ; 
which exhibiting a general map, as it were, of the hiftory of 
mankind, renders our work more complete than any thing hitherto 
publiflied in our language in a geographical treatife. 

In the execution of our defign, wc endeavour to obferve order 
and perfpicuity. Elegance we have facriliced to brevity. Happy 
if we can catch the leading features which diftinguifli the cha- 
rafters of nations, and by a few ftrokes hit off, though not com- 
pletely finilh the picture of mankind in antient and modern 
times. 

What has enabled us to comprife fo many fubjc£ls within the 
narrow bounds of this fmall work, is (befides giving fevcral 
fhcets more than any other geographical treatife of the fame 
price) the omiillon of many immaterial circumftances, which arc 
recorded in other performances of the fame kind, and of all thofe 
fabulous accounts or defcriptions which, to the difgract of the 
human underftajiding, fwell the works of geographers} though 
the falfity of them, both from their own nature and the concurring 
teftimony of the moft enlightened and beft-iaformcd travellers and 
hiftorians, be long fincc proved. 

As 



PREFACE. 



vu 



detail of 
with one 
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le antient 
ar hiftory 
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As to particular parts of the work, we have been more or lefs 
diffufe, according to their importance to us as men, ami as fub- 
iecls of Grcat-Britaoi ; our own country, in both rrlpec dtfei-vcd 
the Treated (liarc dt our attention. Grc;;t-Britaii, though fhe 
camiot buafl: of a more luxuriant foil or happier climate than 
many other countries, has advantages of another and fupcrior 
kind, which make her the delight, the envy, and the miftrels of 
the world ; thefe are the equity of her laws, the freedom of her 
political conrtitution, and the gentle moderation of her religious 
fyftem. With rcgr.rd to thofe objects therefiuc, this work is 
more copious than any other of an equal fr-^e. 

Next to Great-Britain, we have been moft particular upon the 
Other ftates of Europe; and aKvays in proportion as they prelent 
us with the largeft field of ufeful reflexion. By comparing toge- 
ther our accounts of the European nations, an important fyftem 
of praftical knowledge may be raifed, and a thoufand arguments 
will appear in favour of a mild religion, an impartial government, 
and an extended, unreftraincd commerce, 

Europe having occupied fo large a part of our volume, we next 
turn our attention to Afia, \vhich, though in fome refpeils the 
moft famous quarter of the world, ofFer; ,• when compared to Eu- 
rope, extremely little for our entertainment or inftru<5lion. In 
Afia, a ftrong attachment to antient cuftoms, and the weight of 
tyrannical power, bears down the active genius of man, and pre- 
vents that variety in manners and charatStcr, which diftinguiflies 
the European nations. But the immenfe country of China, fa- 
mous for the wifdom of its laws and political conftitution, equally 
famous for the fingularity of its language, literature, and philo- 
fophy, deferves to be confulcrcd at great k jth. 

In Africa, the human mind feerns degraded below its natural 
ftate. To dwell long upon the manners of this country, a coun- 
try fo imtiiCrfed in rudcnefs and barbar'ty, would be difgufting to 
every hunanc man, and could afford little inftrudion to any man. 
Add to this, that the inhabitants of Africa, deprived of all arts 
and fcicnces, without which the human mind remains torpid and 
inactive, difcover no great variety in manners or character. A 
gloomy famencfs almoft every where prevails j and the little dif- 
ference 



As 



vm 



PREFACE. 



ferencc which takes place among them, feems rather to arife from 
an excefs of brutality on the one hand, than from any near ap- 
proaches towardi. refinement on the other. But though thefc 
quarters of the globe are treated icfs extenfively than Europe, 
there is no part of them, however barren or favage, intirely 
omitted. 

America, whether confidered as an immcnfe continent. Inha- 
bited by an endlefs variety of different people, or as iniimately 
connected m ith Europe by the ties of commerce and government, 
tlcfcrves very particular attention. The bold difcovery, and i>ar- 
barous conqueft of this new world j the manners and prejudices 
of the original inhabitants, are objefls too, which, together with 
the national defcription of the country, defervedly occupy no 
imall ihare of this performance. 

In treating of fuch a variety of fubjefts, miflakes, no doubt, 
muil efcape our notice. But if our general plan be good, and the 
cr.l;'ncs and chief figures flcetched with truth and judgment, the 
candour of the learned, we hope, will excuie the imperfedlions 
of an original draught, which, with all its defeats, may be found 
very generally ufefui. 

We cannot, without tranfgrcffing the bounds of a Preface^ 
infift upon the other parts of our plan. The Maps, which are 
new, and corre£ied with care, will, we hope, afford fatisfadlion. 
I'he fcience of natural geography, for want of proper encou- 
ragement from thofe who are alone capable of giving it, flil) 
remains in a very imperfect ft ate ; the exa£t divifions and extent 
of countries, for want of geometrical furveys, is far from being 
well afcertaincd. This confideration has induced us to adopt the 
moft unexceptionable of Templcman's Tables ; which, if they 
give not the exa'^eft account, afford at leaft a general idea upon 
this fubje£l i which is all indeed we can attain, until the geogra- 
phical fcience arrives at greater perfeftion. They are, befidcs, 
Fecommended by their brevity ; and the making ufc of them has 
enabled us to introduce fome fabje<Ss more neceffary in this 
undertaking than the mirfiitc divifions of countries, whofe boun- 
daries and fituationa wc are hardly acquainted with. 



I • 



INTRODUCTION, 



INTRODUCTION. 

PART i. 

Of Astronomical Geography. 



SECT. I. 



-^ 



THE fcicnce of Geography cannot be compleatly underftooJ 
without confidering the earth as a pknet, or ;is a body niov- 
iii;r round another at a confiderable dirtancc from it. Eiit the 
fclence which treats of the planets, and other heavenly bodies, is call- 
ed Ailronomy. Hence the netcfiity of beginning this work witli an 
i'.ccount of ailronomy, or of tlie hcavetdy bodies. Of thcH', the; 
moll: confpicuous is that glorious luminary the fun, the foun:ain of- 
light and heat to the feveral planets which move round it, and which, 
together with the fun, compofo what altronomers have called the 
Solar Syitcm. The way, or path, in which the planets move round 
the i'un, is called their Orbit ; and it is now fully proved by aflrono- 
incrs, that there are fix plrmcts which move round the fun, each in its 
own orbit. The namcb o'i tliefe, according to their nearnefs to the ■ 
cenitr, or middle poiri of the fun, are i.s follow: Mercury, Venus, 
the j'.aith, Marj, Jupiter, and Saturn. The two firft, becaufe the/ 
move within the oibit of the earth, (being nearer the fun) are called 
inferior planets, or, perhaps more properly, interior or inner planets; 
the three l.ill:, moving v.'ithout t!ie orbit of the earth, arc called fuperior, 
or, perhaps more properly, c\-tcrior or outer planets. If we can form a 
notion of the manner in which any one of thefe planets, fuppofe our 
earth, moves round the fun, we can eaiily conceive the manner in whicii 
;ill the rell do it. We fliall only thcrcfDro particularly confider the mo- 
tion of the earth, or planet on which Vv'e live, leaving that of the others 
to be colledled from a table, which we fliall fet down with fach cxpli- 
c;itl.)iis as may render it intelligible to the mcaneil capacity. 

The eaith, upon which wo live, was long ccnfidcred as one large 

cxterfive plane. The heavens, above it, in which the fun, moon, and 

ihirs appeared to move daily t'yoni caft to well, were conceived to be ac 

no great diilance from it, and to be only dcf.gned for tlie ufe or orna- 

iiieut of our earth : feveral reafons, however, occurred, whicii rendered 

this opinion improbable ; it is ncedlefs to mention them, liecaufe we 

have now a fuflicient proof of the figure of the earth, from the voyages of 

imanv navigators who have aclually failed round it : as froui thnt oi' M'a- 

•x'lhm's fhip, which was tiio firlt that furroundcd the globe, failing eail 

I horn a port in Europe in 1519, and returning to the fame, after a 

voyage of 11 24 days, without apparently altering his dirci^lion, aijy 

jmore than a fiy would appear to do in njoving around a ball of wax. 

[The roundnefs of the earth being thoroughly cltabliflictL, proves the way 

]ti)r the difcovery of its motion. For while it was coiifidered as a plane, 

Imankind had an obfcure notion cf its being ii'pponed, like a fctiffolding 

loii pillars, though they could not tell wiiat lupported thefc. But the 

Ifigulfc of a globe is much better a:lapted to motion. I'his is confirmed 

Dy confidering, that if the cartii did not move round U.c fuii, lu^tonly 

a tiie 



n 



INTRODUCTION. 



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i 



i^'i 



the Tun, but all the liars and planets muft move round the earth. No'V, 
as philofopliers, by reckonings founded on the fureft obfcrvations, have 
been able to guefs pretty nearly at the diilances of tl.e heavenly bodies 
from the eartli, and from each other, juft as every body that knows the 
£rft elements of matheniatics can meafure the height of a fteeple, or any 
objeft placed on it ; it appeared, that if we conceived the heavenly 
bodies to move round the earth, we muft fuppofe them endowed with a 
jnoticn cr velocity fo immenfe as to exceed all conception : whereas all 
the appearances in nature may be as well explained by imagining the 
earth to move round the fun in the fpace of a year, and to turn on its 
own axis once in the twenty-four hours. To form a conception of thefe 
two motions of the earth, we may imagine a ball moving on a billiard- 
table or bowling-green : the ball proceeds forwards upon the green or 
table, not by lliding along like a plane upon wood, or a flate upon ice, 
but by turning round its own axis, which is an imaginary line drawn 
through the centre or middle of the ball, and ending on its furface in 
tvo points called its poles. Conceiving the matter then in this way, and 
that the earth, in the fpace of twenty-four hours, moves from weft to 
eaft, the inhabitants on the furface of it, like men on the deck of a ftiip, 
who are infenfible of their own motion, and think that the banks move 
from them in a contrary direftion, will conceive that the fun and ftars 
move from eaft to weft in the fame time of twenty-four hours, in which 
they, along with the earth, move from weft to eaft. This daily or 
diurnal motion of the earth being once clearly conceived, will enable us 
cafily to form a notion of its annual or yearly motion round the fun. For 
as that luminary feems to have a daily motion round our earth, which is 
really occafioned by the daily motion of the earth round its axis, fo in 
the courfe of a year, he feems to have an annual motion in the heavens, 
and to rife and fet in difterent points of them, which is really occafioned 
by the motion of the earth in its orbit or path round the fun, which it 
compleats in the timd of a year. Now as to the firft of thefe motions 
we owe the difference of day and night, fo to the fecond we are indebted 
for the difference in the length of the days and nights, and in the fcafons 
of the year. This much being faid with regard to the motion of the earth, 
which the fmallell reflection may lead Ub to apply to the other planets, 
we muft obferve, before exhibiting our tabic, that befrde the fix planets 
already mentioned, which move round the fun, there are other ten pla- 
nets which move round three of thefe, in the fame manner as they do 
round the fun ; and of thefe our earth has one, called the moon ; Jupiter 
has four, and S:;turn has five : thefe are all called moons, from their 
agreeing with our moon, which was firft attended to ; and fometimes 
they are called f?condaFy planets, becaufe they feem to he attendants of 
the earth, Jupit'.T, and Saturn, about which they move, and which are 
called primary. There are hut rwo obfervations more necelTary for un- 
derftanding the following table. They are thefe : we have already faid 
that the annual motion of the earth occafioned the diver fity of fcafons. 
But this would not happen, were the axis of the earth cxadly parallel, 
or in a line with the plane of its orbit ; becaufe then the fame parts of 
the earth would be turned towards the fun in every diurnal revolution; 
which would deprive mankind of the grateful viciffitude of the feafons, 
arifingfrom the difference in length of ihc days and nights. This there- 
fore is not the cafe — the axis of the eartli \*> inclined to the plane of the 
•fttth's orbit, which we may conceive by fuppofing a (pindle put through 
^ a ball} 



INTRODUCTION. 



• •• 

m 



a ball, with one end of it touching the ground ; if we move the ball 
tlireftly forwa; Is, while one end of the fpindle continues to touch the 
ground, and the other points towards feme quarter of the heavens, we 
may form a notion of the inclination of the earth's axis to its orbit, from 
the inclination of the fpindle to the ground. The fame obfcrvation ap- 
plies to fome of the other planets, as may be ieen from the table. The 
only thing that now remains, is to confider Vhat is meant by the mean 
diftances of the planets from the fun. In order to underftand which, we 
mull learn that the orbit, or path which a planet defcribes, were it to be 
marked out, would not be quite round or circular, but in the ihap e of a 
figure called an ellipfe, which, though refembling a circle, is long<;r than 
broad. Hence the fame planet is not always at the fame dillance from 
the fun, and the mean diflance of it is that which is exa£Uy betwixt its 
greatefl and leafl diftance. Here follows the table. 

A T A B L E of the Diameters, Periods, &c. of the fevcral Planets in 

the Solar Syftem. 







Mean diftances 






>5' 

X 








O 


from the fun, 






Jupiter'smoons. 


Saturn'smoons. 


Names 


3 
It 

s 


as determined 
from obferva- 
tionJ of the 


periods 

round the 

fun. 


So 


- s • 






ot the 
planets. 


C.5 
a 

3 £. 


a. 


Periods round 


Periods round 




• 


tranfit of Ve- 
nus, in 1761. 




• 


5:0 

* 


their primary. 


their primary, 




Miles. 






d. h. 




s 




s 




Sun 


763000 


E. miles. 


d. h. 


25 6 


g" 


? 


Time. 


§ 


Time. 


Mcaury 


2600 


36,668,373 


87 23 


unkn. 


unkn. 


• 




s 




Venus 


7906 


68,518,044 


224 17 




TS" 




d. h. m. 




d. h. m. 


Earth 


7970 


94,725,840 


365 6 


I 


23»29' 


I 


1 18 36 


I 


I 21 19 


Moon 


2180 


ditto. 


ditto 


29 12^ 


z'lo' 


2 


3 13 IS 2 


2 17 40 


Mars 


4444 


144,588,575 


686 23 


24 40 





3 


7 3 59 3 


4 " 45 


Jupiter 


81000 


492,665,307 


433* I* 


9 56 





4 


16 18 3c ' 


15 22 41 


Sauirn 


67000 


903,690,197 


10759 7 


unkn. 


unkn. 




Is 


79 7 48 



The reader having obtained an idea of the folar fyftem from this 
table, and the previous obfervations neceflary for undcrltanding it, mull 
next turn his refieftion to what are called the firft ftars, which compre- 
hend the luminaries above our heads that have not been explained. The 
fixed ftars are diftinguilhed by the naked eye from the planets, by being 
lefs bright and luminous, and by continually exhibiting that appearanc9 

.lich we call the twinkling of the ftars. This arifes from their being fo > 
extremely fmall, that the interpoAtion of the leaft body, of which there 
are many conftantly floating in the air, deprives us of the fight of them $ 
when the interpofed body changes it;> place, we again fee the ftar, and 
this fucceilion being perpetual, occafions the twinkling. But a more 
remarkable property ot" the fixed ftars, and that from which they have 
obtained their name, is their never changing their Htuation with regard 
to each other, as the planets, from what we have already faid, muft evi- 
dently be always changing theirs. The ftars which are neareft to us 
fcem largeft, and are tnereforecalledof the firft magnitude. Thofe of the 
fecond magnitude appear lefs, being at a greater diftance ; and fo pro- 
ceeding on to the fixth magnitude, which includes all the fixed lUrs 
which are vifible without a tclefcope. As to their number, though in a 

a 2 dear 



^ 



ir- 



I N T R O D U C T I O K. 



1 



h 




clear winter's night witliout moonPainc ihcy fcem to be innumcrabic; 
which is owinj^ to their lliong fparklinp;, and our looking at them in a 
confiifcd manner, yit when the wiiole firmament is divided, as it has 
been done by the jinticnts, into li^ns and conllellations, the number 
that can be fecn a"- a time by the bare eye, is not above a thoufand. 
t^ince the intr(>diit^u(>n ot' telefcopes indeed, the number of the fixed Ihirs 
has been jutlly conlldered as immenfe ; bccaufe the greater pertedlion we 
arrive at in our glaflcs, the more liars always appear to us. Mr. Flam- 
flead, royal albonomer at Greenwich, has given us a catalogue of about 
three thoufand liars, which is the moil compleat that has hitherto ap- 
peared. The immenfe dillance of the fixed liars from our earth, and 
one another, is of all confiuerations the moil proper for raifing our ideas 
of the works cf God. For notwithftnnding the great extent of the earth's 
orbit round th;." fun, the diftance of a fixed liar is not fenfibly afFecled by 
it ; fo that the liar does not appear to be any nearer us when the earth is 
in that part of its orbit ncareft the liar, than it icemed to be when the 
earth w;:s at the moll di'ip.iit part of its orbit from the fame liar. The 
liar nearcil us, and confequenlly tlic biggell in appearance, is the dog- 
ftar, or Sirius. Modern difcoverlcs make it probable that each of thefe 
fixed liars is a fun, havintr worlds r>;\i)lvlnfT round it, as our fun has the 
earth aiul other planet;, revolving round him. Now the dog-liar appears 
27,000 times Ids than the fun, and as the dillance of the liars mull be 
greater in proportion as they feem lef;, mathematicians have computed 
the dillance of Siriu5 from us to be two billions and two hundred thcu- 
fand millions cf miles. The motion of light therefore, which though fo 
quick as to be commonly thought inllantaneous, takes up more time in 
travelling- fi-om the il-rs to us, than we do in making a Well-India 
voyage. A found would not arrive to us from thence in 50,000 years; 
which, next to !if;^:% is ccmmonly confidered as the quickell body we 
are acquainted with. 

The firll people who paid much a-ttention to the fixed ilars, were the 
fhcpherds in the bcauiifiil plains cf iigypt and Babylon ; who, partly 
from a.iuii'enicnt, and partly with a viev/ to dired them in their travelling 
during the ni'Mit, obfcrved the fituation of thcfe celcllial bodies. En- 
dowed with a lively fancy, they divided the ilars into diflerent compa- 
nies or cor.!lcl!:i:i -r.c, e:;ch of wiMcii they iiippofed to reprefent the 
image of fonic animal, or other terreilri d objedl. 'I'he peafants in our own 
country do the fame thing, for they dillinguilh that great northern con- 
flellation whieli philof'iuhers call the Urfi IV'lajor, by the name of the 
plough, the ilgurc of which it certainly may reprefent with a very little 
help from the fnncy, but the conikllations in general have preferved 
the nr.ir.cs which were given them by the antients ; and they are reckoned 
twenty-one northern, and twelve lbu.I:eni : bi!t the moderns have in- 
crcafed the number of the northern to thirty, four, and of the fouthern to 
thirfy-cne. JJefide thefe there are tlic twelve figns or conllellations in 
the Zodiac, as it is called from a (?;ee!c word fignifying an animal, 
bccaufe each of thefe twelve rcpreleut fome animal. Hiis is a great 
circle wliich divides the heavens into two equal parts, of which we lh»ll 
fpeak hereaftrr. In the mean time, we Ihall conclude this fedlion with 
an account of the rile, progrefs, r.^id revolutions in allronomy. 

Mankind mull have made a very eenliderable improvement in obferv- 

ihg' the motions of "'le heavenly bojics, before- they cn'uld fo far difen- 

£iijL;e themfchei from the prcjuJivc.. oflu/e and popular opinion, a^s to 

7. b'jlicve 



INTRODUCTION. v 

nclicve that thediftTi upon which we live was not fixed and immnvcahlc. 
We find accdVdinglv, that Thalcs, the Milernn, wh i, about fix hun- 
dred years before Chiill, firil t.ii.ffht aftronomy in Europe, had gone (o 
far in this fubjecl as to calculate ccHpfts, or interpofitior.'? of the nrion 
betwixt the earth and the fun, or of ihc earth between tl'.e fun and the 
moon (the nature of which may be eafily undinfinod, t'lr^m what we have 
already obfcrved.) Pythagoras, a Greek p]nlof>pher, floiiiiHied about 
fifty years £fter ThaL's, and was, no doubt, equally well acquaiiited 
with the motion of the heavenly bodies. This led Pythagoras to con- 
ceive an idea, v/hicli there is no r.'afon to believe ]v.\d ever been thou'>,ht 
of before, namely, that the earth itfelfwas in motion, and that the fun 
was at relL He found that it was impoffihlc, in any other way, to give 
a confillent account of the heavenly motions. This fyRem, however, 
was fo extremely oppolite to all the prejudices of fenfe and opinion, that 
it never made great progrefs, or was widely dift'ufed in the antitnt world. 
The philofophers of antiquity def'pairingof being able to overcome igno- 
'ance by rcafon, fet themfelves to adapt the one to the other, and to 
form a reconciliation between them. This was the cafe with Ptolomy, 
an Egyptian philofopher, who liouriihed a hundred thirt}'-eight years 
before Chrill. He fuppofeu, with ihe vulgar, who meafure evcrv thing 
by themfelve?, that the earth wa-> fixed immovably in tlie center of the 
univerfe, and that the feven plariet.s, confidering the morn as one of tiie 
primaries, were placed near to it ; above thcrn v/as the firn'.amcnt of fixed 
•itars, then the chryttalline orbs, then the primuui mobile, and, lall of 
:ill, the cc;"lum empyrium, or luaven of he:.vens. Ail thefe v;iil orbs 
are fuppofed to move round the earth once in tv/enty-four hours ; and 
befides that, in certain Itatcd or periodica! tiiiies. To account for thcle 
motions, he w;ii obliged to conceii-e a number of circles, t'llkd excen- 
trics and epicycles, crolllng and interfering v.ith one another. This 
fvllem was univei f.iUy maintaine^l liy ihc Peripatetic pliilor-.p'icrs, who 
were the uioft confiderable f.'ct in Eurooe, froju the lime of Ptolomy to 
the revival of learning i;i the fixteeuch century. 

At length, Coj;crnicus, t'r./.igh a native of Poland, a hold and 
original geniu-., adop'^ed the Pyihagorean, or true fyileni of the uni- 
verle ; and puhlifiied i; to the world in 1530. This doi^.trine had been 
fo lonp- in obf(.uri v, th.at the redorcr ofit was confidered as the inventors 
and the fyftem obtained the -lame of the Copernican philoiophy, thougli 
only revived by that great man. 

Europe, however, wa^ fall immerfed in fcnfe and ignorance ; and the 
general ideas of the v.'orlJ were not able to keep pace with thofe of a 
refined philofophy. This oc-alloned Copernicus to have few abetters, 
but many opponents. Tycao nmchc, in parlicular, a noble Dane, fen- 
fible of the defe>51/; cf the Ptolemaic fvftem, but unwillinq; to acknow- 
ledge the motion of the earth, endeavoured to efiablifh a ntAv lyilem of 
his own, which was ilill mor;; perplexed and cmbarrafled than that of 
P^lery. It allows a monthly motion to the moon round the earth, as 
die cent^ of it^ orbit; and it makes t'io fui^ !o be the center of the 
orbits of iVl ere ury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Satin-n. Tiiu fun, how- 
ever, with .all the planets, is fuppofed to be whirled round the ee.rtji in ri 
year, and even once in tl'.e twenty-four hours. This iyflcm however, 
abfurd as it was, met with its advocates. LongOm'^p.tanus, avvd athcrs, 
fo far refined upon it, as to admit the diurnal motion of ti;f Ciuth, 
dlough they infilled that it had no anniu^l motion. 

a j " Aboa: 



1- 



'\l 



!:U 



ft • 



^es, the firil 
Earned men 



iS-M 



-vi I N T R Q^ U C X I O N. 

About this time, after a darknefs of a ^rtaM mt$f 
dawn of learning and tafte began to appear m Euroj^c. 
in dilFerent countries began to cultivate aftronomy. Galileo, a Floren- 
tine, |ibout the year 1610, introduced the ufe of telefcopei, which dif- 
covered new arguments in fupport of the motion of the earth, and con- 
firmed the old ones. The fury and bigotry of the clergy indeed had 
almoll checked this flourilhing bud: Galileo was obliged to renounce 
the Copernican fyftem, as a damnable herefy. The happy reformation 
in religion, however, placed the one half of Europe beyond the reach 
of the papal thunder. It taught mankind that the fcriptures were not 
given for explaining fyftems of natural philofophy, but for a much nobler 
purpofe, to make us juft, virtuous, and humane : that inllead of op- 
pofing the word of God, which in fpeaking of natural things fuits itfelf 
to the prejudices of weak mortals, we employed our faculties in a man- 
ner highly agreeable to God himfelf, in tracing the nature of his works, 
which the more they are confidered, afford us the greater reafon to admire 
his glorious attributes of power, wifdom, and goodnefs. From this time, 
therefore, noble difcoveries were made in all the branches of adronomy. 
The motions of the heavenly bodies were not only clearly explained, 
but the general law of nature, according to which they moved, was 
difcovered and illuftrated by the immortal Newton. This law is called 
Gravity, or attradtion, and is the fame by which any body falls to the 
ground, when difengaged from what fupported it. It has been demon- 
llirated, that this fame Jaw which keeps the Tea in its channel, and th« 
various bodies which cover the furface of this earth from flying off into 
the air, operates throughout the univerfe, keeps the planets in their 
orbits, and preferves the whole fabric of nature from confufion and 
diforder. 

SECT. II. 

Of the Do6lrine of the Sphere. 

HAVING, in the foregoing Seftion, treated of the univerfe in ge- 
neral, in which the earth has been confidered as a planet, we 
liow proceed to the Doftrine of the Sphere, which ought always to be 
premifed before that of the globe or easth, as we fhall fee in the next 
Sedion. In handling this fubjeft, we fhal! confider the earth as at reft, 
and the heavenly bodies, as performing their revolutions around it. This 
method cannot lead the reader into any miftake, fince we have previoufly 
explained the true fyftem of the univerfe, from which it appears that it 
is the real motion of the earth, which occaflons the apparent motion of 
the heavenly bodies. It is belides attended with this advantage, that it per- 
feftly agrees with the ijiformation of our fenfes, which always lead us to 
conceive the matter in this way. The imagination therefore is not put on 
the Itretch ; the idea is eafy and familiar, and in delivering the elements 
of fcience, this objeft cannot be too much attended to. N. B. In order 
more clearly to comprehend what follows, the reader may OQpafionaUb^ 
turn Lis eye to the figure of the artificial fphere, on the oppc*ite pa^. 
The antients obferved that all the ftars turned (in appearance) 
round the earth, from eaft to weft, in twenty-four hours ; that the 
circles, which they defcribcd in thofe revolutions, were paraHIl to each 
other, but not of the fame magnitude ; thofe paffing over the middle of 
the earth, being the largeft of all, while the reft diminiftied in prop^jr- 

tiOD 



$ats, the iirll 
Learned men 
eo, a Floren- 
es, which dif- 
^rth, and con- 
gy indeed had 
td to renounce 
py reformation 
ond the reach 
lures were not 
a much nobler 
inilcad of op- 
ings fuits itfelf 
ties in a man- 
; of his works, 
afon to admire 
'rom this time, 
of adronomy. 
irly explained, 
y moved, was 
law is called 
dy falls to the 
; been demon- 
mnel, and thv 
flying off into 
ancts in their 
confufion and 



univerfe in ge- 
a planet, we 
: always to be 
fee in the next 
u-th as at reft, 
ound it. This 
lave previoufiy 
ppears that it 
rent motion of 
ge, that it per- 
vays lead us to 
e is not put on 
g the elements 
4.6. In order 
y oQcafionail^ 
oppofite page. 
a appearance) 
urs : that the 
iraH^l to each 
the middle of 
led in propcy- 
tion 




f 



I 



u 







INTRODUCTION. 



vu 



T i '. .V 




-, ■ \ 


"S. ^ 









■f^ 



l\ 






:■>•• 



- »- 1. 



■^^- 






•% 



C^i 



:n 












tion to their diftanoe from it. Th :y alfo obfervcd that there were two points 
in the hcaveiis, which always prcfervcd the fame fituation. Thc-fe points 
they termed celeftial poles, becaufe the heavens feemed to turn round 
them. In order to imitate thcfc motions, they invented what is called 
the Artificial Sphere, through the center of which they drew a wire or 
iron rod, called an Axis, whole extremities were fixed to the immovable 
points called Poles. They farther obfervcd, that on the 20th of March, 
and 23d of September, the circle defcribcd by the fun, was at an equal 
didance from both of the poles. This circle, therefore, mull divide 
the earth into two (jqual parts, and on this account was called the Equa- 
tor or Equaller. It was alfo called the EquinoAial Line, becaufe the 
fun, when moving in it, makes the days and nights of equal length . 
all over the world. Having alfo obfervcd that from the J? of June, to 
the il of December, the mn advanced every day towards a certain 
point, and having arrived there, returned toward that from whence he 
fet out from [| ofDecember, to the 4^ of June ; they fixed thefe points 
which they called Solflices, becaufe the direA motion of the fua 
was Hopped at them ; and rcprefented the bounds of the fun's motion, by 
two circles, which they named Trm)icks, becaufe the fun no fooner ar- 
rived there than he turned back. The aftronomers obf«rving more near- 
ly the motion of the fun, obferved that the quantity by which he acceded 
or receded from the equator, in a day's time, was nearly a degree in the 
three hundred and fixtieth part of a great circle in the heavens, which 
pafling through certain conftcllations, which had been dillinguilhed by 
the name of animals, they called the Zodiac. This circle touches the 
tropic of Cancer on one fide, and that of Capricorn on the other, and 
cuts the equator obliquely. To exprefs this motion they fuppofed two 
points in the heavens, equally diftant from, and parallel to this circle, 
which they called the Poles of the Zodiac, which, turning with the 
heavens, by means of their axis, defcribe the two polar circles. In the 
artificial fphere, the equinoflial, the two tropics, and two polar circles, 
are cut at right angles, by two other circles called Colures, which iibrve 
to mark the points of the folltices, equinoxes, and poles of the zodiac. 
The ancients alfo obferved that, when the fun was in any point of his 
courfe, all the people inhabiting direftly north and fonth, as far as the 
poles, have noon at the fame time. This gave occafion to imagine a 
circle pafling through the poles of the world, which they called a Me# 
ridian, and which is immoveable in the artificial fphere, as well as the 
horifon ; which is another circle reprefenting the bounds betwixt the two 
hemifpheres, or half fpheres, viz. that which is above it, and that whioh 
is below it. 

SECT. III. 

The Dodlrine of the Globe naturally follows that of the 

Sphere. 

By the Doftrine of the Globe is meant the reprefentation of the dif- 
ferent places aod countries, on the face of the earth, upon an ar- 
tificial globe or ball. Now the manner in which geographers have re- 
prefented the fituation of one place upon this earth with regard to ano- 
ther, or with regard to the earth in general, has been by transferring 
the circles of the fphere to the artificial globe : and this is the only me* 
$hod they coi^ld employ. This will be abundantly obvious from an ex* 

» ^ ample. 



n 



i 



( > 



f 



II 



«* 1 



triii 



INTRODUCTION. 



f mpU". After that circle in the heavens, which is c*11cd the equator, 
wa^ known to afttonomers, there was nothing more cafy thin to transfer 
it to the earth, by which the fitiiation of plates was deiermined, accord- 
ing as thfv lay en one fide of the eqiuitor or another. The fame may 
be ohferved of th^ other circles of tlie fphcre above-mentioned. The 
render having obtained an idea of the principle upon which the Doftrine 
of the Globe i.s founded, may proceed to confider tlii- dortiine itfelf, or 
in otlier vwrds, the dtfcription of our earth, as rcprelentcd by the artifi- 
cial globe. 

Figure of the E a r t h. 

Though i'.i fpcaking of the earth, along with the other planets* 
it was fufiicicnt to coiifidcr it as a fpherical or globular body ; yet 
It has been difcovered, that this is not its true figure, and that the 
earth, though neaily a fphcre or ball, is not perfedly fo. This matter 
occaiioned gieut diiputc between the philofopjitrs of the lafl age, among 
wlioni Sir Jla:x Newton and Cafilni, a French allronomer, were the he;ids 
of two did'crciit parlies. Sir Ilaac dcir.onllrated from meclianical prin-, 
ciples, tliat tiic earth was an oblate fj here, or that it was flatted at the 
poles or north apd fouth points, and jutted out towards the cqu.itor ; 
lo that a line drav. n through the center of the earth, and pairing thro' 
the poles, wliich is called a Diameter, would not be fo long as a lint: 
drawn ilnough the fame center, and pafling through the ealt and weft 
pointii. The French plulofopher afiertcd quite the ccntrary. Hut the 
matter \sa-i put to a trial by the Frencli king in 1736, who fent out a 
company of philofophers towards the north pole, and likjwiie towards 
the equator, in order to meafurc a degree, or the three hundred and fix- 
tielh part of a great circle in thefe different parts ; and from their report, 
the opinion of Sir Ifaac Newton was confirmed beyond difputc. Since 
that time, therefore, the earth has always been confidered as more flat 
towards the poles, than towards tJie equator. Tlie rcafon of this figure 
jnay be eafily underflood, if the reader fully comprehends what we 
formerly obferved, with regard to the earth's motif n. For if we fix a 
ball of clay, on a fpindle, and whirl it round, we fhall find that it will 
jut out or piojedl towards the middle, and flatten towards thepoliG. Now 
this is exactly the cafe, witli regard to our earth, only that its a.\is,-repre- 
fpntcd by the fpindle, is imaginary. But though the earth be not per- 
feclly fplierical, the difierence from that figure is To fmall, that it may 
be ieprellntcd by a globe or ball, without any fci^iVole error. 

Circumference and Diameter of the Earth. 

In the general table we have exhibited, page 3, the diameter of the 
globe is given, according to the beft obfervations : fo that, three times 
this diameter, or twenty-four tboufand eight hundred and forty Englifh 
miles, win be irs circumference nearly. This circumference is conceived, 
for the convenieiicy of meafuring, to be divided into three hundred and 
. i^ty parts or degrees, each degree containing fixty geogiaphic miles, or 
ilxty-nine Englilh miles. TJiefe degrees are in the lame manner conceive4 
io h: k.iivided each into hxty imnutes. 

Axis and Poles of the Earth. 

Tbe«|feA's Ci the Earth is that imaginary line palling through its cen- 
ti^r, on which it is iuppofed LO turn round once in iwcnty-four hours. 
The er-.'-'-^me points of this line arc. called the Poles of the Earth j one in 

the 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ik 



e cqur.tor, 
to translcr 
d, accord- 
fame may 
ned. The 
le Doftrine 
e itfclf, or 
r the artifi- 



zr planets, 
bony ; yet 
id that the 
'his matter 
ige, among 
ic the htMOS 
mical priu-i 
atted at the 
ic equator ; 
)airaig thro' 
g as a linb 
art and weft 
y. But the 
) font out a 
/ife towards 
red and fix- 
thcir report, 
ute. Since 
as more flat 
f tUis figure 
s what we 
i'i we lix a 
that it will 
pol'-5. Now 

axisj-iepre- 

be not per- 

tiiat it may 



H. 

leter of the 
1 three times 
)rty Englifh 

conceived, 
liindicd and 
lie miles, of 

;r conceivet^ 



igh its ccn- 
-tour hours. 
|rth ; one in 
the 



the north, mi the oth"r in the fouth, wh'ch are cxav'^ly in the Time di- 
ri'iiiion with two Uars in tiie heavens c;:Ilcd the [vor.Ji and iiouth Poles. 
The knowled^je of tliefc poles is of great ufe to the geographer, in de- 
termining the dillance ;md fituiaii/U oi plucc^ ; lor the poles mark, as it 
y>vtc, the ends of the eartli, which is divided in the ujiddlc by the 
equator; fo that the nearer Oiie apprt.acucs t.> thi.? poles, the farther iic 
removes from the equals. r, and contrariwile, in removing from the poles 
vou app:oach the eqiiiitor. 

Circles of the Gloee. 

Thcfe arc commonly di; ided intotl'.e pTcraer and Icflcr. A great circle 
is that whofe plane pp.H'rs throuph the center of the eartli, and divides 
it into two equal pans or hemilplicrc;. A IcITer circle is that svluci., 
being parallel to a greiircr, cnnnot pafi th!ouc»h the center of the earth, 
nor di/ide it into two equal piuts. 'I'iie gicaier circles are fix in nuj.iOcr, 
the lefler only four. 

Eqj/ator. 

The firft great circlvi wc (hall ipesvk of is the? Kqnntnr, which we have 
had occafion to iiint at already, ft is called fonieiimcs the Equini ctial, 
the reafon of which we have explained ; and by navioators it is alfo call- 
ed the Line, hccaufe, according to their rude notioiis, they bt'lieved it 
to be a great line drawn up( n ilic ica Ircin c;.lt to well, vHviciing the earth 
into the northern and foutnern hcmifplieres, and v.hicli tliey were at^tually 
to pafs in lading frwin the one into the other. The poles of tliis circle 
are the fame with thoie of the world, [t pnfil'i thruuii;h the call and 
Vvcrt points of the world, and, as has been .-dreaiiy mcntiont-d, divides it 
into the northern and foathern henif 'h';'ies. It is divided into three hun- 
dred and fixty degrees, the ulc of which v/"ll fion appear. 

Horizon. 

This grcr.t circle is reprefiMited by a broad circular piece of wood, en- 
compaiTui_'i; the globe, and liividing it into li.e uj'pcr and lov. or hemif- 
plieres. tieographers very jTOperly diitinguiih the hnrikin into tiie fen- 
i'dile and lalional. 'I'lie tiiA may be coi-.tcivcvi to be made by any gieat 
j^iane on the (iirfacc()[" the .'ea, which ieems to ilivide the heavens into 
mo hcmifplierei, the c-nc ..hove, the other bi low liie levtl of the earth, 
'i'iiis circle determines the riling or letting of the fun and ftai:., in any 
[\:;rticular place, for v/bcn ilic}' btgin to :.ppf.ar above the ta.'lrrn edge, 
we f:y they rife, and when they go beneath the weliern, we U.y they are 
ii't. It appears i:lien that each place has its own icnlible horiion. 'J he 
odi'.r horijon, called the Rational, encompalles iliC globe, exactly in the 
middle. Its poles (that is tv/o points in its axis, each ninety degrees 
diuant from its plane, as thofe cf ail circles are) .?re called the Zenith 
ar.d Nadir; the f.ril exadt'y above our heads, and tlic other din., tly under 
( ur K-'ct. The broad wooden circle, which repiViL::t it on the gb>be, has 
kvcral circles di;awn upon it : of thefe the innerniol: is that < rciidiiiing 
ilio number of degrees cf the twelve ligns of the Aodiac (of wt.ich here- 
after) viz. thirty to each fign. Next to this yoa have the names of theie 
figns. Next to this the days of the month according to the old (lile, 
r.ij.l then according to the new (lile. Befide theCe there is a circle, re- 
preftnting the thirty-tv/o rhumbs, or points oi the marinci's compafs. 
The ufe of all tliefe v^ill be explained afterwards. 

Meridian. 



introduction: 



Meridian. 

Thb circle h reprefented by the brazen frame, on which the globe 
liangs and turns. It is divided into three hundred and fixty degrees, and 
cuts the equator at right angles ; fo that counting from the equator each 
way to the poles of the world, it contains four times ninety degrees, and 
divides the earth into the tattern and weftern hemifpheres. This circle 
is called the meridian, becaufe when the fun comes to the fouth part of 
it, it is then miridies or midday, anu then the fun has its grcatett alti- 
tude for that day, which is therefore called its meridian altitude. Now 
as the fun is never in its meridian altitude, at two places eafl or weft of 
one another, at the fame time, each of thefe places muft have its own 
meridian. There are commonly marked on the globe twenty-four me- 
ridians, one through every fifteen degrees of the equator. 

Zodiac. 

The Zodiac is a broad circle, which cuts the equator obliquely ; In 
which the twelve figns above-mentioned are reprefented. In the 
middle of this circle is fuppofed another called the Ecliptick, from which 
the fun never deviates in his annual courfe, and in which he advances 
thirty degrees every month. The twelve figns are, 

1. Aries ff — — 

2. Taurus y — 



Gemini 
Cancer ss 
Lcoi), 



u 



3- 
4- 

5- 

6. Virgo irjz 



March y. Libra ^ — September 

April 8. Scorpio r\i — Oftober 

May q. Sagittarius f November 

June lo. Capricorn Vf — December 

July 1 1 . Aquarius ;JK January 

Auguft 12. Pifces X --■^- February. 

Co LURES. 

If you imagine two great circles pafling both through the poles of 
the world, and one of them through the equinodlial points Aries and 
Libra, and the other through the folftitial points Cancer and Capricorn, 
thei'e are called the Colures, the one the Equinoftial, the other the 
Solftitial Colure. Thele divide the ecliptic into four equal parts or 
quarters, which are denominated according to the points which theie 
pafs through, viz. the four cardinal points, and are the firft points of 
Aries, Liber, Cancer and Capricorn, and thefe are all the great circles. 

Tropics. 

If you fuppofc two circles drawn parallel to the equinoctial, at 
twenty-three degrees thirty minutes diftance from it, meafured on the 
brafen meridian, and one towards the north, the other towards the 
fouth, thefe are called Tropics, becaufe the fun appears, when in them, 
to turn backwards from his former courfe. The one is called the Tropic 
of Cancer, the other of Capricorn, becaufe they pafs through thefe 
poinu. 

Polar Circles, 

If two other circles arc fuppofed to be drawn at the diftance of twenty- 
three degrees thirty minutes, reckoned on the meridian from the polar 
points, thefe are called the Polar Circles. The northern is called the 
AriSlick, becaufe the north pole is near the conftellation of the Bear, 
the fouthern, the Antar6lick, becaufe oppofitetothe former. And thef? 
are the four lefl'er circles. Bfciide thefe ten circles now defcribed, which 
are always drawn on the globe, there are feveral others, which are only 

fup- 



INTRODUCTION. 



m 



fuppofed to be drawn on it. Thefe will be explained as they become 
neceHary, led the .eader (liould be difgufted with too many definitions 
at the fame time, without feeing the purpofe for which they fervs. The 
main dcfign theu of all thefe circles being to exhibit the refpe6live fitua- 
tion of places on the earth, we fhall proceed to confider jfiore particu- 
larly how that is efFeded by them. It was found eafier to diflinguiih 
places by the quarters of the earth, in which they lay; than by their 
diftance from any one point. Thus after it was difcovered, that the equator 
divided the earth into two parts, called the Northern and Southern he- 
mifphercs, it was eafy to fee that all places on the globe might be diflin- 
gui filed according as they lay on the north, or fouth fide of the equator. 
Befides, after the four lefTer circles we have mentioned came to be 
known, it v/as found that the earth, by means of them, might be di- 
vided i»to five portions, and confequently that the places on its furface 
might be diftinguifhed according as they lay in one or other of thefe por- 
tions, which are called Zones or Belts, from their partaking of breadth. • 
That part of the earth between the Tropics, was called by the antients 
the Torrid or Burnt Zone, becaufe they conceived, that, being conti- 
nually expofed to the perpendicular or direft rays of the fun, it was 
rendered uninhabitable, and contained nothing but parched and fand/ 
defarts. This notion, however, has long fmce been refuted. It ip 
found that the long nights, great dews, regular rains and breeze.% 
which prevail almoft throughout the torrid zone, render the earth not only 
habitable, but fo fruitful, that in many places they have two harvefts in 
a year ; all forts of fpices and drugs are almoft folely produced there ; 
and it furnifties more perfeA metals, precious ftones, and pearls, thaa 
all the reft of the earth together, In fhort, the countries of Africa, Afia, 
^nd America, which lie under this zone, are in all refpefts the moft 
fertile and luxuriant upon earth. 

The two temperate zones are cCinprifed between the tropics and polar 
circles. They are called temperate, becaufe meeting the rays of the fun 
obliquely, they enjoy a moderate degree of heat. The two frigid zonts, 
lie between the polar circles and the poles, or rather are inclofed within 
the polar circle;;. They are called Frigid or Frozen, becaufe moft part 
of the year it is extremely cold there, and every thing is frozen fo long 
as the fun is uiuler the horizon, or but a little above it. However thel^ 
zones are not quite uninhabitable, though much lefs fit for living m 
than the torrid. 

None of all thefe zones is thoroughly difcovered by the Europeans, 
Little is known to us of the foathern temperate zone, and though fome 
iflands and fea coafts in the northern frigid zone have come to our know- 
ledge, we have none at all of the fouthern frigid zone. The northern 
temperate, and torrid zones, are thofe we are beft acquainted with. 

But the divifions of the earth into hemifpheres and zones, tho* it may 
be of advantage in letting us know in what quarter of the earth any 
place lies, is not fufficiently minute for giving us a notion of the diftances 
between one place and another. This however is lliil more necefTary ; 
becaufe it is of more importance to mankind, to know the fituation of 
places, with regard to one another, than with regard to .he earth itfelf. 
The firft ftep taken for determining this matter, was to divide the eartlt 
into what is called Climates, It was obfcrved that the day was always 
twelve hours long on the equator, and that the longeft day encreafed 
in proportion as we advanced north or fouth on either fide of it. The 
ancients llkereforc determined how far any place was nortli or fouth of 



y 



1 



u 



1 1 



i4 .; 



$ ' 



xn 



INTRODUCTION. 



the equator, or what is called the Latitude of the place, from the 
grcateit length of the day from that place. This made them conceiv« 
a number of circles parallel to the equator, which bounded the length 
of the day at different diftances from the equator. And as they called 
the fpace contained between tlicfe circles, Climates, becaufe they declined 
from the equator towards tlie pole, fo the circles themfelves mav be called 
Climatical Parallels. This therefore was a new divifion of the earth, 
more minute than that of zones, and ftill continues in i)\f, though, as 
we lliallfhcw, the der;o;n which (irll introduced it, m.-!, !■- better anfwer- 
ed in another way. There are thirty climate? bttvcen the equator and 
either pole. In the firft twenty-four, th ■ da) s encreafe by half hours, 
but in the rcir.i'r^n'^ fix, between the polar circle and the poles, the 
days encreafe by moiiv.i:;. I'his the reader will be convinced of, when 
he becomes acquainted with the ufe of the globe ; in the mean time v/c 
fhall infert a table, which will fervc t.-? fliew in what climate any coun- 
try lies, fuppofing the length of the day, and the diftance of the place 
from the equator to be known. ■ 

CLIMATES between the Ec^uator and Polar Circles. 



• 




Latitude. 


Breadth. 








Latitude. 


Breadth. 


s 


V3 

;-■ 

3 

o 


D. 


M. 


D. M. 




s 


tf3 

u 
3 



D. M. 


D. M. 


^—4 


S 










»— ^ 


tn 






o 








■ 




u 








I 


12; 


8 


^'5 


8 25 


13 


18,: 


59 5^ 


1 29 




'3 


16 


2t; 


8 00 




14 


19 


6! 18 


I 20 


3 


I3z 


23 


S^ 


7 25 




If 


^9\ 


62 25 


I 07 


4 


14 


30 


■■■■^ 


6 30 




i: 


20 


63 22 


,f7 


's . 


14;.. 


3^' 


2S 


6 08 


17 


to- 


64 o5 


44 


6 


15 


4> 


22 


4 54 




18 


21 


64 49 


43 


/ 


i5i 


45 


29 


4 07 




«9 


21! 


65 21 


32 


8 
9 


f6 


49 


01 


3 32 




20 


T ■» 


65 47 


22 


1 6, 


52 


00 


2 57 


21 


221 


Ot) 06 


19 


lO 


17 


H 


27 


2 29 




22 


23 


66 20 


14 


1 ; 


'7l 


<i(^ 




2 10 




23 


23.- 


66 28 


08 j 


12 


18 


58 


29 


I «;2 




2+ 


24 


66 31 


03 



CLIMATES between the Polar Circles and the Poles. 



ill i 



it 



Lciigth of 
Days. 


Latitude. 




Length of 
Days. 


Latitude. 


Months. 

I 

2 

3 


D. M. 

d'j 21 
69 48 

7 3 37 


Months. 

4 

5 
6 


D. M. 

73 30 
84 05 
90 00 










Tu'. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xui 



V, from the 
•lem conceivtt 
3 the lencrtW 
IS they called 
they declined 
nav be called 
of the earth, 
", though, as 
)Cttcr anfwer- 
equator and 
Y half hours, 
le poles, the 
:ed of, when 
nean time v/e 
:ite any ccun- 
: of the place 



R. Circles. 



e. 



Breadth. 
D. M. 



8 


1 


-9 


8 


1 


20 


5 


I 


07 


2 


O 


^7 


6 


o 


4-1- 


9 


o 


43 


I 







-' 


o 


2 2 


L) 


o 


19 



o 14 

o 08 
o o-^ 



the Poles. 



.atitudc. 



M. 



8 


30 


4 


05 


3 


00 



The diftance of places from the equator, or what is called their Lati- 
tude, is eafily meafured on the globe, by ineans of tke- iH««tlMHi circle- 
above dclcribed. For we have only to brincr the place, whofe latitude 
we would know, to the meridian, where the degree of latitude is marked, 
and will be exaftly over the place. Now this is the m;inncr alluded to, 
by which the diftance of places from the equator, is mod properly dif- 
tinguilhed ; but it could not be adopted, until the iigure and circum- 
fefence of the earth were known, after which it was caly to determine, 
the number of miles in each three hundred and fixtieth part or degree of' 
this circumference, and confequently know the latitude of places. As 
latitude is reckoned from tkc equator, towards the poles, it is cither 
northern or fouthern, and the rearer the poles the greater the latitude ; 
and no place can have more than ninety degrees of latitude, becaufe' 
the poles where they terminate, are at that diltunce from the equator. : 

Parallels of Latitude. 

Through every degree of latitude, or more properly tlirough every par- 
ticular ptace on the earth, geographers fuppole a circle to be drawn, 
which they call a parallel of latitude. The interfedion of this dircle,, 
with the mei'idian of any place, (hews the true fituation of that pLice. " 



Longitude. 



■> 



I 



The longitude of a place is Its fituation with regard to its mcriuian,/ 
nnd confequently reckoned towards the call or well; in reckoning the 
longitude there is no praticuiar fpot from which wc ought to fct out 
preferably to another, but for the advantage of a general rule, tiie me- 
ridian of Ferro, the moll wcllerly of the Canary Iflands, was conudered 
aj the' iirft meridian in moft of the globes and maps, and the longitude 
of places was reckoned to be fo many degrees cad or weft of the meri- 
dian of Ferro. Thefe degrees are marked on the equator. No place 
t.m have more than a hundred and eighty degrees of longitude, becaufe 
the circumference of the globe being three hundred and fixty degrees, na 
place can be removed from another, above half that dillan'ce ; but many 
ibreign geographers very improperly reckon the longitude quite round 
liie globe. The degrees of longitude are not equal like thofe of lati- 
tude, but diminifh in proportion as the meridians incline, or their dif-, 
t:mce contrads in approaching the equator. Hence in fixty degrees o^ 
latitude, a degree of longitude is but half the quantity of a degree oa, 
the equator, and fo of the rell. The number of miles contained in a; 
cl'?gree of longitude, in each parallel of latitudcj arc fet dovvn in the fol-; 
lowing tabic. ' . ' i 



A TABLE 



'I'nc 



[ 3tiv ] 




i ■'A 









/ 


I 














r~ 






A 






TABLE 






SHEWING 






The Number of Miles contained in a Degree of Longitude, in 


each Parallel of Latitude from the Equator. 






o 


■ 
in 




'^ 







• 

in 


in 

f« 




u s 


• 


rt 




s 


ouh 

M 




31 


s 


OU, 

•- 




4> rt 


s 


U- 
« 

04 


I 


59 


96 


5» 


43 


61 


29 


2 


S*9 


94 


\ 


32 


50 


88 




62 


28 


17 


3 


59 


92 




33 


50 


32 




63 


27 


24 


4 


59 


86 




34 


49 


74 




64 


26 


3Q 


5 


59 


77 




35 


49 


»5 




65 


25 


36 


6 


59 


^l 




36 


48 


54 




66 


24 


4' 


7 


59 


56 




37 


47 


92 




67 


23 


45 


8 


59 


40 




38 


47 


28 




68 


22 


48 


9 


59 


20 




39 


4^ 


62 




69 


21 


5» 


10 


59 


08 




40 


46 


CJ 




70 


20 


52 


II 


58 


Po 




4* 


45 


28 




71 


>9 


54 


12 


58 


68 




42 


44 


95 




72 


18 


55 


»3 


58 


46 




43 


43 


88 




73 


»7 


54 


»4 


58 


22 




44 


43 


16 




74 


16 


53 


«5 


58 


CO 




45 


42 


43 




75 


'5 


52 


i6 


£7 


60 




46 


41 


68 




76 


H 


51 


»7 


57 


30 




47 


41 


00 




77 


13 


50 


i8 


•^l 


04 




48 


40 


'5 




78 


12 


48 


»9 


55 


73 




49 


39 


36 




79 


II 


45 


20 


55 


38 




50 


38 


57 




80 


10 


42 


21 


56 


00 




51 


37 


73 




81 


09 


38 


22 


55 


6r 




52 


n 


00 




82 


08 


35 


23 


55 


23 




53 


36 


18 




83 


07 


32 


24 


St 


81 




54 


35 


26 




84 


06 


28 


25 


54 


38 




55 


34 


4« 




85 


05 


23 


26 


54 


00 




56 


33 


55 




86 


04 


18 


27 


53 


44 




57 


32 


67 




87 


03 


14 


28 


53 


00 




58 


3« 


79 




88 


02 


09 


«9 


52 


48 




59 


30 


90 




89 


01 


05 


30 


51 96 1 1 


60 


30 


OD 




90 


00 


00 



Longitude 



INTRODUCTION. 

Longitude and Latititde found. 



XV 



gitude, in 



» 




«-• . 1 






Sii 




e 


Jh vr 






*S 




4> 


*j 




• f^ 


rt 




29 


« 




"04" 




28 


»7 




27 


24 




26 


30 




25 


36 


24 


4> 


23 


45 


22 


48 




21 


5» 




20 52 




19 54 




18 


55 




17 


54 




16 


53 




15 


52 




1 H 


5» 




1 *3 


50 




1 12 


48 




1 II 


45 




1 10 


42 




1 °9 


38 




1 08 


35 




1 07 


32 




1 06 


28 




1 °5 


23 




1 "4 


18 




1 03 


H 




1 oz 


09 




1 01 °S 




1 00 00 




ILon 


GITU 


DE 



To find the Longitude and Latitude of any place, therefore, we Heed 
only bring that place to the brazen meridian, and we fhall find the degree 
of longitude marked on the equator, and the degree of latitude on the 
meridian. So that to find the difference between the latitude or longi- 
tude of two places, we have only to compare the degrees of either, thus 
found, with one another, and the reduflion of thefe degrees into miles, 
according to the table above given, and remembering that every de- 
gree of longitude at the equator, and every degree of latitude all over 
the globe, is equal to fixty geographic miles, or fixt)'-nine Englifh, we 
<hal) be able exaftly to determine the diftance between any places on the 
globe. 

Diftance of Places meafured. 

The Diftance of Places which lie in an oblique direftion, i. e. nei- 
ther direftly fouth, north, eaft, or weft, from one another, may be mea- 
fared in a readier way, by extending the compafles from the one to the 
other, and then applying them to the equator. For inftance, extend 
the compafles from Guinea in Africa, to Brazil in America, and then 
apply them to the equator, and you will find the diftance to be twenty- 
five degrees, which at fixty miles to a degree, makes the dillance one 
thoufand five hundred miles. 

Quadrant of Altitude. 

In order to fupply the place of the compaflfes in this operation, there 
is commonly a pliant narrow plate of brafs, fcrewed on the brazen 
meridian, which contains ninety degrees, or one quarter of the circum- 
ference of the globe, by means of v.'hich the diftances and bearings of 
places, are meafured without the trouble of firft extending the conipaflei 
between them, and then applying the fame to the equator. This plate 
is called the Quadrant of Altitude. 

Hour Circle. 

This is a fmall brazen circle fixed on the brazen meridian, divided 
into twenty-four hours, and having an index moveable round the axis of 
the globe. 

Problems performed by the Globe. 

To redify the Globe. 

This is to render it fit fcr refolving any queftion, and confequently is 
always fuppofed to b<^ the ii:\\ thing that is done. When the globe is 
redified, it has the fame fitu.\tIon v/ith regard to the lieavens, which the 
earth itfelf has. Now in order to give it this, as fuppofe on the 17th 
of December at Holt, in Norfolk, whofc latitude is 52** 45', we firft fet 
the globe upon a true plane, then elevate or raife the pole, according to 
the given latitude, by moving the brazen meridian through the notches 
of the horizon ; then to find the place of the fun in the ecliptic, we look 
for December 17, in the circle of months on the wooden horizon, and 
right againft it in the circle of figns we find the fun in 6" 5 6' of Capri- 
corn. Then we bring the degree of the ecliptic, the fun is in for that 
day, to the meridian, and turn the index of the hour circle to twelve on 
die fouth fide of the hour circle. And now is the globe reflified tor 
December 1 7 at noon in Holt. 

A general. 



.*** 



XVI 



I N T R O D U C T I O N. 



li^f 



1^1 



11 



A ^"ncral rroblcni containing what is molt difficult in all 

the reft. 

The day and hour bcinrr given, to find aH thofe places of the earth 
where tlvc fun is then rifin:;^, I'ettinn, or on the meridian ; aifo where it 
;.; iiiiy-ii<;!rt, tv.'iiighr, or dark night. SuppoJc the day and hour 
TO be lu'y 22, a quarter before fl'ven in the morning, at London. 
} irlt rectify ihe giobc fcr the latitude of London, which is 51° 32' north. 
'X hea find ihe iun'.s pL;ce in the ecliptic, for the zzd of July, which is 
twenty-one Jegrcts of Leo, which bring to tlic brals meridian, and it 
will cut the meridian in thirteen degrees north latitude. Then bring 
London to the meritiian, and point the hour index to a quarter before 
Icven in the morninjr. Then turn the globe about till the index comes 
to t^^'elve at noon ; iook for thirteen degrees north latitude on the brafs 
inc:i-id'an, an 1 ) . a will find under it fort St. George in the Eaft Indies, 
:it which place therefore the fun is tlien vertical, i. e. directly over their 
heads. Af.erwards rectify the globe for the latitude of fore St. George, 
wliich is thirteen degrees north, and bring fort St. George to the me- 
ridian, and the problem v.'ill be performed. For in all places above 
the horizon it is day-light, which happens to be almolt ail Europe, 
Afia, and Africa, having the fun above the horizon fo many degrees, 
as the places themfelves are. And in all places under the horifon, which 
happen to be all America, it is dark night ; except within eighteen de- 
grees of the horizon, where it is twi-light. And further, all the places 
in the weft half circle of the horifc-n, have the fun rifing, and all in 
the call have the fun fctting. It is noon in all tlie places under the 
upper part of the meridian, and midnight with thole under the lower 
part of the meridian. 

To find what I-Ionr it is in any Part of the V/orkl. 

Keeping the globe in the fame lltuation, v>e may find what is o'clock 
in any part of the world, by mean'; cf the hour circle, and by bringing 
the plHce to the brafs meriduin. Thus when it is twelve c'ciock at fort 
St. George, it v/ants a qu: it.'r fr( in fevcn -at London, and fo of the 
reft ; it is eafy to obivTva fioru x.].b, that thofe i;k:ces which, lie nflecu 



degrees to tiic call of u:, 



]iav> 



tii:- fun an h'.-iir before us j and, on 



the contrary, that tliofe which lie t!:e fame number of degrees to the 
weft of us, have tliC iun an hour afior us. So tha: when it is twelve 
o'clock 'at London, ir is one ft Naples, and eleven at the Madeira 
ifland?, every fifteen degrees cf longitude ar.f'.ver 10 one hour of time. 
Hence were it polT-'v-- to make a clock (o perfecl as to keep time, 
without painin?- or lofir.f, or being at all aitectcd by the motion of a 
Ihip, It would be eafy to determine the lonc'itude at fca. For what- 
ever contrivance will Ih.ew the hours of the day, at two different places 
in the fame abfohue point cf t'me, will ll'.evv t!;e uifFcreace of longi- 
tude between tiiofe places, by the eafy operati(,!i cf reducing every 
hour of time into fifteen degiees of longitude. There are a variety of 
other problems, fome cf winch called Panuioxci, are more curious than 
ufctul, which may be performed on t!ie globe. Tiiefe however can oc- 
cafion no uiiticulty to fuch as un;!erftand what has b;xn already ad- 
vanced ; and ieem to have been introduced into work^ of this kind, rather 
from a defire to amufe, tlian 10 inltrud. 



8 



Cf 



f. - 

ifEcuk in all 



ces of the earth 
; aifo where it 
day and hour 
g, at London, 
s 51° 32' uorth. 
" July, which is 
leridian, and it 
;. Then bring 
I quarter before 
he index comes 
de on the brafs 
the Eaft Indies, 
iredly over their 
fort St. George, 
lorge to the me- 
all places above 
lOll: ail Europe, 
b many degrees, 
c lioriibn, which 
lin eighteen de- 
T, all" tlie places 
ifing, and all in 
places under the 
under the lower 

J.' '^ 

4 

ic World. 

what is o'clock 
and by bringing 
Ic o'ciuck at fort 

;ird fo of the 
ry.!;lc!\ lie fifteen 
c us ; and, oa 

dcgices to the 
■.c.i it is twelve 
lat the Madein-i 
|e hour of time. 

to keep tiine, 
Ihc motion of a 
vor what- 
IditFerent places 
Ircr.ce of longi- 
I reducing every 
Ire a variety of 
le curious than 
Icwever car. oc- 

:ii already ad- 
lus kind, rat:her 



INTRODUCTION. 



xvn 



Of the Natural Divifions of the Earth. 

The conftituent parts of the Earth are two, the land and water. The 
parts of the land are continents, iflands, peninfulas, ifthmus's, promonto- 
ries, capes, coafts, mountains, &c. 

A continent is a large portion of land, containing feveral countries 
or kingdoms, without any entire feparation of its parts by water, as Eu- 
rope. An ifland is a fmaller part of land, quite furrounded by water, as 
Great-Britain. A peninfula is a traft of land every where furrounded by 
water, except at one narrow neck, by which it joins the neighbouring 
continent : and that neck of land which fo joins it, is called an Ifth- 
mus. A promontory is a hill, or point of land, ftretching itfelf into 
the fea, the end of which is called a Cape. A coaft or fliore is what 
part of a country which borders on the fea fide. Mountains, val- 
leys, woods, defarts, plains, &c. need no defcription. The moll: re- 
markable are taken notice of, and defcribed in the body of this work. 

The parts of the water arc oceans, feas, lakes, ftraits, gulphs, bays, 
or creeks, rivers, &c. 

The ocean is a great and fpacious colleflion of water, without any enn 
tire feparation of its parts by land, as the Atlantic ocean. The fea is a 
fmaller coUeftion of water, which communicates with the ocean, con- 
fined by the land, as the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. A lake is a 
large coUeftion of water, entirely furrounded by land, as the lake of Ge- 
neva, and the lakes in Canada. A ftrait is a narrow part of the tea, 
rcftrained or lying between two fhores, and opening a paffage out of one 
fea into another, as the ftrait of Gibraltar, or that of Magellan. A 
gulph is a part of the fea running up into the land, and furrounded by- 
it, except at the paffage whereby it communicated with the fea or ocean. 
If a gulph be very large, it is called an inland fea, as the Mediterranean ; 
if it do not go far into the land, it is called a bay, as the Bay of Bifcay ; 
if it be very fmall, a creek, haven, ftation, or road for fliips, as Milford 
Haven. Rivers, canals, brooks, &c. need no defcription, for thefa 
lefler divifions of water, like thofe of land, are to be met with in moll 
countries, and every one has a clear idea of what is meant by them. But 
in order to ftrengthen the remembrance of the great parts of land and 
water we have defcribed, it may be proper to obferve, that there is 9/ 
ftrong analogy or refemblance between them. The defcription of a con- 
tinent refembles that of an ocean, an ifland encompafled with water re- 
ferables a lake encompafled with land. A peninfula of land is like a 
inland fea. A promontory, or cape of land, is like a bay or 
and an ifthmus, whereby two lands are joined, refembles 
a ftrait, which unites one fea to another. To this defcription of the di- 
vifions of the earth, rather than add an enumeration of the various part* 
of land and water, which correfpond to them, and which the reader will 
find in the body of the work, we ftiall fubjoin a table, exhibiting the fu- 
perficial content of the whole globe in fquare miles, fixty to a degree, 
and alfo of the feas and unknown parts, the habitable earth, the four 
quarters or continents ; likewifeof the great empires and principal iflands^ 
which fliall be placed as they are fubordiuate to one another in ma^ 
nitu^e. 



gulph or 
creek of fea 



Of 



1^ f? 'I 

if I 

i 



xviu 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Globe — 

Seas and unknown I'.irts — 
The Habit;iblc World — ■ 
Europe •■ ■ — 

Afia 

Africa ■ ■ — • — — — 

N. America — — — 

S. America — 

Perfun Empire undar Darius 
Roman £fnp. in its utmod height 

Ruflian 

Chinefc — — — — 
Great Mogul ■■ ■ ■ • — 

TurkiA — — 

Prcfent Perfian 

rBorneo ■ — 

Madagalcar — — 
Sumatra — — 

Japan 

Great Britain ■ ■ 

Celebes 

Manila 

Iceland 

Terra del Fue£o — — 

Mindinao — 

Cuba 

Java 






Si) u are 
Miles. 

148,^10,627 

ii7,S43,?2i 

3o,C66,So6 

2.749»349 

10,257,487 

8,506,208 

^,699,087 

5>4S4>675 
1,650,00c 

1,6 1 0,000 

3.303>48.S 

'.749>ooo 
1,116,000 

960,057 

8oo,oco 

328,000 

168,000 

120,00c 

1 18,000 

72,926 

68,4.(jo 

58,500 

46,000 

42.'075 
39,200 
38,400 
38,250 



Iflands. 



Hifpaniola — 
NcwloundLmd 

Ceylon 

Ireland ■ — — 

Formofa 

Anian — 

Cilolo 

Sicily — — 
Timor — — 

Sardinia 

Cyprus 

Jamaica — — 
Flores — — 

Ccram 

Briton — — 
Socatora — 
Candia — 
Porto Rico ■ 
Corfica — 
Zdaiul •— 
Majorca — 

St. Jago 

iNet'ropont — 
Ttn-riir — 
Gotland — ■ 
Madeira — 
St. Michael 



Square 
Miles. 



Iflands. 



loco 



Skyc >— 

Lewis ■ - ■ 
Funen -^ 
Vvica —— 
Minorca — ■ 
Rhodes — 
Cephalonia ■ 

Amboyna 

Orkney Pomona 
Scio ■ ■ 
Martinico 
Lemnos — 
Corfu — 
Providence • 
Man — — 
R'^inholm — 
Wight — 

Malta 

Barbadoes — 

Zant . 

Antigua — 
St.Chriftophcr's 
St. Helena — 
Guernfcy — 

Jcrfey 

Bermudas — 
Rhode — 



SlJU. 

Ml.. 

900 

76X 

62 

52, 

4iio 

41c 

4to 

324 
3C0 
260 

22, 

194 

i(, 

lOc 

iCo 

150 

1 50J 

140J 

I2:| 

1C-. 

8c 

?c| 

5»i 

4-,l 

4'' 

361 






Winds and Tides. 

We cannot finifh the dodrine of the earth, without confidering Winds 
and 7 ides, from which the changes tliiU happen on its furface princi- 
pally arife. 

Winds. 

The earth on which we live is even,' where furroiinded by a fine invi- 
fible fluid, which extends to feveral miles above its furface, and is called 
Air. It is found by experiments, thai a fmall quantity of air is capable 
of being expanded, fo as to fill a very large fpace, or to be compreffcd 
into a much fmallcr compafs than it occupied before. The general caufe 
of the expanfion of air is heat, the general caufe of its compreffion is 
cold. Hence if any part of the air or atmofphere, receive a greater de- 
gree of cold or heat than it had before, its parts will be put in motion, 
and expanded or comprefled. But when air is put in motion, we call 
it win4 in general ; and a bree7e, gale, and itorm, according to the 
quicknefs or velocity of that motion. Winds therefore, which are com- 
monly confidered as things extremely variable and uncertain, depend on 
a general caufe, and aft with more or lefs uniformity in proportion as 
the aftion of this caufe is more or lefs conftant. It is found by obferva- 
tions made at Tea, that from thirty degrees north latitude, to thirty de- 
grees fouth, there is a conftant call-wind throughout the year, blowing 
on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and called the Trade Wind. This 
is occafioned by the adion of the fun, which in moving from call to 
weft heats, and cenfcqucntly expands the air immediately under him ; 
by which means a fticam, or tide of air, always accompanies him in his 
2 ** couife, 



1 N r R D U C T I D N. 



K\X 



courfc, and occallons a perpetual eaft-wind within thefe limits. This gff-» 
nerai caufe however is modified by a number of" particulars} the explica- 
lion of which would be too tedious, and complicated for our prefent 
plan ; which is to mention fafts rather than theories. It is likewife 
found then, that in fome parts of the Indian ocean, which are not more 
than two hundred leagues from and, there are periodical winds, called 
Monfoons, which blow half the year one way, and half the year anothei" 
way. At the changing of thefe monfoons, which always happen at th* 
equinoxes, there are terrible ftorms of thunder, lightning, wind and rain* 
It is difcovered alfo, that in the fame latitudes, there is another kind of 
periodical winds, which blow from the land in the night, and good 
part of the morning, and from the fea about noon, till midnight ; thefe 
however do not extend above two or three leao;ues from fhore. Near the 
coaft of Guinea in Africa, the wind blows always from the weft, fouth* 
weft, or fouth. On the coaft of Peru in South America, the winds blow 
conltantly from the fouth-wcft. Beyond the latitude of thirty north and 
fouth, the winds, as we daily perceive in Great-Britain, are more variable, 
tho' they blow oftener from the weft than any other point. Between the 
fourth and tenth degrees of north latitude, and between the longitude of 
Cape Verd, and the eafteninioft of tlic Cipe Verd lilMotl.';, there is a trad of 
fea condemned to perpetual calm;;, attended with terrible thunder and light- 
ning, and fuoh rains, that this fea has acquired the name o( tae Rainsi 

Tides. \\ 

By the tides is meant that regular motion of the fea, according to Whick 
it ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours. The Doftrine of the 
Tides remained in obicurity till the immortal Sir Ifaac Newton explained 
it by his great principle nf gravity or attraction. For having demon* 
ftratctl that there is a principle in all bodies, within the folar fyftem, by 
which they mutually tirnw or attraiSt one another, in proportion to their 
dillance, it follov/s, liuit thofe parts of the fea, which are ijTimediately 
below the moon, uiu ft be drawn towards it, and confequently wherever 
the moon is nearly vertical, the fea will be raifedj which occafioiis the 
flowing of the tide there. A fiiniiar reafon occafions the flowing of 
the tide likewife in thofe places where the nloon is in the Nadir, 
and which muft be diametrically oppoflte to the former ; for in the 
kemifphere fartheft from the moon, the parts in the Nadir being lefs at- 
iratftcd by Tier, than the other parts which are nearer to her, gravitate 
lefs towarus the earth's center, and confequently muft he higher than the 
reft. Thfii'e p.irts of the earth « on the contrary, where the m.ion ap- 
pears on tliC horifon, or ninety degrees diftant from the Zenith or Nadir, 
will have \o\\ water; for as the waters in the Zenith and N.idir rife at 
the fame c.me, the waters in their neighbourhood will prcfs towards 
thofe places, to maintain the equilibrium ; to fupply the places of thefe 
others will move the fame wayj and fo on to the places ninety degrees 
diftant from the Zenith and Nadir, where tiie water will bC loweft. By 
combining this dodrinc with the diurnal motion of the darth, above ex- 
plained, \vc Ihall be fcnfible of the reafon why the tides tbb and flow, 
twice in twenty-four hours, in every place on this globe. The tides 
{ire higher than ordinary, twice every month, that is about thfc times of 
hew and full moon, and arc called Spring Tides ; for at fhele times the 
iclions of both the fun and moon are united, and draw in the! fame 
ftraight line, and confequently the fea muft bt hiore (ilwat^.i ; at the con- 

b t junclionj 






XX INTRODUCTION. 

junAIon, or when the fun and moon are on the fame fide of the earth, 
they both confpiic to raife the waters in the Zenith, and confequcntly 
in the Nadir ; and at the oppofition, or when the earth is between the 
iun and moon, while one occafions high water in the Zenith and Nadir, 
the other does the fame. The tides are Icfs than ordinary twice every 
month, about the firft and laft quarters of the moon, and are called 
Neap Tides ; for in the quarters the fun raifes the waters where the moon 
deprefles them, and deprefl'cs where the moon raifes them ; fo that the 
tides arc only occafioned by the difference by which the adion of the 
moon, which is ncarell us, prevails over that of the fun. Thefe things 
would happen uniformly, were the whole furface of the earth covered 
with water ; but fince there are a multitude of iflands, and continents, 
which interrupt the natural courfe of the water, a variety of appearances 
are to be met with in different places, which cannot be explained with- 
out regarding the fitiiation of Ihores, flraits, and other objects, which 
have a fliare in producing them. 

Maps. 

A map is the rcprefcntation of the earth, or a part thereof, on a plant 
furface. Maps differ from the globe in the fame manner as a pifture 
does from a ftatuc. The globe truly reprefents the earth, but a map no 
more than a plane furface can reprefent one that is fpherical. But altho* 
the earth can never be exhibited exadly by one map, yet, by means of 
fevcral of them, each containing about ten or twenty degrees of latitude, 
the reprcfentation will not fall very much fliortof the globe for exaftnefs; 
becaufe fuch maps, if joined together, would form a fpherical convex 
nearly as round as the globe itfelf. 

Cardinal Points. 

The north is confidered as the upper part of the map ; the fouth is at 
the bottom, oppofite to the north ; the eall is on the right hand, the face 
being turned to the north ; anu the weft on the left hand, oppofite to the 
eaft. From the top to the bottom are drawn meridians, or lines of lon- 
gitude ; and from fide to fide, parallels of latitude. The outermoft of 
the meridians and parallels are marked with degrees of latitude and lon- 
gitude, by means of which, and the fcale of miles commonly placed in 
the corner of the map, the fituation, diftances, &c. of places, may be 
found, as on the artificial globe. Thus to find thediftance of two places, 
fuppofe London and Paris, by the map, we have only to meafure the 
foace between them with the compaffes or a bit of thread, and to apply 
this dirtance to the fcale of miles, which (hows that London is two hun- 
dred and ten miles diftant from Paris. If the places lie direftly north 
or fouth, eaft or weft from one another, we have only to obferve the 
degrees on the meridians and parallels, and by turning thefe into miles, 
we obtain the diftance without meafuring. Rivers are defcribed in maps 
by black lines, and are wider towards the mouth than towards the head 
or ipring. Mountains are iketched on maps as on a pifture. Forefts and 
woods are reprefented by a kind of fhrub ; bogs and moraffes, by ftiades; 
fands and (hallo vs are defcribed by fmall dots; and roads ufually by 
doubly lines. Near harbours, the depth of the water is «xprefled by 
|j;ui-es reprei«nting fathoms. 

PART 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI 



P A R T II. 

Of the Origin of Nations, Laws, Government, 

and Commerce. 

HAvIng, in the following work, mentioned the antient names of 
countries, and even fonietimes, in fpcaking of thefe countries, 
carried our hiltorical refearches beyond modern times ; it was thought 
neceflary. in order to prepare the reader for entering upon tlie particular 
hirtory of each country we defcribe, to phice before liis eye a general 
view of the hiftory of mankind, from the firJl ages of the world, to the 
reformation in religion during the fixtcenth century. By a hiftory of 
the world, we do not mean a mere lill of dates, which, when taken by 
itfelf, is a thing exti^mely infigniacant ; but an accumt of the moil 
interefting and important events which have happened among mankind ; 
with the caufes which have produced, and the effedls which have fol- 
lowed from them. This we judge to be a matter of hiyh importance ia 
itfelf, and indifpcnfibly requifite to tlic underltanding of the prefent (late 
of commerce, government, arti, and manners, in any particular country; 
which may be called commercial and p(jlitical geography, and which, 
undoubtedly, conflitutes the moft ufeful branch of that fcience. 

It appears in general, from the firft chapters of Genefis, that the 
world, before tlie flood, was extremely populous, that mankind had 
made confiderable improvement in the arts, and were become highly 
licentious in their morals and behaviour. Their irregularity gave occa- 
fion to a memorable cataftrophe, by which the whole hu- 
man race, except Noah and As family, were fwept from off ^^qIa 
the face of the earth. The deluge produced a very confi- 
derable change on the foil and atmofphere of this globe, and gave 
them a form lefs friendly to the frame and texture of the human 
body. Hence the abridgment of the life of man, and that formidable 
train of difeafes which hath ever fmcc made fuch havock in the world. 
A curious part of hiftory follows that of the deluge, the repeopling of the 
world, and the riling of a new generation from the ruins of the former. 
The memory of the three fons of Noah, the firll founders of nations, was 
long preferved among their feveral dcfcendants. Japhet continued fa- 
mous among the wellern nations under the celebrated name of Japetus ; 
the Hebrews paid an equal veneration to Shem, who was the founder of 
their race ; and among the Egyptians, Ham was long revered as a divi- 
nity, under the name of Jwpiter-Hammon. It appears that hunting was 
the principal occupation fome centuries after the deluge. The world 
teemed with wild beafts, and the great heroifm of thofe times confifted ia 
dellroying them. Hence Nimroii acquired immortal renown ; and by 
the admiration whicli his courage and dexterity univerfally excited, was 
enabled to acquire an authority over his fellow creatures, atxd to found 
at Babylon the firft monarchy, whofe origin is particularly nien- »g.- 
tioned in hiftory. Not long after, the foundation of Nineveh was 
laid by Aifur ; and in Egypt, tire four governments of Thebes, Then, 
Memphis, and Tanis, began to aflume fome appearance of forni and 
regularity, '^'1 it thefe events fliould have happened fo foon aftc^r the, 
deluge, whatever furprize it may have occafioned to the learned fome 
centuries ago, need not in the fmalleft degree excite the wonder of the 
prefent age. We have feen, from many iuftances, the powerful efFefts- 
of ^he principles of popula,tion, and how fpeedily mankiud encreafe 

b a when 



xxll 



INTRODUCTION. 



1 'i 

Li- ] 




I , 






when the generative faculty lies under no reflraint. The kingdoms of 
Mexico and I'cru were irccmparably more extenfive than thole of Baby* 
Ion, Nineveh, and E;>ypt, durinjr this early aj^e ; and yet thefe king- 
doms arc not fiippoft^d to have cxillcd four centuries before the discovery 
of America by Columbus. As mankind continued to multiply on the 
earth, and to Jeparaie from each other, the tradition concerning the 
true God, was obliterated or obfcured. This occalicncd the calling of 
»oj6, Abraham to be the father of a cliofen people. From this period 
the hirtory ot' anticnt rations begins a little to expand iifelf ; and 
we leatn feveral paiticulars of very confidcrabU; importance. 

Mankind had not long been united into focietics before they fet thcm- 
felves to opprefs and deltroy one another. Chaderlaomer, king of the 
Elamites or Ferfians, was already become a robber and a conqueror. 
His force, however, muft not have been very confiderable, fince, in one 
cf thefe expeditions, Abraham, afTifted only by hib houfno'd, fet upon 
him in his retreat, and after n ficrec cni'.agement, recovered all the fpoil 
that had been taken. Abrah^:;! wu> f'lon after obliged, by a famine, to 
leave Canaan, the courtiy where God had commanded him to fettle, 
and to go into Egypt This journey give^ occafion to Mofes to mention 
fome particulars wifii regard to the Egyptiai.s, and every ftroke difcovers 
the chara({lers of ? a improved and powerful mtion. The court of the 
Egyptian monarch is defcribed in the moll brilKint colours. He is fur- 
rounded with a crowd of courtiers, folely occupied in gratifying his 
paffions. The particular governments into which this cou^^trywas divided, 
are now united under one powerful prince; and Ham, "ho led the 
colony ipto ?gypt, is become the founder of a mighty empire. \Vt are 
not, however, to imagine that all the laws which took place in Egypt, 
and v/hich have been lo juftly admired for their wifdom, were the work 
of this early fige. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek writer, mentions many 
fuccefiive princes who laboured for their eftabliihment and perfcdlion. 
jg But in the time of Jacob, the firlt principles of civil order and 
regpjar governments {eem to have been tolerably underilood among 
the Egyptians. The country was divided into feveral diftrifts or feparate 
fdepartments ; councils, compofcd of experienced and feleft perfons, 
were eftablifhed (cr the management of public affairs ; granaries for 
preferving corn, were erefted ; and, in fine, the Egyptians in this age 
enjoyed a commerce far from .••^tonfidcrable. Thefe faits, though of ari 
ancient datp, deferve our particular attention. It is from the Egyptians 
that many of the arts, both of elegance and utility, have been handed 
down in an uninterrupted chfihi to the modern nations of Europe. Ihe 
Egyptians commnnicated their arts to the Greeks ; the Greeks taught 
the Romans many improvements both in the arts of peace and war ; and 
to the Romans, the prefent inhabitants of Europe are indebted for theiy 
civility and refinement. I'he kingdoms of JJabylon and Nineveh re- 
Biaincd feparate for ieveral centuries ; but we know not even the names 
Cjf th? kings who governed them, till the time of Ninus, king of Nineveh, 
who, by the fplendor of his actions, reflects light on this dark hiftory. 
^'ired by the Ipirit of conqueft, he extends the bounds of his kingdom, 
adds Babylon to his dominion, and lays the foundation of that monar- 
f]\y which, under the name of the Alfydfin cpipirc^ kfpt Afia under i\ie 
yoke fpr many ages. 

The hiftory of Europe now begins to dawn. Javan, fon of Japhet, 
Qn^ ^ta.^^{q^ of Noah^ is the fto^k froni \vhom all the people known by 



I N 1 R O D U C T I O N. 



XXIU 



the name of Greeks are defccndcd. Javan tllablifhed himfelf in tlie 
iilands in the wcftcrn ci-ad of Afia Minor, from whence it wa;; impofliblc 
that fonie wanderers fliould not pals ever into Europe. To thefe ftrll 
inhabitant; fiiccetued a cohiiiy from i'-^^ypt, who, about the time of Abra- 
ham, penetrated into Greece, and, under tlie name of Titans, ,^^ 
endeavoured to elhibliih moii:;ichy in thi;; country, and to intro- 
duce into it the l.uv., and civil pob'cy of the Egyptians. But the empl'-e 
of the Titans fooii tell afunder; and the antici.t Circck', wlio were at 
this time the moll rude and barbarous pionle in the world, .^gain tell 
back into their luwlcfs and f'lvage manner of life. Several colonies, 
however, foon after paflcd over from Afia into Greece, and by remain- 
ing in that country, produced a more cnnfiderable alteration on the man- 
ners of its inhabitants. The nioli antient of thefe were the colonies of 
Iiiachus and Ogyges ; of whom the former fettled in ."^rgos, and the 
later in Attica. Wc know extremely little of Ogyges or his fuccellbrs. 
Thofe of Inachus endeavoured to unite the difperfcj and wandering 
Greeks; and their endeavours for tliis purpofe were not altogether un- 
fuccefsful. But the hillory of G'ul's chofen people, is the only one with 
which we are much accjuainted during thofe ages. The train of curious 
' events which occafioned the fettling of Jacob and his family in that part 
of Kgypt of whicii Tanis w.is the capital, are univerfally known. That 
patriarch died, according to the Septuagint verfion, 1794 years ^ 
before Chriit. This is a pretty remarkable a;ra with refpecl to the 
nations of heathen anticjuity, and concludes that period of time which 
the Greeks confidcred as ;U together unknown, and which they have 
hardly diiifigured by their fabulous narrations. Let us view this period 
then in another point of view, and confider what we can learn from the 
facred writings, with refped to the arte, manners, and laws cf antient 
nations. It is a common error among v.riters on this fubject, to confider 
all the nations of antiquity as being on the fame footing with regard to 
thofe matters. They fiiid fomc nation'^ extremely rude and barbarous, 
and hence they conclude that all were in that fituation. They difcover 
others acquainted with many .., ts, and hence they infer the wifdom of the 
firil a9,es. There appears, however, to have been as much difference 
betv/een the inhabitants of the antient v»orId, in points of arts and refine- 
ment, as between the civilii'ed kingdoms of modern Europe and the 
Indians in America or Negi-oes on the coall of Africa. Noah was, un- 
doubtedly, acquainted with ail the arts of the antediluvian world j thele 
he v.'ould communicate to hi:i cliildren, and they again would hand them 
down to their pollerity. Thofe nations therefore who fettled nearelt the 
original feat of mankind, and vv-ho had the bell opportunities to avail 
themfelvcs of the knowledge wldch their gieat ancellor was polieifed of, 
early formed thcmll'lvcs into regular focieties, and made confiderable 
improvements in the arts which are mcft fubfervient to human life. 
Agriculture appears to have been known in the firft ages of the world. 
Noah cultivated the vine ; in the time cf Jacob, the fig-tree and the al- 
mond were well known in the land of Canaan ; and the inftruments of 
hulbandry, long before rhe difcovery of them in Greece, are often men,, 
tioned in the facred writings. Jt is hardly to be fuppofed that the an- 
tient cities, both in Afia and Egypt, whofe foundation, as we have 
already mentioned, afccpds to the remotell antiquity, could jiave been 
built, unlefs the culture of the ground had been praclifed at that time, 
Nations who live by hunting or pafturage only, lead a wandering life, 

b 4 mi. 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



A A ■ ■ 



and feWom fix their refidence in cities. Commerce naturally follows 
agriculture ; and though we cannot trace the ilcps by which it was intro- 
duced among the antient nations, we may, from detached pafTages in 
(acred writ, afcertain the progrefs which had been made in it during the 
patriarchal times. We know, from the hiftory of civil fociety, that the 
commercial intercourfe between men muft be pretty confiderable, before 
the metals come to be confidered as the medium of trade : and yet this 
was the cafe even in the days of Abraham. It appears, however, from 
the relations which eftablifh this faiH:, that the ufe of money had not been 
of an antient date ; it had no mark to afcertain its weight or finenefs : 
and in a contract for a burying-place, in exchange for which Abram 
gave filver, the metal is weighed in prefence of all the people. But as 
commerce improved, and bargains of this fort became more common, 
this practice went into difufe^ and the quantity of filver was afcertained 
by a particular mark, which faved the trouble of weighing it. But this 
does not appear to have taken place till the time of Jacob, the fecond 
from Abram. The refilah, of v,hich we read in his time, was a piece of 
money, ftampcd with the fgure of a Iamb, and of a precife and ftated 
value. It appears, from the hiftory of Jofeph, that the commerce be- 
tween different nations was by this time regularly carried on. The If- 
maelites and Medianites, who bought him of his brethren, were tra- 
velling merchants, rcfembling the modern caravans, who carried fpices, 
perfumes, ard other rich commodities, from their own country into 
Egypt. The fame obfervations may be made from the book of Job, 
who, according to the beft chronology, was a native of Arabia Felix, 
and cotemporary with Jacob. He ipeaks of the roads of Thema and 
Saba, i. e. of the caravans who fet out from thofe cities of Arabia. If 
we refleift that the commodities of this country were r-^ther the luxuries 
than the conveniences of life", we Ihall have reafon to conclude, that the 
countries Into which they were fent for fale, and particularly Egypt, 
were ccnfiderably improved in arts and refinement ; for few people think 
of luxuries until the ufeful arts have made high advancements among 
them. In fpeaking of commerce, we ought carefully to diftinguifh be- 
tween the fpecies of it which is carried on by land, or inland commerce, 
and that which is carried on by lea ; which laft kind of traffic is both 
later in its origin, and flower in its progrefs. Had the defcendants of 
Noah been left to their own ingenuity, and received no tindure of the 
antediluvian knowledge from their wife ancellors, it is improbable they 
Ihould have ventured on navigating the open feas fo foon as we find they 
did. That branch of his pollerity who fettled on the cJafts of Paleftine, 
were the lirft people of the world among whom navigation was made fub- 
fervient to commerce; they were diftinguiflied by a word which in the 
Hebrew tongue fignifies merchants, and are the fame nation afterwards 
known to the Greeks by the name of Phenicians. Inhabiting a barren 
iand ungrateful foil, they fet themfelves to better their fituation by culti- 
vating the arts. Commerce was their capital objedl ; and with all the 
writers of pagan antiquity, they pafs for the inventors of whatever is 
fubfervient to it. At the time of Abraham they were regarded as a pow- 
erful nation j their maritime commerce is mentioned by Jacob in his laft 
words »-o his children : and if we may believe Herodotus in a matter of 
fuch remote antiquity, the Phenician;; had by this time navigated the 
coafts of Greece, and carried off the daughter of Inachus. 

The 



* 



INTRODUCTIOK. 



xxy 



tu rally follow* 
h it was intro- 
jd pafTages in 
1 it during tlie 
ciety, that the 
lerable, before 
: : and yet this 
Kowever, from 
y had not been 
It or finenefs : 
which Abram 
:ople. But as 
more common, 
vas afcertained 
g it. But this 
ob, the fecond 
was a piece of 
;cife and ftated 
commerce be- 
on. The If- 
iren, were tra- 
carried fpices, 
country into 
book of Job, 
Arabia Felix, 
3f Thema and 
of Arabia. If 
er the luxuries 
lude, that the 
ularly Egypt, 
people think 
|ements among 
iftinguilh be- 
nd commerce, 
traffic is both 
ffcendants of 
indure of the 
probable they 
we find they 
|s of Palefline, 
as made fub- 
which in the 
n afterwards 
[ting a barren 
on by culti- 
with all the 
whatever is 
d as a pow- 
b in his laft 
a matter of 
^vigated the 

The 



The arts of agriculture, commerce, and navigation, ftppofes the know- 
ledge of feveral others ; aftronomy, for inftance, or a knowledge of the 
fituation and revolutions of the heavenly bodies, is neceflary both to agri- 
culture and navigation ; that of working metals, to commerces ; and fo 
of other arts. In fact, we find that before the death of Jacob, feveral 
nations were fo well acquainted with the revolutions of the moon, as to 
meafure by them the duration of their year. It had been an univerfal 
cuftom among all the nations of antiquity, as well as the Jews, to divide 
time into the portion of a week, or feven days : this undoubtedly arofe 
from the tradition with regard to the origin of the world. It was natural 
for thofe nations who led a paftoral life, or who lived under a fercne Iky^ 
to obferve tht.t the various appearances of the moon were compleated 
nearly in four weeks : hence the divifion of a month. Thofe people 
again who lived by agriculture, and who had got among them the divi- 
jion of the month, would naturally remark, that twelve of thefe brought 
back the fame temperature of the air, or the fame feafons : hence the 
origin of what is called the lunar year, which has every where taken 
place in the infancy of fcience. This, together with the obfervation of 
tlie fixed Hais, which, as we learn from the book of Job, muft have beea 
very antient, naturally paved the way for the difcovery of the folar year, 
which at that time would be thought an immenfe improvement in aftro- 
nomy. But with regard to thofe branches of knowledge which we have 
mentioned, it is to be remembered that they were pecui'ar to the Egyp- 
tians and a few nations of Afia. Europe offers a frightful fpeftacle during 
this period. Who could believe that the Greeks, who in later ages be- 
came the patterns of politenefs and every elegant art, were defcended 
from a favage race of men, traverfing the woods and wilds, inhabiting 
tlie rocks and caverns, a wretched prey to wild animals, and fometimes 
to one another. This, however, is no more than what was to be ex- 
pecled. The defcendants of Noah, who removed at a great dif:2nce from 
the plains of Sennaar, loft all connexion with the civilifed part of man- 
kind. Their pollerity became ftill more ignorant ; and the human mind 
was at length funk into an abyfs of mifery and wrctchednefs. 

We might naturally expei*^ that, from the death of Jacob, and as we 
advance forward in time, the hillory of the great empires of Egypt and 
Affyria would emerge from their obfcurity : tliis, hjwever, is far from 
being the cafe; we only get a ;_,ampfe of them, and they difappear in- 
tirely for many ages. After the reign of Ninius, who fucceeded 
Ninus in the AfTyrian throne, we find an aftonifhing blank in the 
hiilory of this empire for no lefs than eight hundred years. The fl- 
lence of antient hiftory on this fubjed is commonly attributed to the 
fofcnefs and effeminacy of the fucceftbrs of Ninus, whole lives afford- 
ed no events vorthy of narration. Wars and commotions are the 
great themes of the hiftorian, while the gentle and happy reigns 
of a wife prince pafs unobfervcd and unrecorded. Sefoftris, a 
prince of wonderful abilities, is fuppofcd about th', time to have * 
mounted the throne of Egypt. By his affiduity and attention, the civil 
and military eftablilhments of the Egyptians received very confiderablc 
improvements. Egypt, in the time of Sefoftris and his immediate fuc- 
ccflbrs, was in all probability the moft powerful kingdom upon earth, 
and according to the beft calculation is fuppofed to have contained 
twenty-feven millions of inhabitants. But antient hiftory often excites, 
without gratifying our curiofityj for from the rcigii of Sefoftris to that 

of 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



• «r. 



15? 



* ) 



, of Boccharis, we know not even thtf names of the intermediate 
' * princes. If we judge, however, from collateral circutr.ftances, 
the count/)' n;uft itill huvc continued in a very flourifhing condition, for 
Egypt continued to pour forth her colonies into ciiilant nations. Athens, 
that feat of kurninn; and politenefs, that fchooK for all who afpire after 
wifdom, GV/es its foundation to Cecrops, who landed in Greece, 
with an Egyptian colony, and endeavoured to civilife the rough 
manners of the original inhabitants. From the inftitutions whicli Ce- 
crops eilabllfhed among the Athenians, it is eafy to infer in what fitua- 
tions they mull have lived before his arrival. The laws of maniage, 
wltich few nations are fo barbarous as to be altogether unacquainted with, 
were not known in Greece. Mankind, like the beafts of the field, were 
propagated by accidental rencounters, and without all knowledge of 
thofe tJ v/hom they owed their generation. Cranaus, who fuccceded 
Cecrops in the kingdom of Attica, purfued the fame beneficial 
' plan, and endeavoured, by wife inftitutions, to bridle the keen 
paffions of a rude people. 

Whilft: thefe princes ufed their endeavours for civilifing this corr ■ of 
Greece, the other kingdoms, nto which this country, by the na: ' 
boundaries of rocks, mcuvitains, and rivers, is divided, and Vv, ^ci ;iad 
been already peopled by colonies from Egynt and the Eaft, began to 
aliume fome appearance of form and regularity. This engaged Aiii- 
phiftion, one of thofe uncommon geniufles who appear in the 
world for the benefit of Lhc age rn which they live and the admi- 
ration of pofterity, to think of fome expedient by which he might 
unite in one plan of politicks the feveral independent kingdoms of 
Greece, and thereby deliver them from thofe inteftine diviftons which 
niaft reHder them a prey to one another, or to the firil enemy who might 
think proper to invade them. Thefe refleiflions he communicated to the 
kings or leaders of the different territories, and by his eloquence and 
addrefs engaged twelve cities to unite together for their mutual prefer- 
vation. Two deputies from each of thefe cities afiembled twice a year 
at Thermopyh-e, and formed what, after the name of its founder, was 
called the Amphidionic Council. In this aflembly, whatever related to 
the general intereft of tlie confederacy was difcufled and finally deter- 
mined. Amphiftion likewifc, fenfible that thofe political connexions 
are the moll lalHng which a/e ftrengtliened by religion, committed to the 
Aniphidlions the care of the temple at Delphi, and of uie riches which, 
from the dedications of thofe who confulted the oracle, had been amafT i 
in it. This affembly, conltituted on fuch folid foundations, was the g 
fpring of aclion in Greece, while that country preferved its independence ; 
and by the union which it iiifpired among the Greeks, enabled them to 
defend their liberties againll all the force of the Perfian empire. 

Confidering the ciicumftances of the age ?n which it was inftituted, the 
Amphiftionic council is perhaps the moH remarkable political ellablilh- 
ment which ever tov'k place among mankind. The Greek ftates, who 
formerly had no connedion with one another, except by mutual inroads 
and hortilities, foon began to ad with concert, and to undertake diftant 
expeditions for the general intereft of the community^ The firu of thefe 
was the obfcure expedition of the Arp:onants, in \ nich all Greece 
'" appears to have been concerned. The ohjjd of the a ' '">nauts was 
%p open the commerce of the Euxine Sea, and to eftablilh colonies in the 
jidjaceat country of Colchis. The (liip Argo, which wj,s the admiral of 

the 



K^^. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXVll 



le iniermedtate 
circumftances, 
condition, for 
tions. Athens, 
'ho afpire after 
ded in Greece, 
ilife the rough 
ins which Cc- 
r in what fitua- 
s of man! age, 
rqu.iintcd with, 
"the field, were 
knowledfje of 
who fucceeded 
fame beneficial 
•ridlc the keen 

g this corr •■ of 
by th.' "Ti ' 

and \\. iCi' ,1.^0 

Eaft, began to 

b engaged Aiu- 

appear in the 

and the admi- 

/hich he might 

It kingdoms of 

divifions which 

emy who might 

inicated to the 

loqutnce and 

mutual preler- 

ed twice a year 

founder, was 

tever related to 

finally deter- 

cal connexions 

jmmitted to the 

riches which, 

d been amar i 

was the g 
independence ; 
a bled them to 
Dire, 

inftituted, the 
tical eltablifh- 
■k Hates, who 
mutual inroads 
dertake diflant 
e firi't of thefc 
:i.:h all Greece 
i ■""<nauts was 
oionies in the 
the admiral of 
the 



the fleet, Is the only one particularly taken notice of; though we learn 
from Homer, and other antient writers, that feveral lail were employed 
in this expedition. The fleet of the Argonauts was, from the ignorance 
of thofe who conduced it, lon;i; toilVd about upon different coafts. The 
rocks, at fome diftance from the mouth of the Euxine fca, occafioned 
great labour : they fent forward a light vcflel, which pafled through, 
but returned with the lofs of her rudder. This is exprefled in the fabu- 
lous language of anti-yiity, by their fending out a bird which returned 
with the lofs of its tail, and may give us an idea of the allegorical obfca- 
rity in which the other events of this expedition are involved. The fleet, 
however, at length arrived at Mon, the capital of Colchis, after per- 
forming a voynge, vvhicii, confidering the iViCan condition of the naval 
art during this age, was not lefs confiderable than the circumnavigation 
of the world by our niodern difcoverers. From this expedition, to that 
againft Troy, the motive to which is known to all the world, the » 
Greeks mull have made a wonderful progrefs in power and opu- 
lence : no lefs Uian twelve hundred veflcls were employed in this voyage, 
each of which, at a medium, contained upwards of a hundred men. 
Thefe veflels, however, were hrc half decked : and it docs not appear 
that iron entered at a!! into their conllruftio.n. If we add to thefe cir- 
cumftances, tbi.c the Greeks had not the ufc of the faw, an inilrument 
{o nccellary to ihc cr.rpenter, a modern mull form but a mean notion of 
the ftrengthori;lef!^ince of this fleet. 

Having thus coniklcied the ilate of Greece as a whole, let us examine 
the circumftances of the particular countries into whixh it v as divided. 
This is of great importance to our prefent undertaking, b' caufc it is in 
this country only thnt we c?n trace the origin and progrefs of govern- 
incnt, arts, and manners, v/hich compofe io great a part of our prefent 
work. There appears originally to have been a very remarkable , 
refemblance between the political Htuation of the different king- 
doms of Greece. They were governed each by a king, or rather a chief- 
tain, who was their leader in time of war, tiieir judge in tiuiC of peace, 
;i;; 1 vho prefided in the adminiftraticn of their r.Iig'ous ceremonies. 
V': j^'iince, however, was far from being abfolute. In each fociety 
' •::; VvTe a number of other leaders, who(e infltience over their parti- 
al r -. uuis or tribes was not lefs conlklerable than that of the king over 
his i--<r.- liate fcllowers. Thefe c.iptcJns were often at war witii one 
another, and flnnetimes wiih their fovercign. Such a fituation v/as in all 
refpe£ts extremely unfavourable : cnrh j-articular ftate was in miniatuiu 
what :hc \\' ■ country had been before the time of Amphiftion. They 
required ilic h.;nd of another delicate painter to Hiade 'wie oppofite colours, 
.ind to en'bic them to produce one powerful effeil. The hiftcry of 
Athens affords us an example of the manner in which thefe Hates, which, 
far want of union, were weak and infignificant, became, by being ce- 
mented together, important and powerful. Thefeus, king of At- 
ica, had acquired a flourilhipg reputation by his exploits of valour ' 
...id (bility. He faw the jnt</nvcniencies to which his country, from 
being divided into twelve diftritS^s, was expofcd, and he conceived that 
by mearis of the infiuence which his perfonal character, united to the 
royal authority with which he was inveftcd, had univerfally procured 
him, he might be able to remove them. Tor this purpofe he endea* 
voured to maintain, and even tp encreafe his popularity among the pea- 
fgl)t3 (\p4 ^fti^^n^ : ^^ ^eta^hed, as iiiVfCh ^s poflible, tlie diiF«;rent tribes 

ffOl^ 



xxvm 



INTRODUCTION. 



ij. *' 



'1 r , t;: 



J 'i^: 



from the leaders who commanded them : he abolifhed the courts which 
had been cllablifhed in different parts of Attica, and appointed one 
council-hall common to all the Athenians. Thefcus, however, did not 
frull folcJy to the force of political regulations. He called to his aid all 
the power of religious prejudices ; by eftabli(hing common rites of reli- 
gion to be performed in Athens, and by inviting thither llrangers from 
ail quarters, by the profpect of proteftion and privileges, he raifed this 
city from an inconfiderable village to a powerful metropolis. The fplen- 
dor of Athens and Thefeus now totally eclipfed that of the other villages 
and their particular leaders. All the power of the ilate was united in one 
city, and under one fovereign. The petty chieftains, who had formerly 
occafioned fo much confufion, by being diverted of all influence and 
confideration, became humble and fubmiffivc ; and Attica remained un- 
der the peaceable government of a monarch. 

This is a rude fkctch of the origin of the firft monarchy, of which we 
have fl diftinft account, and may, without much variation, be applied 
to the ?• *^ tes of Greece. This country, however, was not deftined 
to contin. y under the government of kings. A new influence arofe, 

which in a ^rt time proved too powerful both for the king and the 
nobles. Thefeus had divided the Athenians into three diftinft clafles ; 
the nobles, the artifans, and the hufljandmen. In order to abridge the 
exorbitant power of the nobles, he had beftowcd many privileges on the 
two oihcr ranks of pcrfons. This plan of politicks was followed by his 
fucceflbrs ; and the lower ranks of the Athenians, partly from the counte- 
nance of their fovereign, and partly from the progrefs of aits and manu- 
faciures, which gave them an opportunity of acquiring property, be- 
came confiderable and independent. Thefe circumftances were attended 
with a remarkable ehed. Upon the death ofCodrus, a prince of 
great merit, the Athenians, become weary of the regal authority, 
under pretence of finding no one worthy of filling the throne of that 
monarch, who had devoted himfelf to death for the fafcty of his people, 
abolifned the regal power, and proclaimed that none but Jupiter Ihould 
be king of Athens. This revolution in favour of liberty was fo much 
tlie m:rc remarkable, as it happened almolt at the fame time that the 
Jews became unwilling to remain under the government of the true 
God, and defired a morcal fovereign, that they might be like unto 
other nations. 

The government of Thebes, another of the Grecian ftates, much about 
the fame time, alTumed the republican form. Near a century before the 
Trojan war, Cadmus, with a colony from Phenicia, had founded this 
city, which from that time had been governed by kings. But the lall 
fovereign being overcome in fingle combat, by a neighbouring prince, 
the Thcbans aboliflied the regal power. Till the days, however, of Pe- 
lopihis and Epaminondas, a period offeven hundred years, the Thebans 
perlbrmcd nothing worthy of the republican fpirit. Other cities of 
Greece, after the example of Thebes and Athens, erefted themfelves into 
republics. But the revolutions of Athens and Sparta, two rival ftates, 
which by means of the fuperiority they acquired, gave the tone to the 
manners, genius, and politicks of the Greeks, deferve our principal 
attention. We have feen a tender flioot of liberty fpring up in the city of 
Athens, upon the deceafe ofCodrus, its lait fovereign. This flioot gra- 
dually improved into a vigorous plant ; and it cannot but be pleafant to 
obfervc its progrefs. The Athenians, by aboliftiing the name of king, 

iiid 



J079. 



IX^TRODUCTION. 



XXIX 



£Id not intirely fubvert the regal authority : they eftablifhed a perpetual 
magiftrate, who, under the name of Archon, was invefted with „- 
almoft the fame rights which their kings had enjoyed. The Athe- 
nians, however, in time, became fenfible that tlie archontic office was 
too lively an image of royalty for a free ftate. After it had continued 
therefore three hundred and thirty-one years in the family of Codrus, 
they eni'^avoured to lefl'en its dignity, not by abridging its power, but 
by fliortening its duration. The firft period affigned for the continuance 
of the archonfhip in the fame hands, was three years. But the defire of 
the Athenians for a more perfeft fyftem of freedom than had hitherto beea 
eftablilhed, increafed in proportion to the liberty they enj( ed. ^ 
They again called out for a frcfh reduftion of the power of their 
archons ; and it was at length determined that nine annual magiftrates 
fhould be appointed for this office. Thefe magiftrates were not only 
chofen by the people, but accountable to them for their conduft at the 
expiration of their office. Thefe alterations were too violent not to be 
attended with fome dangerous confequences. The Athenians, intoxi- 
cated with their freedom, broke out into the inoft unruly and licentioua 
behaviour. No written laws had been as yet enafted in Athens, and It 
was impoffible that the ancient cuftomi of the realm, which were natu- 
rally fuppofed to be in part aboliihed, by the fucceffive changes in the 
government, ihould fufficiently reflrain the tumultuary fpirits of the 
Athenians, in the firft flutter of their independance. This engaged the 
wifer part of the ftate, who began to prefer any fyftem of government 
to their prefent anarchy and confufion, to caft their eyes on Draco, a 
jnan of an auftere but virtuous dlfpofition, as the fitteft perfon for com- 
pofmg a fyftem of law, to bridle the furious and unruly manners of 
their countrymen. Draco undertook the office, but executed it with fo 
much rigour, that in the words cf an ancient hiftorian, " His laws 
were written with blood, and not v/ith ink." Death was the indifcrimi- 
nate puniftimcnt of every offence, and the laws of Draco were found to 
be a remedy vvorfe than the difeafe. Affairs again returned int9 
confufion and diforder, and rcmr.ined fo till the time of Solon. 
The gentle manners, difinterelled \ iitue and wUdom more than hu- ^94* 
man, by which this fage was diftinguifhed, pointed him out as the only 
charadler adapted to tlie moft important of all offices, the giving laws to a 
free people. Solon, tho' this employment was affigned him by the unanimous 
voice of his country, long deliberated whether he lliould undertake it. 
At length, however, the motives of public utility overcame all confi- 
derations of private cafe, fafety, ancl reputation, and determined him 
to enter on an ocean pregnant with a thoufand dangers. The firft ftep 
of his legiflation was to abolilh all the laws of Draco, except thofe re- 
lating to murder. The punifliment of this crime could not be too great ; 
but to confider other offences as equally criminal, was to confound all 
notions of right and wrong, and to render the law incffeftual, by means 
of its fcverity. Solon next proceeded to new model the political law ; 
and his eftablifhments on this head, remained among the Athenians, 
while they prefcrvcd their liberties. He feems to have fet out with this 
principle, that a perfcft republic, in which each citizen fhould have an 
equal political importance, was a fyftem of government, beautiful in- 
deed in theory, but not reducible into praftice. He divided the citizens 
therefore into four claffes, according to the wealth which ihey poffeffed, 
ajid the pooreft clafs he rendered altogether uncapable of any public of- 
fice. 



xxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



• ^ 



., '. i 



fice. They had a voice however in the general council of the nation, in 
which all matters of principal concern were determined in the lall reforc. 
But left this aflemhly, which was compofed of all the citizens, fhould in 
the worcis of Plutarch, like a fliip with too many fails, be expofed to the 
guft of folly, tumult, and diforder, he provided for its fatt-ty by the 
two anchors of the Senate and Areopagus. The firll of thefe courts con. 
fifted of four hundred perfons, a hundred out of each tribe of the Athe- 
nians, who prepared all important bills that came before the aflembly 
of the people; the fecond, though but a court of juftice, gained a pro- 
digious afcendant in the republic, by the wifdom and gravity of its mem- 
bers, who were not chofcn, but after the ftricleft fcrutiny, and moft fe- 
rious deliberation. Such was the fyftem of government eftabliflied by 
Solon, which, the nearer we examine it, will afford the more matter for 
our admiration. Upon the fame plan moft of the other anticnt repub- 
licks were efiablifhed. To infift on all of them, therefore, would neither 
be entertaining nor inftruftive. But the government of Sparta, or Lace- 
demon, had fomething in it fo peculiar, that the great lines of it at leaft 
ought not to be omitted even in a delineation of this fort. Sparta, like 
the other ftates of Greece, was originally divided into a number of 
petty principalities, of which each was under the jurifdiftion of 
its own immediate chieftain. At length, the two brothers Eurifthenes 
and Proiles, getting pofleflion of this country, became conjundt 
'072. jjj jj^g royalty, and what is extremely fmgular, their pofterity, in 
the diredl line, continued to rule conjundly for nine hundred years. The 
Spartan government, however, did not take that Angular form which 
renders it fo remarkable, until the time of Lycurgus, the cele- 
^°* brated legiflator. The plan of policy devifed by Lycurgus, agreed 
with that already dtfcribed, in compreliending a fenate and aflembly of 
the people, and in general in all thofe eftablilhments which are deemed 
r.oft requifite for the fecurity of political independance. It differed 
from that of Athens, aod indeed from all other governments, in hav- 
ing two kings, whofe office was hereditary, though their power was 
fufficiently circumfcribed by proper checks and reftraints. But the great 
charafteriftick of the Spartan conftitution, arofe from this, that in all hii 
laws Lycurgus had at leaft as much refped to war, as to political liberty* 
With this view all forts of luxury, all arts of elegance or entertainment, 
every thing in fhort, which had the fmalleft tendency to foften the minds 
of the Spartarts, was abfolutely profcribed. They were forbid the ufe of 
money, they lived at publick tables on the coarfeft fare, the younger were 
taught to pay the utmoft reverence to the more advanced in years, and 
all ranks capable to bear arms, were daily accuftomed to the moft pain- 
ful exercifes. To the Spartans alone war was a relaxation, rather than 
a hardfliip, and they behaved in it with a fpirit of which none but a 
Spartan could even form a conception. In order to fee the effect of thefe 
principles, and to conneft under one point of view the hiftory of the 
different quarters of the globe, we muft call our eye on Afia, and 
obferve the events which happened in thofe great empires, of which we 
have fo long loft fight. We have already mentioned in what obfcu- 
rity the hiftory of Egypt is involved, until the reign of Baccharis* 
From this period to the diflblution of their government, the Egyp* 
tians are more celebrated for the wifdom of their laws^ and po- 
litical inftitutions, than for the power of their arms. Several of thefe feeni 
to iiave been dictated by the true fpirit of civil wifdom, and were admi' 

lably 



762. 

5^8. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xxxx 



tably calculated for prcfcrving order and good government in an exten- 
five kingdom. The great empire of Aifyria likewife, which had fo 
lonp- difappcared, becomes again an objed of attention, and affoids the 
firil'initance we meet with in hiftory, of a kingdom wliich fell aluiidcr 
by its own weight, and the effeminate WTaknels of its fovercigns. 
Sardanapulus, the laft emperor of Aflyria, ncgleiling the admi- ' ''" 
nillration of affairs, and fhutting himfelf up in his palace with his wo- 
men and eunuchs, fell into contempt with his fiibjed^ts. The governors 
of his provinces, to whom, like a weak and indolent prince, he had en- 
tirely committed the command of his armies, did not fail to lay hold of 
this opportunity of raifmg their own fortune on the ruins of thoir maf- 
ter's power. Arbaces, governor of Media, and Beleiis, governor of Ba- 
bylon, confpire againft their fovcrcign, fet fire to his ca^itol, and di- 
vide between them his extenfivc dominions. Thcle two kingdoms, fomc- 
times united under )ne princt, and fomctimes governed each by a parti- 
cular fovereign, n^aintained the chief fway iu Afia, till Cyrus the 
Great reduced this quarter of the world uader the Perfian yoke. ^^ 
The manners of this people as brave, hardy, and independent, as well 
as the government of Cyrus, in all its various departments, are elegantly 
defcribed by Xenophon, ^ Grecian philofophcr and hiilorian. It is not 
neceffary, however, that we Ihould enter on the fame detail upon this 
fubjcft, as with regard to the affairs of the Greeks. We have, in mo- 
dern times, fufficient examples of monarchical government ; but how 
few are our republics ? But the a:ja of Cyrus is in one refpeft extremely 
r£markable, becaufe with it the hiftory of the great nations of antiquity, 
which has hitherto engaged our attention, may be fuppofed to finilh. 
Let us conftder then the genius of the Affyrians, Babylonians and Egyp- 
tians, in arts and fcience^^, and if pofiible difcover what progrefs they 
had made in thofe acquirements, which are moft fubfervient to the in- 
terefts of fociety. The taile for the great and magnificent, feems to hare 
been the prevailing charader of thefe nations ; and they principally dif- 
played it in their works of architefture. There are no velliges, however, 
now remaining, which confirm the tcftimony of ancient writers, with 
regard to the great works, which adorned Babylon and Nineveh : neith^f 
is it clearly determined in what year they were begun or finiflied. There 
are three pyramids Itill remaining in Egypt, at fomc leagues dillancc from 
Cairo, which are fuppofed to have been the burying placet of the antient 
Eg.ptian kings. The largeft is five hundred feet in height, and two thoii- 
fand fix hundred and forty broad each way at bottom. It was a fuperili- 
tion among this people, derived from the carlieft times, that even after 
death, the foul continued in the body, as long as it remained uncor- 
riipted. Hence proceeded tlie cuilom of embalming, or of throwing 
into the dead body, fuch vegetables as experience had dii'covcrcd to be 
the gveatell prcfervatives againft putrcfuilion. "^I'he pyramids were 
ereded with the fame view. In them the bodies of the Egyptian kings 
were concealed. This expedient, together with embalming, as thefe fu- 
perftitious monarchs conceived, would inevitably feciire a lafe, and com- 
fortable retreat for their fouls after death. From what we read of the walls 
of Babylon, the temple of Belus, and other works of the caft, and from 
what travellers have recorded of the pyramids, it appears that indeed 
they were fupcrb and magnificent ftructures, but totally devoid of ele- 
gance. The orders of architeulure were not yet knov. n, nor even the 
conftrucUng of vaults. The arts,- in which tiicii; uations, next to archi- 
tecture. 



XXXIl 



INTRODUCTION. 



, P 



tcdlure, principally excelled, were fculpture and enibroiderv'. As te 
the fciences, they had all along continued to bcftow their principal at- 
tention on aftronomy. It docs not appear, however, that they made 
great progrefs in explaining tlie caufes of tlie plienomena of the univerfe, 
or indeed in any fpecies of rational and found philofjphy. To demon- 
ftrate this to an intelligent reader, it is fuflicicnt to obfei-ve, that ac- 
cording to the tcftirapny of facred and profane writers, the abfurd re- 
veries of magic and aftrology, which always decreafe in proportion to 
the advancement of true fcicnce, were in high efteem among them, 
during the lateft periods of their government. The countries which they 
occupied, were extremely fruitful, and afforded without much labour 
all the neceflaries, and even luxuries of life. They had long been ac- 
cuftomed. to a civilized and poliihed life in great cities. Thefe cir- 
cumftances had tainted their manners with effeminacy and corruption, 
and rendered them an eafy prey to the Perfians, a nation juft emerging 
from barbarity, and of confequcnce, brave and warlike. This was Hill 
more eafy in the infancy of the military art : when ftrength and courage 
were the only circumftances which gave the advantage to one nation 
over another, when properly fpeaking, there were no fortified places, 
which in modern times, have been difcovered to be fo ufeful in flop- 
J>ing the progrefs of a vidlorious enemy, and when the event of a battle 
commonly decided the fate of an empire. But we muft now turn our 
attention to other objefts. The hiftory of Perfia, after the reign of Cy- 
rus, offers little, when confidered in itfelf, that merits our regard : but 
when combined with that of Greece, it becomes particularly interefting. 
The monarchs who fucceeded Cyrus, gave an opportunity to the Greeks, 
to exercife thefe virtues, which the freedom of their government had 
created and confirmed. Sparta remained under the influence of Lycur- 
gus's inttitutions : Athens had juft recovered from the tyranny of the Pi- 
fiftratida:, a family who had trampled on the laws of Solon, and ufurped 
the fupreme power. Such was their fituation, when the luft of univerfal 
empire, which never fails to torment thebreaft of tyrants, led Da- 



540. 



rius to fend forth his numerous armies into Greece. But the Per- 



fians were no longer thofe invincible foldiers, who under Cyrus had 
conquered Afia. Their m'nds were enervated by luxury and fervi- 
tude. Athens, on the contrary, teemed with great men, whofe minds 
were nobly animated by the late recovery of their freedom. Milthiades, 
in the plains of Marathon, with ten thouHind Athenians, overcame an 
army of a hundred thoufand foot, and ten thoufand cavalry. His coun- 
trymen Themiftocles, and Ariftidis, the firft celebrated for his abilities, 
the fecond for his virtue, gained the next honours to the general. It does 
not, however, fall within our plan to mention the events of this war, 
which, as the nobleft monuments of virtue over force, of courage over 
numbers, of liberty over fervitude, deferve to be read at length in. an- 
cient writers. Xerxes, the fon of Darius, came in perfon into 
Greece, with two million one hundred thoufand men; and being 
every where defeated by fea and land, efcaped to Afia in a fifhing boat. 
Such was the fpirit of the Greeks, fo well did they know that " wanting 
** virtue, life is pain and woe, that wanting liberty, even virtue mourns, 
** and looks around for happinefs in vain." Tho' the Perfian war 
concluded glorioufly for the Greeks, it is, in a great mea- 
ftire, to ti.is war, that the fubfequent misfortunes of that nation are to 
be attributed. It was not the battles in which they fufFered the lofs of 

3 i» 



484. 



4<»3- 



1 N T R O t) tr C T I O N. 



XXXUl 



IS, overcame an 



fo many brave men, but thofe in which they acquired an immenfity of 
Perfi^ gold, it was not their enduring fo many hardlhips in the courfe 
of the war, but their connexion with the Perfians, after the conclufion 
of it, which fubverted the Grecian eftablifhments, and ruined the moll 
virtuous confederacy that ever exifted upon eaith. The Greeks became 
haughty after their viAories : delivered from the common enemy, they 
began to quarrel with one another : their quarrels were f )men^,d by Per- 
fian gold, of which they had acquired enough to make them defirous of 
more. Hence proceeded the famous Peloponnefian war, in which 
the Athenians and Lacedemonians tdtcd as principals, and drew *^'* 
after them the other ftates of Greece. They continued to weaken them- 
felves by thefe intelline divifions, till Philip, king of Macedon, a coun- 
try till his time little known, but which, by the aftive and crafty genius 
of this prince, became important and powerful, rendered himfelf the 
abfolute mailer of Greece, by the battle of Cherona:a. But this 
conquell is one of the firft we meet in hiftory, which did not de- 338. 
pena on the event of a battle. Philip had laid his fchemes fo deep, 
and by bribery, promifrs and intrigues, gained over fuch a number of 
confiderable perfons in the feveral ftates of Greece to his intereft, that 
another day would have put in his pofTeflion what Cheronjea had denied 
him. The Greeks had loll that virtue, which was the bafis of their 
confederacy. Their popular governments fervcd only to give a. fanc- 
tion to their licentioufnefs and corruption. The principal orators, in 
moft of their ftates, were bribed into the fervicc of Philip ; and all the 
eloquence of a Demofthenes, afllfted by truth and virtue, was unequal to 
the mean, but more feduftive arts of his opponents, who, by flattering 
the people, ufed the fureft method of winning their afFedlions. 

Philip had propofed to extend the boundaries of his empire; beyond the 
narrow limits of Greece. But he did not long furvive the battle of Che- 
rona;a. Upon his deceafe, his fon Alexander was chofen general againft 
the Perfians, by all the Grecian ftates, except the Athenians and The- 
bans. Thefe msde a feeble effort for expiring liberty. But they were 
obliged to yield to fuperior force. Cecure on the fide of Greece, 
Alexander fet out on his Perfian expedition, at the head of thirty 
thoufand foot, and five thoufand horfe. The fuccefs of this army in 
conquering the whole force of Darius, in three pitched battles, in over- 
running and fubduing not only the countries then known to the Greeks, 
but ipany parts of India, the very names of which had never reached an 
European ear, has been defcribed by many authors both ancient and mo- 
dern, and conftitutes a fingular part of the hiftory of the world. Soon 
after this rapid career of vidlory and fuccefs, Alexander died at 
Babylon. His captains, after facrificing all his family to their ^^3* 
ambition, divided among them his dominions. This gives rife to a nam- ' 
her of a:ras and p/ents, too complicated for our prefent purpofe, and 
even too uninterefting. After confidering therefore the ftate of arts and 
fciences in Greece, we ftiall pafs over to the Roman affairs, where the 
hiftorical deduftion is more fimple, and alfo more important. 

The bare names of illuftrious men, who flourilhetl in Greece, from 
the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander, would fill a large volume. 
During this period all the arts were carried to the highcft pitch of per- 
fection ; and the improvements we have hitherto mentioned, were but 
the dawning of this glorious day. Though the eaftern nations had raifsd 
magoi^cenc and ftupendous llru^ures, the Greek:! were the iirft people 

c in 



330. 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 




¥11 } 



in the world, wlio in their works of architetlure, added beauty to mat)', 
nificcncc, and elegance to grandeur. The temples of Jupiter Olympus 
and the Ephcri.in Diana, are the firft monuments of good tailc. They 
were erefted bv the Circciiin colonic?, w'.o fettled inAfia Mirrr, beff ,e the 
reign of Cyrus. Phidias the Athenian, is the firll fculptor, whofc 
^■^ ■ worlis have been immortal. Zeuxi'. Parrhafius and I'imanthcus 
during the fame as'C, firil difcovercd the power of the pencil, and all 
the magic of painting. Compofition, in all its various br.:nches, reach- 
ed a degree of pcrfci^ion in the Greek language, of which a modcra 
reader can hardly form an idea. After Homer, the tragic poets ^Efchy- 
hi5, Sophocle-' and Eurijiides, weie the firil confiderabie improvers uf 
poetry. Herodotus gave fimplicity and elegance to profaic writing. Ifo- 
crates gave it cadence and harmony, but it was left to Thucydides and 
Demoflhenes, to difcover the full force of the Greek tongue. It was net 
however in the finer arts alone that the Greeks excelled. Every fpecie? 
of philofophy was cultiv.-ited among them with the utmoll fuccefs. Not 
to mention the divine Socrates, whofe charader has had the honour to 
be compared with that of the great founder of our religion ; his tliree 
difciples Plato, Ariftotle, and Xenophon, may for Itrength of reafoning, 
juilnefs of feutiment, and propriety of exprellion, be put on a footing 
with the writers of any age or country. Experience, indeed, in a hmg 
courfe of years, has ta'ight us many fecrets in nature, with which thel'e 
philofophers we.c unacqv.ainted, and which no Itrcngth of genius could 
divine. But whatever f )me vain empirics in learning may pretend, the 
moft learned and ingenious men, both in France and England, have 
acknowledged the fuperiority of the Greek philofophers, and hav>i reckon- 
ed themfelves happy in catching their turn of thinking, and manner cf 
expreffion. But the Greeks were not leis dilHnguilhed k.. '...cir atSlive 
than for their fpeculative talents. It would be endlcfs to recount the 
names of their famous llatcfmen and warriors, and it is impolliblc to 
mention a few without doing injuilice to a greater number. War was fiill 
reduced into an art by the Greeks. Their foldicrs fought from aa 
afFeftion to their country, and an ardor for glory, and not from a dread 
of their fuperiors. We have feon the cffetl of tins military virtue in 
their wars againft the Perfians : the caufe of it was the wife laws 
which Amphidioi^, Solon, and I>ycurgus, had eltablilhed in Greece. 

But we mull now leave this nation, whofe hiilory, both civil and phi- 
lofpphical, is as important, as their territory was inconfidcrablc, and turn 
our attention to the Roman afialrs, which are Hill more interefiinc, 
both on their own account, and tVom the relation in which they Hand to 
thofe of modern Europe. The chararter of Romulu:, the founder 
of the Roman ftate, when we view him as the leader of a few hiw- 
lefs and wandering banditti, is an objeft of extreme infignificance. But 
when we confider him as the founder of an empire as extenfive as tlie 
world, and whofe progrefs and decline have occafion«d tlie two o-reatcil 
revolutions, that ever happened in Eurcpe, we cannot help being inte- 
refted in his condud. His difpofition was extremely martial ; and the 
political ftate of Italy, divided into a number of fmall, but indcpendant 
dillrids, a^i''orded a noble field for the difplay of military talents. Ro- 
mulus was continually cm broiled v.'ith one or other of jiis neighbours, 
and v»ar was the only employment by which he and his companions ex- 
pelled not only to aggrandize themfelves, but even to fubiiil;. In the 
condutl of his wars with the neighbouring people, we may obfervc the 

i i'uiwi 



beauty to maw. 
upitcr Olympus 
jod tiulc. They 
k'liiTi-, bet' /e the 
: fculptor, whofe 
iiul Timanthcur, 
s pencil, and all 
br.'.nches, reach- 
which a modcra 
pic poets iEfchy- 
ibie improvers of 
faic writing. Ko- 
5 Thucydides and 
in^ue. It was not 
•d. Every fpecies 
noH fuccefs. Not 
vdd the honour to 
sligion ; his three 
ngth of reafoning, 
put on a footing 
indeed, in a long 
, with which thelc 
th of genius could 
r may pretend, the 
nd Enj;l?nd, h:ive 
s, and hav^ rcckon- 
na, ;ui(l manner of 
jed f(.. '. .cir adive 
lefs to recount the 
it is impolliblc to 
nber. War was firll 
.rs fought from an 
J not from a dread 
military virtue in 
was the wife la-,\s 
liflicd in Greece, 
both civil and phl- 
fidciablc, and turn 
more intereftin;', 
'hich they (land to 
lulu:, the founder 
;ader of a few law- 
nfignificance. But 
[as extenfive as tlie 
i«d the two greateit 
it help being inte- 
martial ; and the 
J but independant 
litary talents. Ro- 
of his neighbours, 
his companions cx- 
to fubfiit. In the 
e may obferve the 
fame 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV 



fiime maxlrr.s by which the Romans afterwards became the maflcrs of the 
world. Inflcad of deftroying the nations he had fubjerted, he united 
them to the Roman ftatc, v.hcrcby Rome acquired a new acceflion of 
ftreagth from every war Ihe undertool:, and became powerful and popu- 
lous from that very circumftnnce which ruins and depopulates other king- 
doms. If the enemies, with which be cmtenJcJ, had, by means of the 
art or arms they employed, any confidcruble advantage, Romulus im- 
mediately adopted that praftice, or the ufc of that v/cnpon, and 
improved the military fyllcm of the Romans, by the united experience of 
all their enemies. We have an example of both thcfe maxims, by means 
of which the Roman ftate arrived at Inch a pitch of grandeur, in the war 
with the Sabines. R.omulus having conquered that nation, not only 
united them to the Romans, but finding their buckler preferable to the 
Roman, inllantly threw afide the btter, and mr.de ule of the Sabine 
buckler in fighting againd other flates. Romulus, though principally 
attached to war, did not altogether neg' .-ft the civil policy of his infant 
kingdom. He inftituted what was called the S'.'nate, a court originally 
compofed of a hundred perfons, diflinguiflied for their wifdom and ex- 
pcrieacc. He enafted laws for the adminiftration of juftice, and for 
briJling the fierce and unruly pafiions of his fdlov.'crs : and after a long 
rei^Mi fpent in promotirg the civil or military interells of his country, 
\va?, according to the belt conjecture, treacheroufiy put to death by 
the members of that fenate, which he himfclf had inlHtuted. 

The fucceflbrs of Romulus were .iU very extraordinary per{^:)nages. 
Numa, who came next to him, cflabl'flied the religious ceremonies of the 
Romans, and infpired them with tlir.t veneration for an oath, which was 
ever after the foul of their m.ilitary difcipline. Tullus Hofriiius, Ancus 
Martius, Tarquinius Prifcus, Servius Tullius, laboured each during his 
reign, for the grandeur of Rome, tut Tarquinius Sapeibus, the feventh 
nnd laft king, having obtained the crown by the execrable murder of 
his father-in-law Servius, continrcd to fupport it by the m."fl cruel and 
infamous tyranny. This, together with the infolcncc of hij Ton Sex- 
tiis Tarquiiiius, who, by diflionouring Lucretia, a Roman lady, aftrcnt- 
cd the whole nation, occafioned the expuhion of the Tarquin fa- 
mily, and with it the diflblution of the reg.d government. As the 
Romans however were continually engaged in war, they found it neccf- 
fary to have fome officer invelled with funrcme authority, who mioKt 
conduft them to the field, and regulate the r military enterpfize- in 
the room of the kings therefore they .ippointed two annual mag;'..aies 
tailed Conful?, who, v/ithout creating the fame jcdoufy, fucceeded to 
all the power of their fovereigns. This revolution was extremely fa- 
Ivourable to the Roman gnmdcur. The conibls, who enjoyed but a tem- 
Iporary power, were defirous of fignaiizing their rc-ign by fome great ac- 
tion : each vied with thofe who had gone before him, and the Romans 
were daily led out againll fome new enemy. When we add to this, that 

the people, naturally warlike, were infpired to deeds of valour by every 
[confideration which could excite them : that the citizens of Rome were 

ill foldiers, and fought for their lands, their children, and their liber- 

lie.s, we need not be furprized, that they fhould, in the courfe of , 

fome centuries, extend their power all over Italy. 
The Romans, now fecure at home, and finding no enemy to contend 

vith, turn their eyes abroad, and meet with a powerful rival in the Car- 

c 2 thaginians. 



XXXVi 



INTRODUCTION. 



,t 



^ i 



l.u 







260. 



thaginians. This ftate had been founded on the coaft of the Mediterra- 
nean in Africa, fome time hffore Rome, by a colony of Phenicians, 
and, accordinc; to the pr.idicc of their motiier country, they had culti- 
vated commerce and naval grcatnefs. 

Carthage, in this dcfign, had proved wonderfully fuccefsful. She 
now commandid both fides of the Mediterranean. Befides that of A- 
frica, which ftie almoU entirely poflefl'ed, fhe had extended herfelf on 
the Spanifh fide, through the llreights. 'Ihus miftrefs of the fea, and 
of commerce, flie had fei'/.cd on the iflands of Corfica and Sardinia. 
Sicily had difficulty to defend itfelf; and the Romans were too nearly 
264. ^^reatened not to take up arms. Hence a fucceflion of holtilities 

between thefe rival Hates, known in hiftory by the name of Pu- 
nic wars, in wliich the Carthaginians, with all their wealth and power, 
were an unequal match for the Romans. Carthage was a powerful 
republic, when Rome was a truckling ftate ; but ftie was now become 
corrupt and effeminate, while Rome was in the vigour of her political 
conftitution. Carthage employed mercenaries to carry on her wars; 
Rome, as we have afready mentioned, was compofed of foldiers. The 
firft war with Carthage taught the Remans the art of fighting on the fea, 
with which they had been hitherto unacquainted. A Carthaginian vefiel 
was wrecked on their coaft; they ufed it for a model, in three months 

fitted out a fleet, and the conful Duilius, who fought their firft 

naval battle, was vidortous. It is not to our purpoie to ention 
all the tranfiidlions of thefe wars. The behaviour of Reguli ^ Ro 

man general, may give us an idea of the fpirit which then an* ^u this 

people. Being taken prifoner in Africa, he is fent back on his parole 
to negotiate a change of prifoners. He maintains in the fenate, the 
propriety of that law, which cut off from thofe who fuifered themfelves to 

be taken, all hopes of being faved, and returns to a certain death. 
Neither was Carthage, though cojrupied, deficient in great 
men. Of all the enemies, the Romans ever had to contend with, 
Hannibal the Carthaginian, was the moft inflexible and dangerous. His 
father Hamilcar had imbibed an extreme hatred agalnft the Romans, 
and having fettled the inteftinc troubles of his country, he took an early 
opportunity to infpirc his fon, though but nine years old, with his own 
fentiments. For this purpofe he ordered a folemn facrifice to be offered 
to Jupiter, and leading his fon to the altar, aflced him whether he was 
willing to attend him in his expedition agalnft the Romans ; the courage- 
ous boy, not only confented to go, but conjured his father by the gods 
prefent, to form him to vidory, and teach him the art of conquering. 
That I will joyfully do, replied Hamilcar, and with all the care of a 
father who loves you, if you will fwear upon the altars, to be an eternal 
enemy to the Romans. Hannibal readily complied, and the folemnity 
of tht ceremony, and the facrednefs of the oath, made fuch an imprcf- 

fion upon his mind, as nothing afterwards could ever efface. 

' Being appointed general at twenty-five years of age, he crofles 

the Ebro, the Pyrenees, and the Alps, and in a moment falls down 

upon Italy. The lofs of four battles threaten the fall of Rome. 

Sicily fides with the conqueror. Hieronymus, king of Syracufc, 

declares againft the RoiUans, and aVjoft all Italy abandons 
them. In this extremity Rome owed its prefer'^'ation to three greav 
men. Fabius Maximus, defpifing popular clamuur, and the mili- 
tary 



212. 



r N T R O i:) U C T I O N. 



XXXVll 



tary ardour of his countrymen, dfclines coming to an engagement. The 
fircngth of Rome has time to recover. Maixellus raifes the iiege of 
Nola, taVes Syracuff, and revives the drooping fpirits of his troops. The 
Romans admired tiie characiter of thefc vreat men, hut faw foniething 
more divine in tlic young Scipio. The nicccfs of this young hero con- 
firmed tlie popular opinion, that he was of divine cxtradion, and held 
converfc with the gods. At the age of four and twenty, he flies ^ 
into Spain, where both his f.itiicr and uncle jiad loft their livesv at- 
tacks New Carthage, and carries it at the firft afiault. Upon his arrival 
in Africa, kings fubmit to him, Carthage trembles in her turn, and fees 
her armies defeated. Hannibal, fixtccn years vit!\orious is in vain called 
home to defend his country. Carthage is rendered tributary, gives 
hoftages, and engages never to enter upon a war, but with the con- 
fent of the Roman people. After the conqueft of Carthage, Rome had 
inconfiderable wars but great vidories ; before this time its wars were 
great, and its vidlorios incoiifulerable. At this time the world was di- 
vided, as it were, into two p;irts ; in the one fought tlie Romans and 
Carthaginians; the other w.-is .igitatod by thofe ijuarrels which had lafted 
fince the death of Alexander the Great. Their icene of adlion whs 
Greece, Egypt, and the Eall. The ftatcs of Greece had once more dif- 
engaged them felves from a foreign yoke. ^ hey were divided into three 
confederacies, the Etolians, Ac'icans, and iJcoti.ins; e.ich of thcfc was 
an aflbciation of free cities, which had afiemblics and magiftrates io com- 
mon. Of them all the Etolians were the moll confidcrable. The kings 
of Macedon maintained that fuperiority, which, in ancient times, when 
the balance of power was little attended to, a great prince naturally ■ 
pofTefTed over his lefs powerful neighbours. Philip, the prefent monaich, 
had rendered himfelf odious to the Greeks, by fome unpopular and ty- 
rannical fteps ; the Etolians were mart: irritated ; and hearing the fame 
of the Roman arms, called them into Greece, and overcame Philip by 
their afllftance. The victory however chiefly redounded to the advantage 
of the Romans. The Macedonian garrifons were obliged to evacuate 
Greece; the cities were all decl;ired free ; but Philip became a tributary 
to the Romans, and the ftatcs of Greece became tlieir dependants. The 
F.to'i .ns, difcovering their firll error, endeavoured to remedy it by ano- 
ther ftill more dangerous to thenifelvcs, and more advantageous to the 
Romans. As they had called the Romans into Greece to defend them 
againft Philip, they now called in Antiochus, king of Syria^ to defend 
them againft the Romans. The famous Hannibal too had recourfe to the 
fame prince, and who was at this time the moll powerful monarch in the 
eaft, and the fucceflbr to the dominions of Alexander in Afia. But 
Antiochus did not follow his advice (o much, as that of the Etolians ; for 
inftead of renewing the war in Italy, where Hannibal, from experience, 
judged the Romans to be moll vulnerable, he landed in Greece with 
a fmall body of troops, and being overcome without difficulty, fled over 
into Afia. In this war the Romans made ufe of Philip, for conquering 
Antiochus, as they had before done of the Etolians for conquering Philip. 
They now purfue Antiochus, the laft objeifl of their refentment, into 
Afia, and having vanqiiilhed him by fea and land, compel him to g 
iubmit to an infamou;i treaty. In thefo conquerts the Romans ftill 
allowed the ancient inhabitants to poifels their rerritory; they did not 
even change the form of government; thL* conquered nations became 
the allies of the Roman people, which ho.vever, under a fpecious name, 

c 3 concealed 



rrr 



frt 



k 


.( 


,,i 


m 


■1 



rn 



\xxvm 



INTRODUCTION. 



1C5. 



121. 



102, 



concti'led the moil fcrvilc of all conditions, and inferred, that they 
llioulu fabniit to whatever was ivviuired of ihcm. When we reflcft 0.1 
thefe tafy conquclls, wc hive reaion to be ailonifhed at the refiftance 
whii h the Romans met with Irom a bai'oarous prince, Mithridates king 
of P'ntus. This monarch Iiowever had p;reat refources. His kingdom, 
bordering on the iuacceiubl.: mountain^ of Caacafus, abounded in a race 
of mcii, V hofe minds v\crc not enervated by pleafure, and whofe bodies 
were firm and vigorous. 

The ditT'jrent Itatf's of Gieece and Afia, who now began to feel the 
vvcie;!.t of their yoke, but had not fpirit to fliake it off, were tranfported 
at iinding a prince, who fl.rcd to diew himiclf an enemy to the Romans, 
r.n'.i cho.-.rtaily fubmitr^-d to his proiei^lion. Mithridates, however, was 
compelled to yield to the fjperior ftur of the Romans. Vanquifhed 
g faccelTively by J-^ylla and Lacullus, he was at length fubdued by 
Pompey, and fLiipiJed of his dominions and of his life. In Africa 
the Romiin arms met with tqii ;1 fuc:cfs. Mariiis, in conquering Ju- 
gurtha, made all feciue in that quarter. Even the barbarous na- 
tions beyond tl.e Alps, began to feel the weight of the Roman arms. 
T-allia Naiboncnfis had been reduced into a province. The Cimbri, Teu- 
tones, and other nortiiern nations of Europe, brc^ke into this part 
of the empire. The fame I^li.ius, v.'hofe name was fo terrible ia 
Africa, made tht; noith of Europe to tremble. The Barbarians re- 
tired to their wilds ar.d dcfcrtj, lefs formidable than the Roman le- 
gions. But vvliile Rome conqucrv:d the world, there fub filled an internal 
war within her walls. This wr.r had fubfilted from the firll periods of 
the p-nvcrnment. Rome, after the cxp>;liion of her kings, enjoyed but 
a nominal liberty. I'he defcendents of the ienators, who were diilin- 
guiflv.d by the name of Patricians, were invelled with fo many odious 
privilege.', th it tlie pc(/ple felt their uependance, and became determined 
to fhak? it off. A thoufand difputes on this fubje6l arofe betwixt the.n 
and the Patricians, which always .crminat^d in favour of liberty. 

Theie dilputc?, how>.vcr, while the Romans prelerved their virtue, 
were not attended with any dangerous confcquences. The Patricians, 
who loved their country, chearfuUy parted with fome of their privi- 
leges to faiisfy ti;e people ; and the p.'ople, on tiie other hand, though 
they obtained laws, by whieh tluy might be admitted to enjoy the firll 
Ciu.es v)f tr.e flate, and ihough they had the power of nomination, al- 
ways Lamed Patiiciam>. But v^I.lu the Romans, by the conquell cf 
fb/eign nation^, b.cair.e acquainted with all their luxuries and refine- 
men>.-. ; uhen they becariie taintca with the effeminacy and corruption of 
the eallern courts, and iported with e-zery thing juil and honourable, in 
order to obiaia them, the Hate, tern by the fa'^tions between its mem- 
ber-, .aid without virtue on either fide, to keep it together, became a 
prey to its own children. Hence the bloody feditiohs of the Gracchi, 
</hich paved the \\..y for an inextinguilhabic hatred between the nobles 
and commons, and made it ealy fur any tiu-bulent dcm.agogue, tJ put 
rhcm in action againii: each other. I'hc love of their country was now 
111) more than a fpecious name ; the better fort were too wealthy and 
citeminate to fubniit to the rigours of military difcipline, and the fcldicrs, 
compofed of the dregs of the republic, were no longer citizens. Tiiey 
knew none but their commander; unde.- his banner they fought and 
c.iujucred and plundereil, and lor him tliey were ready to die. He might 
vuiamaud them to embrue their iiaijds iu the blood of their country. 

TJiey 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXIX 



•ed, that they 
1 we reflcdt on 
the refinance 
ihrid cites king 
His kingdom, 
ndcd in a race 
i whofe bodies 

;an to feel the 
ere tranfported 

the Romans, 
however, waj 

Vanquifhed 

th fubdued by 

fe. In Africa 

onquering Ju- 

barbarous na- 

; Roman arms, 

Cinibri, Teu- 

into this part 

i fo terrible ia 

Barbarians re- 

the Roman Ic- 

led an internal 

lirll periods of 

>, enjoyed but 

lo were diilin- 

b many odious 

ne determined 

betwixt the,rt 

liberty. 

1 their virtue, 

The Patricians, 

:>f their privi- 

hand, though 

enjoy the firlt 

)minati()n, al- 

e conquell ct 

cs and rcfine- 

l corruption of 

lonourablc, in 

veen its mcni- 

icr, became a 

tlie Gracchi, 

ten the nobles 

TQguc, tJ put 

nuy was now 

wealthy and 

id the Ibldicr:;, 

i/.cns. Tt»ey 

ey fought and 

lie. He might 

their country. 

They 






They who knew no country but the camp, and no authority but that of 
their general, were ever rcariy to obey him. The multiplicity of the 
Roman conqueils, however, which required their keeping on foot foveral 
armies at the fame time, retarded the fubverfrin of the republic. There 
armies were fo many checks upon each other. Had it not been for the 
folc'iers of Sylla, Rome would have furren .'red its liberty to the army 
of Marius. Julius Ca;far at length appears. By fu'jdiiing the Gauh, r, 
he gained his country the moil ufcful conqueft it ever made. Pom- 
pey, Kis only rival, is overcome in the plains of Phar^alin. Cieirir , 
viftorious appears in a moment all over the world, in Ec,vpt, in 
Afia, in Mauritania, in Spain, in Gaul, and in Britain ; con- 
queror on all fides, he is acknovvlcdged maftcr at Rome, and in tlie 
whole empire. Brutus and Callius think to give Rome l.er liberty, 
by llabbing him in the fenate houfe. But they only fubjeft her to 
tyiauts, who, without his clemency or abilities, were not inferior in am- 
bition. The republic falls into the hands of Mark Anthony ; young 
C:tfar 0£t?.vianus, nc-phew to Julius Caifar, pulls it from him by 
the fea fight at AAium ; there is no Brutus nor CafTius, o put 
»n end to his life. The friends of liberty have killed themlelves in de- 
fpair, and O :lavius, under the name of Auguilus, and title of emperor, 
remains the uiidiiturbedmafter of the empire. During thefe civil conunc- 
t'ons, the Romans dill preferved the glory of their arms among diftant na- 
tions, and while it was unknown who fliould be mafter at Rome, the Ro- 
iTi-ins were r.ithout difpiite the maiters of the world; their inilitarv difci- 
plme auU valcurabolilhed all the remains of the Carthaginian, tliei^crfian, 
tilt ((Ti^.k, the A.Tvrian, and Macedonian glory, and they were now 
only r. ii^m". No ' ioner therefore was Oitavius cUablilhed on the throne, 
than crnbaliadrrs from all ciuartcrs of the globe, crowd to make their fub- 
miifionv. yEthi^pia fues fc\ peace, the Parthians. who hod been a 
mo;':: formidable enemy, court his fricndihip, tiie Indies feck his ^^• 
alliance, P.<.nnonia acknowledges him, Germa iy dreals him, and ^[ 
the Wefer receives his laivs. Viilorious by Tea and land, he Ihuts 
the temple of Janus. The v/hole earth lives in pea.e under his power, 
and Jefus Chrilt comes into the world. 

Having thus traced the prcgreis of the Roman government, while i: 
remained a republic, our plan obliges us to lav a fev.- v/ords with regard 
to the arts, fciences,. and manners of that people. During the firlt 
ages of the republic, the Romans lived in a total neglecl, or rather con- 
tempt of all the elegant improvements of life. W,t-. politicks, and agrl- 
cuhure were the only art;, they ItMJii'd, hecaufe th', y were the only arts 
they eileemed. But upon the downfall of Cart'-ag", the Romans, hav- 
ii.g no cr.emy to dread from abroad, begnn to taite the iwi^^is uf fecurity, 
aiui to Cultivate the arts. Their progrels however was not gradual as 
in the other countries we have defcribeJ. The conquelt of Greece at 
once put them in polL'ilion of every thing molt rare, .curious, or ele- 
gant. Afia, which was the next victim, olfcred ail its llores, and the 
Romans, from the moil hinple people, fpet;djly bci.ime acquainted wirh 
the arts, the luxuries, ami refinements of the whole earth, liloquencc 
they had always cultivated as the high road to eminence and prefer- 
ment. The orations of Cicero are only inRilur to thofe of Demollhenes, 
v/hich, according to ;'ll our ideas, arc perffd produdions. In poetry 
Virgil yields only to Komcr, whc;fe " erfc, like the profu vi ]i)c;m)ilhenes, 
is perfect and inimitable. Horace however, in his fatires and cpiilleK, 
had iiu model •lucne the Greeks, and itandii iv tiiis day uniiv idled 

c 4 ' i» 



! *1 



%l 



INTRODUCTION. 



m 



JM >' 



.p^ 



\: it 



in that fpecics of writing. In hillory the Romans can boaft of Livy, 
who poffeiTes all the natural eafe of Herodotus, and is more defcrip- 
tive, more eloquent, and fentimental. Tacitus indeed did not flou- 
ri{h in the Auguftan ige, but his works do himfelf the greateft 
honour, while they difgrace his country ar.d human nature, whofe 
corruption and vices he paints in the moft ftriking colours. In phi- 
lofophy, if we except the works of Ciceio, and the fyftem of the 
Greek philofopher Epicurus, defcribed in the nervous poetry of Lucre- 
tius; the Romans, during the time of the republic, made not the leaft 
rtttempt. In tragedy, they never produced any thing excellent ; and 
Terence, though remarkable for purity of ftyle, wants that comica vis, 
or lively vein of humour, which diftinguilhed the Greek comedians, and 
which diftinguifhes our Sliakefpeare. 

We now return to our hillory, and are arrived at an xra, which 
prefents us with a fet of monfters, under the name of emperors, whofe 
hiftories, a few excepted, difgrace human nature. They did not indeed 
abolifli the forms of the Roman republic, though they extinguifhed its 
liberties, and while they were praftifing the moft unwarrantable cruelties 
upon their fubjefts, they themfelves were theflaves of their fold iers. They 
made the, world to tremble, while they in their turn trembled at the army. 
Rome, from the time of Auguftus, became the moft defpotic empire 
that ever fubfifted in Europe. To form an idea of their government, 
we need-only recal to our mind the fituation of Turkey at prefent. It is 
of no importance therefore to confider the charader of the emperors, 
fjnce tiiey had no power but what arofe from a mercenary ftanding army, 
nor to enter into a detail with regard to the tranfaftions of the court, 
which were direfted by that caprice, and cruelty and corruption, which 
univerfally prevail under a defpotic government. When it is faid that the 
Roman republic conquered the world,it is only meant of the civilized part 
of it, chiefly in Greece, Carthage, and Afia. A more diriicult tafk ftill 
remained, for the emperors to fubdue the barbarous nations of Europe ; 
the Germans, ''.e Gauls, the Britons, and even the remote corner of 
Scotland ; foi- .hough thefe countries had been difcovered, they were not 
cfFedlually fubdued by the Roman generals. Thefe nations, though rude 
and ignorant, were brave and independent. It was rather from the fu- 
periority of their difcipline than of their courage, that the Romans 
gained any advantage over them. The Roman wars, with the Germans, 
are defcribed by Tacitus, and from his accounts, though a Roman, it 
is eafy to difcover with what bravery they fought, and with what rt- 
luflance they fubmitted to a foreign yoke. From the obftinate refiftance 
of the Germans, we may judge of the difficulties the Romans met with 
in fubduing the other nations of Europe. The contefts were on both 
fides bloody ; the countries of Europe were fucceflively laid wafte, tlie 
inhabitants periftied in the field, many were carried into slavery, and but 
a feeble remnant fubmitted to the Roman power. This fituation of aftairs 
was extremely unfavourable to the happinefs of mankind. The barba- 
rous nations, indeed, from their intercourfe with the Romans, acquired 
fome tafte for the arts, fciences, language, and manners, of their new 
mafters. Thefe however were but miferable confolations for the lofs of 
liberty, for being deprived of the ufe of their arms, for being overawed 
by mercenary foldiers kept in pay to rcftrain them, and for being deli- 
vered over to rapacious governors, who plundered them without mercy. The 
only circumftance which could fupport them under thef; complicated 
calamities, was the hope of feeing better dayi. 

The 



INTRODUCTION. 



Kli 



The Roman empire, now ftretched out to fuch an extent, had loft it$ 
fpring and force. It contained within itfelf the feeds of diflblution ; and 
the violent irruption of the Goths and Vandals, and other Barbarians, 
haftened its deftrudlion. Thefe fierce tribes, whp came to take vengeance 
on the empire, either inhabited the various provinces of Germany, which 
had never been fubdued by the Romans, or were fcattereu over the vaft 
countries of the north of Europe, and north-weft of Afia, which are now 
inhabited by the Danes, the Swedes, the Poles, the fubjefts of the Ruffian 
empire, and the Tartars. They were drawn from their native country, 
by that reftlefsnefs which actuates the minds of Barbarians, and makes 
them rove from home in queft of plunder, or new fettlements. The firft 
invaders met with a powerful refiftance from the fuperior difcipline of the 
Roman legions ; but this, inltead of daunting men oi a ftrong and im- 
petuous temper, only roufed them to vengeance. They return to their 
companions, acquaint them with the unknown conveniencies and luxuries 
that abounded in countries better cultivated, or blefled with a milder cli- 
mate than their own ; they acquaint them with the battles they hadfought„ 
of the friends thev had loft, and warm them with refentment againft 
their opponents. Great bodies of armed men, fays an elegant hiftorim, 
in defcribing this fcene of defolation, with their wives and children, and 
Haves and flocks, iflued forth, like regular colonies, in queft of new fet- 
tlements. New adventurers followed mem. The lands which they de- 
ferted were occupied by more remote tribes of Barbarians. Thefe, in their 
turn, pufhed forward into more fertile countries, ai\d like a torrent con- 
tinually increafing, rolled on, and fwept every thing before them. Where- 
ever the Barbarians marched, their rout was marked with blood. They 
ravaged or deftroyed all around them. They made no diiUnftion between 
what was facred, and what was profane. They refpefted no age, or fex, or 
rank. If a man was called to fix upon the period, in the hillory of the 
world, during which, the condition of the humi race was moll calami- 
tous and afflided, he would, withc-'it hefttation, luiiae ihat which eiapied 
from the death of Theodoflus the Great, A. D. 395, to tlie c ' ibliflanent 
of the Lombards in Italy, A. D. 571. The contemporary .luthors, who 
beheld that fcene of defolation, labour, and are at a lofs for ex^ lelfions 
to defcribe the horror of it. The jcourg,: of God, the dejiroyer of nations, 
are the dreadful epithets by which they diftinguifti the moit noted of the 
barbarous leaders. 

Conftantine, who was emperor about the beginning of the fourth 
century, and who had embraced Chrillianity, changed the leat of em- 
pire from Rome to Conllantinople. This occafioned a prodigious alter- 
ation. The weftcrn and eailcrn provinces were feparated from each other, 
and governed by different fovereigns. The withdrawing the Roman 
legions from the Rhine ami tlie Danube to the eaft, threw down the 
wcftern barriers of the empire, and laid it open to the invaders. 

Rome (now known by the name of the Wcftern Empire, in contradi- 
ftinclion to Conllantinople, which from its fituation, was palled the Eaftern 
Empire) weakened by this diviiion, becomes a prey to the barbarous na- 
tions. Its antient glory, vainly deemed immortal, is effaced, and A- 
(loaces, a Barbarian chieftain, fits down on the throne of the Ciefars. 
Thefe irruptions into the empire, were gradual and fucceflive. The 
immenfe fabric of the Roman empire was the work of many ages, and 
leveral centuries were employed in demoliftiing it. The antient dif- 
cipline of the Romans, in military affairs, was fo efficacious, that the re- 
mains of it defcended to their fucteHbrs, and muft have proved an over- 
2 match 



xlii 



INTRODUCTION. 



■I*" 



i'l - i' 



r-ift 



'H 1 



i ^i 



■^ f 



match for all their enemies, had it not been for the vices of their em- 
perors, and the univerfal corruption of manners among the people. Sa- 
tiated with the luxuries of the known world, .the emperors were at a lofs 
to find new provocatives. The molt dillant regions were explored, the 
ingenuity of mankind was exerclfcd, and the tribute of provinces ex- 
pended upon one favourite di(h. 1 he tyranny, and the univerfal depra- 
vation of manners that prevailed under the einperors, or as they are 
called Ccefars, could only be equalled by the barbarity of thofc nations, 
who overcame them. 

Towards the clofe of the fixth century, the Saxons, a German nation, 
were malters of the fouthern, and more fertile provinces of Britain; the 
Frank-, anoihor tribe ot Ciermans, of Gaul ; the Goths, of tipain ; the 
Goths and Lombards, of Italy, and the adjactnt provinces. Scarce any 
veftige of the Roman policy, jurifprudcnce, arts or literature remained. 
New forms of governnieiit, new laws, new manners, new drelTes, new 
languages, and new names of men and countries, were every where in- 
troduced. 

From this ^ :r^od till the fixteenth century, Europe exhibited a pidurc 
of moll melancholy Ciothic barbarity. Liteiature, fcience, talle wtre 
words fcarce in ufe during thefe ages. Perfons of the higlicll rank, and 
in the moll eminent flations, could not read or write. Many of the 
clergy did not underlland the breviary which they were obliged daily to 
recite ; feme of them could fcarce read it. The human mind neglefte.', 
nncultivatcd, and deprofled, funk into the moft profound ignorance. The 
fuperior genius of Charlemagne, who, about the beginning of the ninth 
centarv, jroverncd France, Germany, with part of Italy; and Alfred the 
Great in England, endeavoured to difpel this darknefs, and gave tlieir 
fubjedls a Ihort glimpfe of light. But the ignorance of the age was too 
powerful for their ttlbrts and inftitutions. The darknefs returned, and 
lettled over Europe more thick and heavy thsn formerly. 

A new divifion of property gradually introduced a new Ipecios of 
government formerly unknown ; which fii;gular inllitution is now dillin- 
j^uillied by the name of the feudal fyilem. The king or general, who led 
the Barbarians to conqueft, parcelled cut the lands of the vanquifhed 
among his chief oflicers, binding thole on whom they were bellowed, 
to follow his llandard witii a number of men, and to bear arms in his 
defence. The chief ofiiccrs iinitatcd the example of the fovercign^ and 
in dillributing portions of thcM- lands among their dependants, annexed 
the fame condition to the grai :. But though this fylleni icemed to be 
admirably calculatid for defence againll a foreign enemy,, it degenerated 
into a fyltem of opprellion. 

The ufurpation of the nobles bccrime unbounded and ii-itolerablc. They 
reduced the great body of the people into a Hate of acuial fervitude. 
They were deprived of the natural and moll unalienable rights of ha- 
manity. They were flaves lixed to the foil, wliich they cultivated, and 
together with it were transferred from one proprietor to another, by file, 
or by conveyance. Every oHcnded baron, )r chieftain, buckled on his 
armour, and fought redrefs at the head of his vaflals. His advcrfary 
jr.ct him in like holliie array. The ki-.i.Ircd and depenilants of the 

grellbr, as well as of the defender, v.erc involved m . the quarrel. 



ae 



toi> 



They had not even the liberty of remaining neuter*. 



• Tlii' Gothic fyfiem ftill prevails in Poland ; and a remnant of it coatiiiueJ in tlm 
I-Ii^hblds of ScoUiind to late as the war J74S. iicii page 70— jSi^ 

7hc 



INTRODUCTION. 



xliii 



)f their cm- 
people. Sa- 
/ere at a lofs 
fcplorcd, the 
roviuccs cx- 
verfal liepra- 
as they are 
hofc nations, 

:rnian nation, 
Britain-, tlie 



f Spair. ; 



the 



Scarce any 

irc remained . 

tlreiles, new 

^■ry where in- 

)ited a pit^ure 
:e, taile were 
lelt rank, and 

Many of the 
jligcd daily to 
ind neglc£le;i, 
3;uorance. The 
[o- of the ninth 
and AliTcd the 
.nd gave their 
he age was too 

returned, and 

new fpecies of 
is now dillin- 
eral, who led 
c vanquithed 
/crc bellowed, 
ar arms in his 
bvereign, and 
nUii, annexed 
icemed to be 
it degenerated 

olerable. They 

uial ferviiude. 

rij;hts of ha- 

:i!ltivated, and 

other, by fale, 

budded on his 

His adverlaiy 

■:'ndants of ti^.t: 

the quarrel. 



[t cQiiliauei in t^ii 

The 



The monarchs of Europe perceived the encroachments of their nobles 
with impatience. They declared, that as all men were by nature free 
born, they determined it Ihould be fo in reality as well as in name. In 
order to create fom« power, that might counterbalance thofe potent vaf- 
fals, who, while they cnflaved the people, controuled or gave law to the 
crown, a plan was adopted of conferring new privileges on towns. Thefe 
privileges aboliflied all marks of fervitude, and formed them into corpo- 
rations, or bodies politic, to be governed by a council and magiftrates 
of their own nomination. 

The acquifition of liberty made fuch a happy change in the condition 
of mankind, as roufed them from that ftupidity ajid inaftion into which 
they had been funk by the wrctchednefs of their former ftate. A fpirit 
of induftry revived; commerce became an objeifi of attention, and began 
to flourifh. 

Various caufes contributed to revive this fpirit of commerce, and to 
renew the intercourfe between different nations. Conilantinoplc, the 
capital of the eaftern, or Greek empire, had efcaped the ravages of the 
Gotlis and Vandals, v/ho overthrew that of the welt. In this city, fome 
faint glimmerings of light, literature, and fcicnce were preferved : this 
too, for many ages, was the great emporium of trade, and where fome 
rclilh for the precious commodities and curious manufadurcs of India 
was preferved. They communicated fome knowledge of thefe to their 
neighbours in Italy ; and the crufades, which were begun by the Chriftian 
powers of Europe with a view to drive the Turks from Jerufalem, opened 
a communication between Europe and the Eaft. Conftantinople wa» 
the gen'-'ral place of rendezvous for the Chrillian armies, in their way 
to Paleiline or on their return from thence. Though the objeft of thefe 
expeditions was conqueft and not commerce, and though the iffiie of 
them proved unfortunate, their commercial effects were both beneficial 
and permanent. 

Soon after the clofe of the holy war, the mariners compafs was in- 
vented, which facilitated the communication between remote nations, 
and brought them nearer to each other. The Italian ftates, particularly 
thofe of Venice and Genoa, began to eftabliih a regular commerce with 
the EaR, and the ports of Egypt, and drew from thence all the rich pro- 
ductions of India. Thefe commodities they difpofed of to great advan- 
tage among the other nations of Europe, who began to acquire fome 
talle of elegance, unknown to their predeceffors, or defpifed by them. 
Daring the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the commerce of Europe 
was almoit in the hands of the Italians, more commonly known in thefe 
:i^es by the nam.e of Lombards. Companies or Ibcieties of Lombard 
merchants fct'Jcd in every different kingdom ; they became the carriers, 
the mauufaclurcrs, and the bankers of Europe. One of thefe compa- 
nies fettled in London; hence the name of Lombard Street. 

While the Italians in the fouth of Europe cultivated trade with fuch 
indullry and fuccefs, the commercial fpirit awakened in the North 
towards the middle of the thirteenth century. As the Danes, Swedes, 
and other nations around the Baltic, were at that time extremely barba- 
rous, and infeited that fea with their piracies, this obliged the cities of 
Lubec and Hamburgh, foon after they had began to open fome trade 
with tlie Italians, to enter into a league of mutual defence. They de- 
lived fuch advantages from this union, thnt othfr towns acceded to tlieir 
confederacy ; and, in a Ihcrt time, eighty of the r >oil confiderable 

««.. citiej, 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



^:' ' 



' i^-' 






SI- I 



cities, fcattered through thofe vaft countries of Germany and Flanders 
which rtretch from the bottom of the Baltic to Cologne on the Rhine, 
joined in an alliance, called the Hanfeatic League ; which became K) 
formidable, that its alliance was courted, and its enmity was dreaded by 
the greateft monarchs. The members of this powerful aflbciation formed 
the firft fyftematic plan of commerce known in the middle ages, and con- 
dufted it by common laws enafted in their general aflemblies. They 
fupplied the rcil of Europe with naval ftores : and pitched on different 
towns, the moll eminent of which was Bruges, in Flanders, where they 
eftabliflied ftaples, in which their commerce was regularly carried on. 
Thither the Lombards brought the produdlions of India, together with 
the manufaftures of Italy, and exchanged them for the more bulky, but 
not lefs ufeful commodities of the North. 

As Brii_^es became the center of communication between the Lombards 
and Hanfeatic merchants, the Flemings traded with both in that city to 
fuch extent as well as advantage, as fpirited among them a general habit 
of induftry, which long rendered Flanders and the adjacent provinces 
the moll opulent, the moll populous, and beft cultivated countries in 
Europe, 

Struck with the flourilhing ftate of thefe provinces; of which he dif- 
covered the true caufe, Edward III. of England, endeavoured to excite a 
fpirit of induftry among his own fubjefts, who, blind to the advantages 
of their fttuation, and ignorant of the fource from which opulence was 
deftined to flow into their country, totally neglefted commerce, and did 
pot even attempt thofe manufnftures, the materials of which they fur- 
niftied to foreigners. By alluring Flemilh artifans to fettle in his domi- 
nions, as well as by many wife laws for the encouragement and regula- 
tion of trade, he gave a beginning to the woollen manufnclures of Eng- 
land J and iirll turned the aiflive and enterprizing genius of his people 
towards thofe arts which have raifed the Englifli to the firft rank among 
commercial nations. 

The Chriilian princes, after their great lofles in the cnifade?, endea- 
voured to cultivate the friendfhip of the great khans of 1'artary, whofe 
fame in arms had reached the moft remote corners of Europe and Afia, 
that they might be fome check upon the Turks, who had been fuch ene- 
mies to the Chriilian name ; and who, from a contemptible handful of 
wanderers, ferving occafioually in the armies of contending princes, had 
begun to extend their ravages over the fineft countries of Afia. 

The Chriftian embaflies were managed chiefly by monks, a wandering 
profeflton of men, who, impelled by zeal, and undaunted by difficulties 
ajid danger, found their way to the remote courts of thefe infidels. The 
Englifli philofopher, Roger Bacon, was fo induftrious as to coUeft from 
their relations, or traditions, many particulars of the Tartars, which 
are to be found in Purchas's Pilgrims, and other books of travels. The 
firft regular traveller of the monkifti kind, who committed his difcoveries 
to writing, was John du Plant Carpin, who, with fome of his brethren, 
about the year 1 24.6, carried a letter from pope Innocent to the great 
khan of Tartary, in favour of the Chriftian fubjefts in that prince's ex- 
tenfive ciominions. Soon after this, a fpirit ot travelling into Tartary 
and India became general ; and it would be no difiicult matter to prove 
that many Europeans, about the end of the fourteenth century, fcrved in 
tlic arniiet of Tamerlane, one of the greateft princes of Tartary, whole 

contjuells 



INTRODUCTION. 



3cl\r 



conquers reached to the itioft remote corners of India ; and that they in- 
troduced into Europe the ufe of gunpowder and artillery ; the difcovery 
made by a German chymill being only partial and accidental. 

After the death of Tamerlane, who, jealous of the rifmg power of the 
Turks, had checked their progrefs, the Chriftian adventurers, upon 
their return, magnifying the vaft riches of the Eaft Indies, infpired tneir 
countrymen with a fpirit of adventure and difcovery, and were the firft 
that rendered a paflage thither by fea probable and praflicable. The 
Portuguefe had been always famous for their application to maritime 
affairs ; and to their difcovery of the Cape of Good-Hope, Great-Bri- 
tain is at this day indebted for her Indian commerce. 

At firft they contented themfelves with fliort voyages, creeping along 
the coafl of Africa, difcovering cape after cape ; but by making a gra- 
dual progrefs fouthward, they, in the year 1497, were fo fortunate as 
to fail beyond the Cape, which opened a paflage by fea to the caftern 
ocean, and all thofe countries known by the names of India, China, and 
Japan. 

While the Portuguefe were intent upon a pafTage to India by the 
eaft, Columbus, a native of Genoa, conceived a projeft of failing 
thither by the weft. His propofal being condemned by his countrymen, 
as chimerical and ablurd, he laid his fcheme fucceffively before the 
courts of France, England, and Portugal, where he had no better fuc- 
cefs. Such repeated difappointments wovrid have broken the fpirit of 
any man but Columbus. The expedition required expence, and he had 
nothing to defray it. Spain was now his only refource, and there, after 
eight years attendance, he fucceeded, through the intereft of queen 
Ifabella, who raifed money upon her jewels to defray the expences of his 
expedition, and to do honour to her fex. 

Columbus now fet fail, anno 1492, with a fleet of three fhips, upon 
the moft adventurous attempt ever undertaken by man, and in the fate 
of which the inhabitants of two worlds were interefted. 

In this voyage he had a thoufand difHcultics to contend with, and his 
failors, always difcontented, began to infift upon his return, threaten- 
ing, in cafe of refufal, to throw him overboard; but the firmnefs of the 
commander, and the difcovery of land, after a pafTage of thirty-three 
days, put an end to the commotion. From the appearance of the na- 
t'ves, he found, to his furprize, that this could not be the Indies he was in 
queft of, and which he foon difcovered to be a new world : of which the 
reader will find a more circumftantial account in tliat part of the follow- 
ing work which treats of America. 

Europe now bega.i to emerge out of that darknefs into which flie had 
been funk fmce the fubverfion of the Roman empire. Thefe difcovcries, 
from which fuch wealth was delllned to flow to the commercial nations 
of Europe, were fucceeded by others of unfpeakable benefit to mankind. 
The invention of printing, the revival of learning, arts, and fciences ; 
and, laftly, the happy reformation in religion, all diftinguilh the 15th 
and 1 6th century as the firft xra of modern hiftory. ** It was in thsfe 
ages that the powers of Europe were formed into one great political 
fyftem, in which each took a ftation, wherein it has fince remained, with 
lefs variation than could have been expeded, after the fhocks occafioned 
by fo many internal revolutions, and (o many foreign wars, of which 
we have given fom^ account in the hiftory of cnrh particular ftate in the 

following 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



following (heets. The great events which happened then have not 
hitlierto fpent their force. The political principles and maxims then 
cftablifhed, ftill continue to operate ; and the ideas concerning the ba- 
lance of power then introduced, or rendered general, ftill influence the 
councils of European nations." 

We fiiali now proceed to the main part of our work, beginning with 
Europe. 



Grand Divifions of EUROPE. 



|i ; :f1 






/■ir^HIS grand divifion of the earth is fituated benvcen the loth deg. wA 
X and the 65th degree eaft Ion. from London ; and between the 36th znl 
72d deg. of north lat. It is bounded on the nortli, by the Frozen Ocean ; oJ 
the eaft, by Afia; on the fouth, by the Mediterranean Sea, which divides i| 
from Africa; and on the weft, by the Atlantic Ocean, which feparates it rronl 
America : being 3000 miles long, and 2500 broad. It contains the followirf 
kingdoms and ftates. 



1 



Kingdoms. 1 Length. 



England 
Scotland 
Ireland 



360 
300 
185 



Breadth. LChicf City. Dift. & Bearing Diff. of Time 
: from London. 1 from London. 



300 
160 



Loiidoi 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 



Norway 
Denmark 



1000 
240 



300 
180 



Bergen 
Copenhagen 



Sweden 



800 



500 



Litockholm I 750 N. E, 



Ruflia 



ISOO 



Poland 



700 



I ICO 



680 



Warfaw 



K.ofPru. 
1 Domin. 



} 



Germany 



Bohemia 



Holland 



uncertain 



6ovO 



300 



ISO 



Flanders 



France 



Spain 



Portugal 



Switzerland 



200 



600 



:co 



3C0 



260 



590 



250 
100 



200 



500 



5C0 



100 



100 



Mile?. 

« * * 

400 N. 
270 N. W. 



H. M. 

m * * 

o 12 aft. 
o 26 aft. 



Religions. 



Lutherans 
Calvinif!s 
Luth. and P.ip. 



540 N. 
500 N. E. 



o 24 bef. 
o 50 bef. 



Lutherans 
Lutherans 



Peter(bur» i 1140 N. E. 



7bo E. 



Berlin 



540 E. 



Vienna | 6co E. 



Prague 



6ao E. 



Amfterdam iSo E. 



BruHcls 



Paris 



180 S.E 

S 



200 



E. 



Madrid 



DO S. 



I 


10 bef. 


2 


4 bef. 


I 


24 bef. 





59 I'ef- 


I 


5 bef. 


I 


4 bef. 





18 b=f. 





16 bef. 





9 bef. 


C 


17 aft. 



Ln therms 
Greek Churih 



Lifbon 



850 S. W. I o 33 aft. 



Pap. Luth. & CM 



Luth. & Calv. 



Pap, Luth &C.1 



Papifts 



Calvinlfts 



Papifts 



Papir 



Papifts 



Bern 



420 S. E. I o 28 1-cf. 



Papilts 



Calvin. & Painn 



I Several 7 l^ied™''nt, Montferrat, Milan, Parma,Modena,MatUua, Venice, Genoa, Tufcany,i3 
fmall ft.tes 5Tjrin, Cafal, Milan, Parma,MoJen,i, Mantua, Venice, Genoa, Florence. 

Popedom 



240 



Naples 




'Hungary 



280 



120 I Rome 



120 



Naples 



Danubia 
Provinces 
Lit. Tartary 
Greece 



an 2 
es 5 



300 



600 

400 



200 



420 

240 
740 



Buda 



I 



Conltan- 
tinople 
Caffa 
Athens 



820 S. E. i o 52 bef, [Papifis 



870 S. E. I 1 o bef. iPapift. 



7S0 S. E. I 1 17 bef, jPapifts 



1320 S. E, 

1500 E. 
1360 S. E. 



58 bef. 

24 bef. 
37 ^^f- 



Mahometans, 
with fome 
Jews an J 
Chriftians, 



^m 



n have not 
naxims then 
ning the ba- 
nfluence the 

jinniiig with 



• loth deg. \vfi!J 
en the 361)1 apj 
ozen Ocean ; oil 
which divides i| 
{eparates it fron 
ns the folio wind 



Religions, 



Lutherans 
CalviniHs 
Luth. and P:.p, 



Lutherans 
Lutherans 



ILvther.ms 
Greek ChufiF 
Fap. I.iith."&(~ I 

Lutb. & Calv. 

Pap. Luth &C. 



Papifts 



Calvin' fts 



Fapirts 



Pa pi us 



Papifts 



I'apilh 



Calvin. & Painn 



Genoa, Tufcany,i; 
Genoa, Florence. 



[Papifts 


iPapift. 


Papifts 


Mahometans, 
with fome 
Jews atiii 
Chriftiari!, 







t: 






^. 



'. lii 



».. 



« 



' *f 

! 





V 



'<y. J7./t: J>inn1tvi 





wtorkfictfn r, 
k3 Claud 1 






.1,' 



t ' 1 



EUROPE. 



DENMARK. 



I Shall, according to my phn, begin this account of his Danifli 
majefty's dominions with the moll northerly fituations, and divide 
them into four parts : ift. Eaft ard Weft Greenland, Iceland, and 
the iflands in the Atlantic Ocean ; zd. Denmark proper j 3d. Norway j 
and 4thi his German territories. 

The dimenfions of this country may be feen in the following table. 







Denmark. 


Square 
miles. 


r 
3 




Chief cities. 


3 Hi 
a. • 


Copei 












MS 






47 S 


r9. 
117 




Jutland, 


9,600 


Wyburg, 




' 




Slefwick, 


2,115 


70 


6^ 


Slefwick, 


274 


114 








Zealand 1. 


i>93S 


60 


60 


COPENHAGKN, 


2-^8 










Funen I. 


768 


^8 


^2 


Odenfee, 


437 


7^ 






2 


Falfter and 
Laland L 


1" 220 


27 


IZ 


Nikoping, 
Naxkaw, 


248 
247 


46 






P5 


Femeren L 


50 


M 


8 


Sorge, 


28s 


73 






:3 


Alfen L 


54 


IS 


6 


Sonderborge, 


260 


9S 






^ 


Mona L 


39 


14 


S 


Stege, 


490 


32 








Bornholm I. 


160 


20 


12 


Rottomby, 


265 


74 








Iceland I. 


46,000 


A-^'i 


i8S 


Skalholt, 


374 


1050 




> 




Norway, 


7Ij4oo 


7 SO 


170 


Bergen, 


205 


34S 








Wardhuys, 


28,400 


28s 


172 


Wardhuys, 


S47 


1000 




Wcftphalb 


t 


Oldenburg, 


1260 


62 


3^ 


Oldenburg, 


30s 


220 




Lower Saxc 


)ny, 


Strom nr, 
Total- 


1000 


52 


32 


Gluckftat, 


127 


15% 




163,001 





The reader may perceive, that in the above table no calculation it 
made of the dimenfions of Eaft and Weft Greenland ; becaufe, in fafl, 
they are not yet known, or known very imperfedly : we (hall, however* 
proceed to give the latcft accounts of them, and from the bell authorities 
that have come to our hande. 

B East 



ifi 



i DENMARK. 

East and West GREENLAND, ICELAND, and the 
ISLANDS IN THE Atlantic Ocean. 



* 



♦ ' m 



East GREENLAND, 



THE moll northerly part of his Danifli majcfty's dominions ; or, as 
others call it, New Greenland, and the country of Spitzbergen, 
lies between loand 1 1 dcg. E. Ion. and 76 and 80 di^g. N. lat. Though 
it is now claimed by Denmark, ic certainly was difcovered by Sir Hugh 
Willoughby, in I353 ; and is llippofed to be a continuation of Old 
Greenland. It obtained the name jf Spitzbergen, from the height and 
rawgednefs of its rocks. Tliere is a whale- ft fhcry, chiefly profccuted 
by the Dutch and fome Britiih vciTels, on its coafts. It likcwife contains 
swo harbours ; one called Soutli-Haven, and the ctlier Maurice-Bay ; 
but the inland parts are uninhabited. 

W E s T G R E E N L A N D, 

LIES between the meridian of London, and 50 deg. W. Ion. and 
between 60 and 73 deg. N. lat. 

Inhabitants.] By the lateil accounts from the milTionaries, employed 
for the converfion of the Greenlanders, their whole number does not 
amount to above 957 flated inhabitants : Mr. Crantz, however, thinks 
that the roving fouthlanders of Greenland may amount to about 7000. 
There is a great refenihlance between the afptd, manners, and drefs of 
thofe natives, and the Efquimaux Americans, from whom they naturally 
differ but little, eve.; after all the pain', v/iiich the Danilh and German 
milJIonaries have taken to convert and civili/.e them. They live in huts 
during their winter, wliich is incredibly fevere ; but Mr. Grant?:, who 
has given us the latelt and bell accounts of this country, fays, that in 
their longell fummer days it is fo hot that the inhabitants arc obliged to 
throw ofF their fummer garments. They have no trade, thougli they have 
a moll improvable iiflicry upon their coails ; but they employ all the year 
either in fifhing or liunting, in which they are very dextrous. 

Curiosities.] The taking ofwliales in the feas cf Grcenkind, among 
the fields of ice that liavc been incrcahng for ages, is one of the greateit 
curiofities in nature. 'I'hele fields, or pieces of ice, arc more than a 
mile in length frequently, and upwards of a hundred I'cct in tl'icknefs ; 
and when they arc put: in motion by a ftorm, nothing can be mere ter- 
rible ; the Dutch had thirteen (liipa crulhed to pieces by thcijj in one 
feafon. 

There are feveral kinds of whales in Greenland ; fome v/liite, and 
others black. One of the black fort, the grand bay whales, is in moll 
eileem, on accounc of his bulk, and the grc.t quantity of fat or blubber 
he afibrds, which turns to oil. His tongue is about eighteen feet long, 
inclofed in long pieces of v.'hat wc call whalebone, v/liich are covered 
with a kind of hair like horfe-hair ; and on each fide of his tongue a.e 
two hundred and fifty pieces of this v.'halcbone. As to tlie bones of his 
body,^ they are as hard as an ox's bones, and of no uk. Tlicre are no 
teeth in his mouth ; and he is ufualiy between 60 and 80 feet long ; very 
thick about the head, but grows Icis from thence to the tail. 

When the feamen fee a whale fpout, the word is immediately given, 
/-///, /all, when every one haikns iioui the iliip to his boat j fix or eight 

mca 



t 



DENMARK. 



s;D the 



; or, as 
izbergen. 

Though 
5ir Hugh 
1 of OU 
;ight anJ. 
irofccuted 
; contains 
:icc-Bay ; 



. Ion. and 

employed 
r does not 
cr, thinks 
30ut 7000. 
nd drefs of 
y naturally 
id German 
ive in huts 
■ant/., who 
vs, that in 
obliged to 
,1 they have 
\11 the year 

Ind, among 
\\<. preateil 
)re than a 
tlucknefs ; 
|e lucre tcr- 
koip in one 

Ivhite, and 
is in moil 
I or blubber 
feet long, 
Ire covered 
Itongue a.o 
]nc3 of his 
iiere are no 
]ong ; very 

tely giycn» 
lix or eight 



men being appointed to a boat, and four or five boats ufually belong to 

one (hip. 

When they come near the whale, the harpoonccr flrikes him with his 
harpoon (a barbed dart) and the monfter finding himfelf wounded, runs 
fwiftly down into the deep, and would carry the boat along with him, if 
they did not give him line faft enough ; and to prevent the wood of the 
boat taking fire by the violent rubbing of the rope on tjie fide of it, one 
wets it conllantly with a mop. After the whale has run fome hundred 
fathoms deep, he is forced to come up for air, when he makes fuch a 
terrible noifc with his fpoi.ting, that fome have compared it to the firing 
of cannon. So foon ash.' appears on the furfaccof the water, fome of 
the harpooneers fiK another liarpoon in him, whereupon he plunges agaiii 
into the deep ; and when he comes up a fccond time, they pierce him 
with {pears in the vital parts, till he fpouts up Ilreams of blood inllead of 
water, beating the waves with his tail and fins, till the fea is all in a 
foam, the boats continuing to |hllow him fome leagues, till he has loft 
his llrcngth ; and when he is dying, he turns himfelf upon his back, 
and is drawn on fliore, or to the faip if they be at a dillance from the 
land. There they cut him in pieces, and by boiling the blubber, extract 
the oil, if they have conveniencies on Ihore ; otherwife they barrel up 
the pieces, and bring them home ; but nothing can fmell tlronger thaa 
thefe Oiips do. Every nfli is computed to yield between fixty and a hun- 
dred barrels of oil, of tlic value of 3I. or 4I. a barrel. Though the 
Danes claim this country of Eaft Greenland, where thefe whales are 
taken, the Dutch have in a manner monopolized this filliery* 

ICELAND, 

LIES bctAvecn 63 and 68 dcg. N. lat. and between 10 and 26 dcg. 
W. Ion. from the meridian of London ; extending from call to 
well about 720 miles. 

Inhabitants.] The inhabitants are fuppofed to be about 80,000 ; 
tliOugh it is thouglit that they were formerly far more numerous, till the 
country v/as depopulated by the fmall-pox and peiliiential difeafes. 
They are lubject to the crown of Denm.ark, and conform to tlic religion 
.^nd laws of f.'orway. His DauiU'i majef!) names their governor, called 
Staffts-amptmaud; bat he appoints a deputy-governor, calledAmptmaud, 
wJio refic'C'. in Iceland, at tlie king's palace of Reflefted, on a falary of 
400 rixdollars ; and he has mngiihatcs under him, both in civil and 
fpiritua! cafes. The people are naturally hardy, honeil, and induftrious. 
They amufe themfelves with chefs and linging. In fome things they 
difier little from the Dar.es and >{orwegians ; though they have many 
culloms peculiar to themfl'lves. 

Trade.] The commerce of this ifland is monopolized by a Danifh 
company. Its exports confift of dried filh, faked mutton and lamb, 
beef, butter, tallow, train-oil, coarfe woollen cloth, ftockings, gloves;, 
raw wool, fliccp-flcin--, lamb-lkins, fox-furs of various colours, eider- 
down, an(' feathers. Thc'r imports confiil of timber, fifhing-lincs and 
hooks, 'o'acco, bread, horfe-flioes, brandy, wijjje, fait, linen, and a little 
filk ; c. .ifivc of fome neceflaries and fuperfluities for the more wealthy. 

S r p f . ' ^ H A N D R t V E N u E . ] As Iceland alFord s no bait for avarice 
or ambitioxi, tlie inhabitant:; depend entirely upon his Danifh majcfly's 
prctcftlonj av»i the revenue he dravvi from the country, amounts to 
about 30,000 crowns a year. 

B 3 Thb 



■III! 



DENMARK: 



The faro Islands. 

SO called from their lyinp; in a duller, and the inliabitants ferrying; 
from one iiland to anotlici-. They aic about twenty-four in number, 
and lie be':\veen 6i and 63 dcp;. W. Ion. from London. The fpace of 
this duller extends about 60 miles in lengtli, and 40 in breaddi, to the 
wellward of Norway ; having; Slictland and the Orkneys on the fouth- 
ealt, and Greenland and Iceland upon the north and north-well. I'hc 
trade and income of the inhabitants, who may be about 3000 or 400 3, 
add little or nothing to the revenues of Denmark. 



Ui 



DENMARK Proper. 

DENMARK Proper is divided into two pnrts ; Jutland, and the 
iflandb at the entrance of the Baltic lea : its iituation and extent 
are as follow. 



Eetwecn 



Between 




E. Lon. 



N. Lat. 



Bcin 



"• < 



240 miles in length. 



I So miles in breadth. 



It is divided on the noith from Norway by the Scaggerac fea, and from 
Sweden on the eaft by the Sound, on the fouth by Gcrnviny and the 
Ealtic; and the German fca divides it from Great-lJritain on the v/efl:. 

Provinces.] Jutland is the firll province, fubdivided into Alhurg, 
Wyburg, Aarhufen, Ryprn, and Slcfwick ; the chief towns of which 
arcAlburg, E. lon. 10, N. lat. 57 ; Wyburg, Aarhufen, Rypen, Slcf- 
wick, E. Inn. 9 45, N. lat. 54 45. The fecond province of Denmark 
is confidercd as its moll valuable lialf ; and contains the iflands which lie 
at the entrance of the Baltic. They confift of Zealand, Funen, Bornholm, 
Laland, Fabler, Mona, Fcmercn, and Alfcn. I'heir cliic-f towns are 
Copenhagen, E. lon. 13, N. lat. 55 30, Elfenore, Odcnfee, Rottom- 
by, Naxkaw, Nicoping, Stege, Borge, and Sonderborge. 

Mountains, fokests, lakes, 1 Jutland conufcs chiefly of barren 
RIVERS, CLIMATE, AND SOIL, j mountains, but fome corn grows 
5n the vallics. The face of the country prefents a number of large forefts ; 
but there is fcarcely in Denmark a river navigable to a fhip of burden. 
Some lakes, which contain delicious fifhcs, are found In the iuLmd parts 
of the country. The climate is more temperate here, en account of the 
vapours from the furrounding fea, than it is in many more fouiherly parts 
cf Europe. Spring and autumn are fcafms fcarcely known in DL.r.r.::rk, 
where winter, and fultry heats during June, July, and A.uguil, poilois 
the air. The foil is more recommcndable f )r its pail'trage, tJian for its 
common vegetable produdlions. The vallics arc In gcncr.;! fruitltd ; b'lt 
the foil is fandy in the iflands, and requires plentiiul fliuwcrs to raiie 
rven a crop of hay. 

Animals.] Denmark produces an excclljut breed cf horics, both 
for the faddle and carriage ; and numbers of blad: cattle, faeep, and 
hogs, befides game j and its feci coaits ai'c generally well fupplicd with tlfli. 

Language, 



jl 



Ira to r:uio 



DENMARK. 5 

Language, religion,") The language of Denmark is a dlalciH: 
AND LEARNING. j of the Tcutonic ; but High Dutch and 

French are fpokeii at court. The religion is Luthc ran ; and tl\e king- 
dom is divided into fix diocefes ; one in Zealand, one in Funen, and 
four in Jutland : theie diocefes are governed by biihops, whofe profefGon 
is entirely to fuperintend the other clergy ; nor have they any other mark 
of pre-eminency than a diflindlion of their ecclefiallical drefs, for they 
have neither cathedrals nor ecclefiallical courts, nor the fmallclt concern 
with civil affairs: their morals, how ■ er, are fo good, that they are 
revered by the people. The univcrfity of Copenhagen is faid now to be 
encouraged by the government ; but the Danes in general make no great 
figure in literature ; though aftronomy and medicine are highly indebted 
to Tycho Brahe, Borrichius, and the Bartholines ; not to mention that 
tin: Danes begin now to make fome promifing attempts in hiftory, poetry, 
and the drama. 

Manners.] The noble difpofition of his Danifh majeily for im- 
proving his countiy, renders it very difficult to fpeak with any certainty 
concerning the manners and cufloms, the police and manufactures of his 
dominions. Commerce, undoubtedly, is on the reviving hand in Den- 
mark ; and fmce the kings there have been rendered abfolute, particular 
titles of honour, fuch as thofe of count and baron, have been introduc«d 
into the kingdom ; but the adventuring, warlike fpirit, fecms to be loft 
among their nobility, whofe civil powers are indeed annihilated ; but 
they arc tyrants over their inferiors and tenants, who, as to property, 
are llill in a ftate of vaffalage. It is more than probable, however, that 
his prefent Danilh majefty will, in that and all other rcfpefts, give a new 
face to the police of his country ; and he has already taken fome efleftual 
meafures for that purpofe; by meliorating the Hate of the peafants ; the 
only fpur to indulhy. 

Army and navy.] The three laft kings of Denmark, notwith- 
ftanding the degeneracy of their people in martial affairs, were very re- 
fpeftable princes, by the number and difciplinc of their troops, which 
they have kept up with vail care. The prefent army of Denmark con- 
filts of 40,000 men, cavalry and infantry ; moll of whom are officered 
by foreigners. Though this army is burdenfome to the nation, yet it 
cofts little to the crown : great part of the infantry lie in Norway, where 
they live upon the boors at free quarter ; and in Denmark, the peafantry 
are obliged to maintain the cavalry in victuals and lodging, and even to 
furnidi them with money. His prefent majelly feems determined to re- 
eftablilh the naval force of his kingdom, and to rank himfelf as a mari- 
time power. It mull be acknowledged that he has great invitation to 
fuch a conduft ; his fubjeds in general are excellent feamen; Copen- 
hagen has a noble capacious lea-port ; and tlie prefent naval force of 
Denmark is faid to conful of thirty Ihips of the line. 

Fortifications.] The chic ("fortifications are thofe of Copenhagen, 
Cronenbiirg, New Elfenore, Aitcna, Reudfburg (which is reckoned 
the llrongeil in Denmark) Fred^ricia, in Juthmd; not to mention feveral 
other places now fortifying by his Danilh niajelly's order. 

Civil CONSTITUTION.] Tlie civil conllitution of Denmark, in its 
prefent defpotic Hate, arifes out of tlic ruins of the arillocratic powers 
which tlie nobility exercifed over their inferiors with moll intolerable 
tyranny. Formerly their kings were eledlive, and might be depofed by 
the convention of eilates, whigli included the reprcfeutatives of the pea- 

B 3 fants. 



''Hfl 


■ 


11 


1 


•ll'l 


1 


H'l 


f 


vwW"^ 


: ='ij" 



ri 



iil 






6 D E N M A R K.i^ 

fants. The king's royalty gave him pre-eminence in the field and tlic comri 
of julHce, but no revenues were attached to it ; and uulefs he liad a great 
ellate of his own, he v/as obliged to live like a private nobleman. la 
procefs of time, however, the regal dignity became hereditary ; or ra- 
ther, the ftates tacitly acquiefced in that mode of government, to prevent 
the horrible ravages which they had experienced from civil wars and dif- 
puted fucceffions. Their kings of the race of Oldenburg, the prefent 
royal family, though fome of them were brave and fpirited princes, did 
notchufe to abridge the nobility of their powers; and a Icries of unliic- 
cefhful wars rendered the nation in general fo miferablc, that the public 
liad not money for paying off the army. The difpute came to a ihort 
quelHon, which was, that tJie nobles Ihould fubniit to taxes, from which 
they pleaded an exemption. The inferior people then, as ufual, threw 
their eyes towards the king, for relief and protcdion from the oppreflions 
of tlie intermediate order of nobility : in this tliey v/ere encouraged by 
the clergy. In a meeting of the ftates, it was propofed that the nobles 
fliould bear their fliare in the common burden. Upon this, one Otto 
Craeg put the people in mind that the commons were no more than 
flaves to the loids. 

This was the watch-word, which had been concerted between the 
leaders of the commons, the clergy, and even tlie court itfelf. Nanfon, 
the fpeaker of the commons, catched hold of the term Slavery, the aflem- 
bly broke up in a ferment; and the corrynons, with the clergy, with- 
drew to a houfe of their own, where they refolved to make the king a 
folemn tender of their liberties and fervices ; and formally to eftablifn in 
]iis family the hereditary facceiTion to their crown. This refolution was 
executed the next day. The bifliop of Copenhagen officiated as fpeaker 
for the clergy and commons. The king accepted of their tender, pro- 
mifing them relief and protedlion. The gates of Copenhagen were Ihut ; 
and the nobility, finding the nerves of their power thus cut, fubmitted 
\vith the beit grace they could, to confirm what had been done. 

It is happy for the Danes, that ever fince the year i66o, when tliis 
great revolution took plr.ce, fev/ or no inllances have happened, of 
abufing the defpotic powers thus vcucd in the king, which are at prefent 
perhaps more extenfive than tliofe of any crowned head in Europe. On 
the contrary, the adminiRradon of civil jiiliice in Denmark is confidered 
by many as a model for other nations ; and fome princes, his Prulfian 
majefly particularly, have actually adopted great part of it. The code 
of the Daniih laws, is a quarto volume, drawn up in tl^e language of the 
country, in fo plain and perfpicucus a manner, and upon fuch fimple 
principles of juiHcc, that the molt i(.;norant may learn it ; and every man 
may plead his own caufe : and no fuit is to hang in fufpence beyond one 
year and a month. But t/je king haih privilege to explain, nay, to alter 
and change the fame as he fiall think good. Jn Denmark there are two 
inferior courts, from whicli appeals lie to a High Right court in Copen- 
hagen, where the king preudes, affiiled by his chief nobility. Judges 
are punillied in cafes of milbehaviour or corruption. Other tribunals are 
inftituted for the affairs of the revenue, army, commerce, admiralty, and 
criminal matters. In fliort, it is allowed on all hands, that the civil 
policy of Denmark, and its executive powers, produce wonderful efied? 
for the fafety of the people as well as of the government. 

Natural CHARACTERANDcoN-7 The court of Denmark is very 
6TITUT10N OF theDanes. j regular; and his prefent majelly, 

lik« 



len this 
ned, of 
preleni 
On 
fidered 
rulRan 
le code 
of the 
fimple 
ry man 
3nd one 
to alter 
ftre two 
open- 
Judges 
als are 
and 
civil 
efi^a.* 



y. 



IS very 

lajefty. 



DENMARK. % 

like his father, admits his nobility to his councils, and to that decent 
Iharc of familiarity that belongs to their rank. As the higher .cla/Tes of 
people are daily vifiting the other courts of Europe, they are refining 
themfclvcs from their provincial habits and vices, particularly intem- 
perance in drinking, and convivial entertainm.ents. As they become 
more polite, they arc mere frugal likcwife ; and there is nothing in their 
habit and conftitullon diflercnt from the Englilli or French nobility. The 
common people arc naturally indolent, and fubjcft to apoplexies from 
hard drinking ; they in general, however, enjoy a happy Itate of health, 
as they experience few confumptive difcaies ; owing perhaps to t!ic purity 
of their fuel, which confills chielly of beech wood. 

PopuLAi ION.] By an aftual numeration, made in 1759, of his 
Danilh majefty's fulijcds, in his dominions o*" Denmark, Norway, Hol- 
llein, tlie iflands in tlie Baltic, and the counties of Oldenburg and Del- 
mcnhorft, in Wellplialia ; they amounted to 2,444,000 fouls, exclufive 
of the Icelanders and Grccnlanders. However difproportioned this num- 
ber may fccm, to the extent of his Danifh majeily's dominions, yet, 
every thing confidered, it is far greater than could have been expeded 
from the uncultivated Hate of his pofleffions ; and it is more than fuffi- 
cient for all the purpofes of commerce. As population generally keeps 
pace with plenty, efpecially in northern countries, there can be no doubt 
that the number of his Danilli majefty's fubjefts, in a few years, will be 
vallly encreafed, by the improvements introduced among them in agri- 
culture, and other arts. In proof of this, the gener.il fecundity of the 
Danifli women is naturally fuch, that their parents are not very fond of 
giving their children away in matrimony ; and the courtUiips among the 
lower ranks are tedious. 

Commerce.] I ftall, under this head, include the commodities and 
manufaftures imported to and exported from the country. Fir, and other 
timber, black cattle, horfes, butter, llock-fifli, tallow, hides, train-oil, 
tar, pitch, andiron, are the natural produft of the Dani{h dominions; 
and confequcntly arc ranked under the head of exports. To thefe we may 
add furs ; but the exportation of oats is forbid. The imports are, fait, 
wine, brandy; filk from France, Portugal, and Italy. Of late the Danes 
have had a great intercourfe with England, from whence they import 
broad-cloths, clocks, cabinet, lock-work, and all other manufactures car- 
ried on in the great trading towns of England. But nothing Ihews the 
C')mmercial fpirit of the Danes in a Ilronger light, than their eftablilh- 
ments in the Laft and Well-Indies. 

In :6i2. Chriiliern IV. of Denmark, eftablifhed an Eaft-India com- 
pany at Copenhagen ; and, foon after, four ftiips failed from thence to 
the Ealt-Indies. The hint of this trade was given to his Danilh r.iajefty 
by James I. of England, who married a princefs of Denmark ; and in 
161 7 they built and fortified a caftle and town at Tranquebar, on the 
coall of Coromandel. The fecurity which many of the Indians found 
under the cannon of this for*:, invited numbers of them to fettle here ; 
fo that the Danifli Eall-India company were foon rich enough to pay to 
their king a yearly tribute of '10,000 rix-dollars. The company, how- 
ever, willing to become rich all of a fudden, in 162c, endeavoured to 
pofilfs themielves of the fpice-trade at Ceylon ; but were defeated by the 
Portugucfe. The truth is, they foon embroiled themfelves with the na- 
tive Indians on all hands ; and had it not been for the generous affiftance 
^iven them by Mr. Pit, iui EngliUi Eaft-India governor, their fettlement 

:t> 4 at 



ii 



t DENMARK. 

at Tranquebar muR have been taken by the rajah of Tanjour. Upon the 
clofe of the wars of Europe, after the death of Charles XII. of Sweden, 
the Danifli Eaft-lndia company found thenifches fo much in debt, that 
they publi(l)cd propoflils for a new fubfcription, for enlarging their an- 
cient capital Itock, and for fitting out fliips to I'ranr^uebar, liengal, and 
China. Two years after, his Danilh majefty grarted a new charter to 
his Eali-India company, with vail privileges ; and for fomc time its com- 
merce was carried on with great vigour. I fliall jufl: mention, that the 
Danes likev/ifc poflels the ifland of St. Thomas, in the Well-Indies ; 
%vhich is .i free port, and celebrated for fmuggling; alfo the fort of 
ChrilHanbure, on the coall of Guinea ; and carry on a confidcrablc com- 
merce with tlic' Mediterranean. 

Revenues.] His Danilii mnjelly's revenues have three fources ; the 
impolition-i he lays upon his own fiibjefts ; the du»^ies paid by foreigners ; 
and hij own dcmcfne lands, including confifcations ; wine, fait, tobacco, 
smd provifions of all kinds, are moderately taxed. Marriages, paper, 
corporations, land, houfes, and pnll-money, raife a conjuicrable Aim. 
The expences of fortifications are borne by the people : and when the 
king's daughter Is married, they pay about 1 00,000 1. towards lier por- 
tion. The reader is to obferve, tliat the internal taxes of Denmark are 
very uncertain, becaufe they may be abated or raifed at the king's will. 
Culloms, and tolls upon exports and imports, are more certain. I'he 
tolls paid by llrangers, arlfe chiefly from foreign faips that pafs through 
the Sound into the Baltic, t]uv)ugh the narrc- llrait between Schoncn and 
the ifland of Zealand. Thcfe tolls are in _ oportion to the fizc of the 
ihip and value of the cargo, exhibited In bills of lading. This tax, 
which firms a capital part of his Danifli majelly's revenue, has more 
than once throv/n tlic northern parts of Europe into a flame. It was often 
difputcd by the Engliili and the Dutch; and the Swedes, for fome time, 
refufv-d to pay it ; but in the treaty of 1720, between Sweden and Den- 
mark, under the guarantee of his Britannic majefly, George I. the Swedes 
agreed to pay the fame rates as are paid by the fubjecls of Great-Britain 
and the Netherlands. The toll is paid at Elfenore, a tov/n feated on 
the Sound, at the entrance of the Baltic fea, and about eighteen miles 
diltant fi-oai Copenhagen. No euimate can be made of its produce, nor 
of the grofs revenue of Denmark ; though it is generally thotight to 
amount at prefent to about 700,0001. a year ; a fam which, in that 
countr)', goes far, and maintains a fplendid court, a-i.l powerful arma- 
ments both by fea and land. 

Political AND NATURAL ) Since the accefllon of his prcfcnt Da- 

iNTEfiESTs OF Denmark, j" nilh majcily, his court feems to have 
altered its maxims. His father. It is true, obferved a moll refpeftable 
neutrality during the late war ; but never could get rid of French in- 
fluence, no'cwlthilandiii"- his connections with Great- Britain. The fub- 
Jidies he received maintained his army ; but his family-difputes with 
PailTia, concerning iLiiil-in, and the afcendency which the French had 
obtained over the Svvedci, not to mention many other matters, did not 
fuife]- him to act tLat dc^iifive part in llie affairs of Europe, to which he 
vas invited by his fituatijn ; efpecially about the time the treaty of Clo- 
ftcr-feven was concluded. His prefent Danilh majelly's plan, feems to be 
that of forming his dominions into a Hate of Independency, by availing 
himfelf of their natural advantages. His friendfnip with Great-Britain,, 
and the prefent divided defpicable conclitiou of the Swedes, together 

3 witH 



DENMARK. 



^■ith the pacific difpofition^i of the princes of the empire, leave him at 
full leilurc to profccutc the great plans he has fonnod. '1 he improve- 
ments his fubjccts have made lince the reign ot' I'redci ic IV. who died in 
17^0, in ni.nufadtvircs and the mechanical arts, arc ailonifliinc; ; and the 
vviie fiimptuary laws, efpecially thole againlt imports of foreign manu- 
faftures, keep immcnfe lums in tlie kino'dom. During the three lall 
rcip'ns, the povernment of Denmark Ipartd no coll in biiiunng foreign 
maiuifailurcrs into their kingdom. This gave great iir.-.brage to tlio 
Engliih ; who often defeated their attempts, and profccuted their agenld, 
if tound i.0 be jii.'iih fubjccts, with vail fcverity. \n Oiort, the Danci 
can be furnilhod at home now, not only with all the ncceflaiies, but the 
tk^ancies and luxuries of life ; and his prefcnt Danifh mnjctly is daily 
labouring to introduce the like improvements into the moil uillant parts 
of his clOi-ninions. 

With regard to the external intcrcfts of Dennnark, they are certainly 
belt fccurcd by cultivating a friendfiiip with the maritime powers. The 
prefent condition of her navy, renders her fecurc by fca frpm Sweden 
and Rullia, v/hofe marine, when united, falls (hort of that of Denmark ; 
for though the Ruflians maintain a large number of fhips, yet they aro 
fo poorly navigated, tl'.at Ruili.i cann( t be confidercd as a maritime 
power. The exports of Denmark enables her to carry en a very pro- 
fitable trade with France, Spain, and the Mediterranean j and flie is 
particularly courted by the Mahammedan Hates, on account of her Ihip- 
building fiores. His prefcr.t majclly, like his father and grandfather, 
makes Itron? efforts for drawinjr the trade of Hamburp; towards the fa- 
vouritc town of Altena ; but hitherto with little apparent fuccefs. This 
rlvallhip, however, never can embroil her with any other l^uropean 
power, provided his Danifli majefty is fo wife as to make no attempt 
upon the city of Hamburg itfelf. The political Itate of Germany, efpe- 
cially vvhile the elector of Hanover is upon good terms with the Danes, 
fecuics his Daniih miijeily's pofTefiions in tlie empire ; becaufe no prince 
tlierc would willingly fee them the acquifition of any German potentate ; 
nor can the poflefuon of them ever be formidable to the empire, while in 
the hands of Denmark. The Daniih government employs, in time of 
peace, all the feam' a it can fpare, for the purpofcs of commerce; bi,. 
upon any emergency, they can command 24,000 feamcn, who are regi- 
llered, for manning its fleet. From tliis fnort \ iew of the Danifli in- 
tcrell, v/e can almoft venture to pronounce, that the great fchemes pur- 
fued by the prince now on that throne, are intended to render him one of 
the greatell maritime powers in the North : nor do we perceive how he can 
be prevented, fo long as a llrong well-difciplined army fecures him from 
all invahons by land. At the fame time, from the fituation of his 
country, and its fcarcity of fpacious harbours, he never can be formi- 
dable to Gi cat-Britain, who naturally will endeavoin- to preferve the 
bailance of power in tlie North. The prelbnt imperial family of RulTia 
has indeed niany claims upon Denmark, en account of Hoifiein ; but as 
her polielHons were guaranteed by his Britannic majeily, there is but 
fmall ,'ippearance of her being engaged in a war on that account. Were 




euueavcur torcpciicls tncmlelvcs, Dy arms, ot tne hne pri 
them by Denmark ; but of this thcie is at prefent a very fmall like- 
Jihood 3 and;j whatever the arts of France may atteinnt, tiie Danes will 

always 



to 



DENMARK. 



'^' 



always look with a jealous eye upon every meafurc t.iken for aholiniirig 
the prefciit f'ums ff the SwecHfli conllitutinn. The grcaldl danger that 
can arifo to Denin.-rk frrm a ibrcio;n power is, when the Baltic lea (ai 
has happened more than once) is fo frozen over, as to bear not only men, 
but heavy artillery ; in which cafe the Swedes have been known to march 
over great armies, and to threaten the conqueft of the kingdom. 

Cities and chief buildings.] Copenhagen, which is fitiiated on 
the fine idand of Zealand, nukes a niagnihcent appearance at a dillance. 
Jt is very llrcng, and dtti-iiJcd by four royal callles or forts. It contains 
ten paridi chinches, beiides nine others, belonging to Calvinills and 
other pcrfuafions, and fomc; hoipitals. Copenhagen i.> .ndorned by fome 
public and private palaces, as they arc called. Its llrcets are 186 in 
number; and its inhabitants amount to 100,000. The houfes in the 
principal ftreets are built of brick, and thofe in their lanes chiefly of tim- 
ber. Its univcrfity has bt'cn already mentioned. But the chief glory of 
Copenhagen is its harbour, v.hicli admits indeed of only one fhitj to 
enter it at a time, but is cap:ible of containing 500. Several of the 
ftreets have cani.ls, and quays for fhips to lie clofc to the houles ; and 
its naval arfenal is laid far to exceed that of Venice. 

The hnc'll palace belonging to his Danilh majetty, lies about twenty 
Engliili mill's f/om Copenhngcn, and is called Fredericfburg. It is a moll 
jnagnifictr.t houl'c, and built in t!ie modern talle ; but ill contrived, and 
worfe fituated ; being in a moiil unhealthy foil. While the kings of 
Denmark reflde, as they often do, at this palace, thoy lay afidc great 
part cf their llatc, and mingle with their fubjefts in tJic diveriions both 
of the court ard the iield. Thofe of t]ie latter have in them i'omewhat 
very whimsical. Any ov.c who ha? ofi'ended againlt the hnvs of hunting, 
is obligtd to kneel bttuxvn the hcnis of the Hag th:it has been run down ; 
and raifing his pollerirrs, the king iufii^ls upon him, in prcfcnce of the 
queen and th.c ladies of ti:o court (ior v^'hofe merriment this exercife feenis 
to have been invoiteu) a ccrtai:i number of ilripes. After this, the of- 
fender is. Ci)ligeJ to make a certain number of reverences for the royal 
chaftifcnicnt. By the be:1: accounls, Frcdericflmrg, in magnificence, 
tjaintings, and furniture of every kind, fcarccly yields to any palace in 
r.urope. It Hands in the ir,idll of a Like of frefli water; and is divided 
jiito three courts, each joined to the other by a bridge. 

Jagerfturg, is a park vvhicli contains a royal country feat, called the 
Hf^'mitage ; which is rcinrkablc for the difpcfition of its apartments, 
and the quaintnefj of its furnituje ; particularly a machine, which con- 
veys the diflies to and frcnn the king's table in the fccond llory. The 
cliicf eccleliafdcid buildino- in Denmark, is the cathedral of Rofchild, 
where the kings and queen:, of Denm.ark were formerly buried, and their 
monuments ftill remain. Joining to this cathedral, by a covered paflagc, 
is a royal palace, built in 173^. 

Curiosities, natural > Denmark Proper, affords fewer of thefe 
AND artificial. j ^han the other parts of his Daniih mu- 
jefly's dominions, if we excep't the contents of the Rryal Mufeum at 
Copenhagen, wliicli confuls of a numerous colleflion of both. Bef'dcs 
artificial Ikcletcns, ivory carvings, models, clock-work, and a beautiful 
cabinet of ivory and ebony, made by a Danifli artill who was Hone blind, 
here are to be feen two famous antique drinking vcflcls ; the one of gold, 
the other of fdver, and both in rhc form of a huntinp--horn : that of rrold 
fccma to be of ^agan muiiuiailure} luiU from the rjiifed hieroglyphicai 

figures 



DENMARK. 



n 



Ii<riircs on its outfide, it prnbaMy was made iife of in religious ceremo- 
racs: it is about tv/o feet nine ir.clics long, weighs 102 ounci-s, contain* 
two Englidi pints aiul a half; and was found in the dinccfe of Ripen, in 
tlic year 1639. 'I'hc other, of filvcr, weigh., about four poimds, and is 
termed cor/:u OLLiil'iifgicum ; uhich, they lay, was prei'ejited to Otlio I. 
duke of Oldenburg, by a Giioft. Some, however, arc of oj-inion, that 
tliis vcflbl was made by order of Chriiliern I. king of Denmark, the 
firll of the Olucnburg race, who reigned in 1448. I IhuU jull mention 
in this place, that feveral vellcls of diiicrcnt metals, and the lame form, 
have been f)iinil in the north ff England, and are probably of Daniih 
original. This mul'eum ib likcwile furniflied with a prodigious number 
of aftronomical, optical, and mathcnatical iuftruments ; ibn\c Indian 
curioiiries, and a ftr of medals antient and modern. Many curious aftro- 
nomical inftruments arc likewifc placed in the rOund tower at Copen- 
hagen ; which is fo contrived, that a coacli may drive to its top. The 
village of Anglcn, lying between Flcnlbargand Slei'wic, is alfo tlleemed 
a curiofity ; as giving its name to t!ic Angles, or Anglo-Saxon inhabi- 
tants of Great-lJ/ltain, and the ancellors of the bulk of the modem 
llnglifh. 

The grcatcH: rarities in his Daiiifh majcfly's dominions arc omkted, 
however, by geogr;;pher:. ; I mean thofc anticnt infcriptions upon rocks, 
that are mentioned by antiquaries and hillorians ; and are generaily 
thought to be the old and original manner of writing, bcf )re the ufe of 
paper of any kind, and waxen tables, was known. Thcfe charadlers are 
Runic, and fo imperfedly underilood by the learned thcmfelves, that 
their meining is ^'cry uncertain ; but they are imagined to be hiilorical. 
Stephanus, in his notes upr;n Saxo Grammaticus, has exhibited fpeci- 
mens of feveral of tiiofe infcriptions. Among the natural curiofities of 
Denmark, we nui)^ rtckon fwan-hunting, for the amufcment of the king, 
queen, and courtiers of both fexes ; whofurround the fwans nefts in plea- 
fure-boats : the number of cygnets, or young fwans, killed on thofc oc- 
cafions, merely for tiie fake of the feathers and down, is inconceivable. 
The lledge-proceflions upon the fnow, when it is iroi'.en fo as to bear a 
carriage, are very magnificent. The horfes belonging to the king and the 
court are dreiTed oi'.t with great gaiety, and adorned with filvcr bells, to 
give warning of their approach, that the proccllion (which confifts of 
two or three tours round tlie city, attended with kcttle-drums and trum-. 
pets) may not be intcrrupfcd. The king and liis train being retired, 
are fuccceded in the procel'ion by the burghers, who trot about all night 
in their fiedges, each with a female ; and all of them wrapped up in 
w.irm furs. The Daniih court are exceffively fond of appearing in a 
kind of boorifh mafqucrade every Shrove-Tuefday : the habits of both 
feres, the mufic, the entertainments, the dancing, the manner of tra-< 
veiling, and the accommodations, are the moft perfedl imitations of th<? 
antient Dutch peafantry ; and the ifland of Amak, about three Englifl* 
miles from Copenhagen, is the fcenc of their diverfion. 

Orders of knighthood 7 Thefe are two; that of the Elephant, 
IN Dknmark. 5 and that of Daneburg : the former was 

inftituted by ChrilHcrn I. and is deemed the moll honourable ; its badge 
is an elephant furmounted with a caille, fct in diamonds, and fufpended 
to a fk) -coloured watered ribbon ; worn like the George in England j 
the number of its members, behdes the fovereign, are thirty. The badges 
w the Daneburg oidcr, which is faid to be of the higheft antiquity, 

confii^ 



i'l 




if 



E N M A R K. 



¥\ 



I'S' 



confifl of a v.'liite ribbon with red edges, worn over the left flioulclerj 
from which depends a linall crols of diamonds, and an embroidered ilar 
en the breaft of the coat, fiirrourded with tlie motto, Fic/aie l^ Jujliila. 
Uncommon ANIMALS,} /gee Norway.) 

FOWLS, AND FISHES, j ^ ^ ' 

Revolutions and me- 7 We owe the chief liirtory of Denmark, toa 
MORABLK EVENTS. 3 vcfv extraordinary phenomenon ; I mean, 
the revival of the purity of the Latin language in Scandinavia, in tlie 
perfon of Saxo Graniinaticus, at a time (the i2i;h century) when it was 
loll over all other parts of the European continent. Saxo, like the 
other hiilorians of his age, has adopted, and at the fame time ennobled 
by his llylc, the moll ridiculous abfurdities of remote antiquity. Wc 
can, liowevcr, colled enougli from him to conclude, that the anticnt 
Danes, like the Gauls, liie Scots, the Iriili, and other northern coun- 
tries, hrid their bards; who recounted the military atchievements of 
their heroes; aiid that their iirli hillories were wiitttu in vcrfe. There 
can be no doubt that the Scandinavians (the inhabitants of Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden) were Scythians by their original ; but how far 
the trails of land, caKed eitiier Scythia or Gaul, formerly reached, is 
uncertain. 

Even the name of the firft Chrifdan Danifh king is uncertain ; and 
thofe of the people -horn thcv commanded were ib blended together, 
that it is inin'-^iyible tor t];e reader to conceive a precife idea of the old 
Scandinavian hiilory. I'his, undoubtedly, was owing to the remains 
of their Scythian culroms, particularly thai of removing from one coun- 
try to another ; and of fjveral nations or fepts joining togellici in evpe- 
ciitions by fea or land ; and t'lc adventurers being dcnonanated after 
their chief leaders. Thus the terms Danes, Saxons, Jutes or Goths, 
Germans, and, Normans, were promifcuoufiy ufed long after the time 
of Charlemagiic. Even the Ihcrt revival of literature under that prince, 
throws very H.tk light upon the Danifli hiilory. All we know is, that 
the iuhabitai cs of Scandinavia, in their maritime expeditions, went 
j?;cncrally under the riame of Saxons v^/ith foreigners ; that they were 
^old adventure -s; that fo far back ar the year of Chrill 500, they in- 
feltcd all the fea coalls of Europe ; .hat tr.ey fettled in Ireland, where 
they built ftcne houi'es ; and tlial they became mailers of Eiigland, and 
great part of Scotland; both Vv'hich kingdoms Hill retain proofs of their 
barbarity. When v/e read the hiilory of Denmark and tl\at of England, 
undei- the Danifh princes who reigned over both countries, we meet 
with but a faint reiem.blance of events ; but the Danes, as conquerors, 
always give thcmfelves the fuperiority over the Englifh. 

l^tw very intereltiug events in Denmark preceded the year 1387, 
when Margaret mounted that tlirone ; and partly by iier cddrefs, and 
partly by hereditary right, flie formed the union of Calmar ; by \.'hich 
file was acknowledged fovcv-ic^n of Sweden, Denmark, and Norw.'.y. 
She held her dignity w ith fuch firmncf; and courage, that Jhe was julUv 
llilcd tlis Semiramis of the North. Her fucceiTors being dejtitute of 
her great qualificHtion!--, the union of Cahnar fell to nothing; but Nor- 
way llill continued annexed to Denmark. About the year 1448, the 
crow!i of Denmark fell to Chrilliern, count of Oldenburg, liom whom 
the prefent royal family of Denmark is dcfcended. 

In K15, Chrifiiern n. king of Denmark, one of the moH: coi ipjete 
tyrnus tiiat uiodcrn timtis have p-cduced, luouuiicd the throne of Den- 

inark ; 



D E N M A R 



I 



'# 



»« 



uriark ; ind havinsr married the filler of the emperor Charles V. he gavt 
a full loofe to his innate cruelty. Being driven out cf Sweden, for the 
liloody malFacrcs he committed there, the Danes reb-.diei agdinll him 
iikewife ; and he fled, with his wife and children, into the Netherlands. 
About the year 1536, the protellant religion was elbblilhed in Den- 
mark, by that wife and politic prince Chrilliern III. 

Chrilliern IV. of Denmark, in 1629, was chcfen for the head of die 

!)roteltant league, formed againll tiie houfe of Auilria ; but, tliough 
)rave in his own perfon, he was in danger of loiing his dominions ; 
when he was fiiccceded in that comm.and by Gufiavus Adolphus. The 
Dutch having obliged Chrilliern, who died, in i6j^S, to lower the duties 
of the Sound, his fon, Frederic JJl. confented to accept of an annuity of 
150,000 florins for the whole. The Dutch, after this, perfuadcd him 
to declare war ajrainil Charles Gullavus, king -<^ Sweden : which had 
almoll coll him his crown in 1657. Charles lloiiiied the fortrcfs cf Fre- 
dcriclladt ; and in the fucceeding winter, he marched his army over the 
ice to the ifland of Funen, where he furprifed the Danifli troops, took 
Odenfee and Nyburg ; and marched over the Great Belt, to bciiege Co- 
penhagen itfelf. Cromwell, the Englilb ufurper, intcrpofed; and Fre- 
deric defended his capital v.'ith great magnanimity, till the peace of 
Rofchild ; by which Frederic ceded the provinces of Halland, Bleking, 
and Sconia, the iflr.nd of Eornholm, and Bahus and Drontheim, in Nor- 
way, to the Svv'edes. Frederic fought to elude thofe fevere terms ; but 
Charles took Cronenburg, and once more befieged Copenhagen by fea 
and land. The ilcady intrepid conduiEl of Frederic under thofe mif- 
fortunes, eidcared him to his fubjecls ; and the citizens of Copenhagen 
made an adr.i'rable defence, till a Dutch fleet arrived in the Baltic, and 
beat the Swedxlli fleet. The fortune of war was now entirely changed 
in favour of Frederic ; who fhewed on every occaiion great abilities, 
b'Jth dvil and military ; and having forced Charles to raiie the ficge of 
Copenhagen, might have carried the war into Sweden, had not the F.n- 
glilh fleet, unuor Montague, appeared in the Baltic. This enabled 
Cii.u-'.es to befiegc Copenhagen a third time; but France and England 
ofii-ring their mediation, a peace was concluded in that capital ; by 
wliich the ifland of Boruholm returned to the Danes ; but the ifland of 
Kur,en, Bi'4:irig, Halland, and Schonen, remained with the Swedes. 

'Fhough this peace did not reilore to Den nark all flie had loll, yet, 
the magnanimous behaviour of Frederic, under the molt imminent dan- 
gers, and his attention to the fafety of his fubjefts, even preferably to 
his own, endeared him fo much in, their eyes, that they rendered him 
ablblute, in the manner and for the rcafons I have already mentioned. 
Frederic wa^ fuccf'eded, in 1670, by his fon, Chrilliern V. who cbiiged 
the duke of Hwlilcin G.ttorp to renounce all the advantages he had 
gained by the treaty of Rofjiiild. He then recovered a number of places 
in Schonen : but his army was defe,:tcd in the bloody bat'ile of Lunden, 
by Charle.; XI. of Sweden. This ocfjat did not put an end to the war; ' 
Vv'hicii Cluifciern obflinatcly continued, till he was defeated entirely at 
the battle oi'LaUvlfcroon : and he had a.lmoll exhaulh.'d his dominions in 
his military operations, till he was in a manner abandoned by all his 
lies, and ibrced to iign a treaty on the terms preferibed by France, in 



ai 



1679. Ciiruliern, however, did not defill from his military attempts ; 
and at l.dl he became the ally and fubiidiary ..f Lewis XIV. who was 
tl:cu threatiiing Europe with cluiiiis. Chrilliern, after a valt variety of 

treating 







1 1. ■» i-.;i 








n 



DENMARK. 



treatinpf and fiphtinj: with the Holfleincrs, Hnmhnrrhcrs, find of-1i,?r 
EortJicin powers, died in 1699. He was fucceeded by h-edcric IV. who, 
like his pu'dcccflbrs, maiutuincd his prctcniions upon llolllcin r and 
probably muit have bccon.c mailer of that dutchy, h?.d not the Engliih 
and Dutch fleets niifed thcf;cge of 'I'onningcn ; while the yfuino; king of 
Sucdcn, Chailcs XIL who was no more than fixtcen years of age, 
kntled within eight mile.s of Copenhagen, to afiiil his brother-in-law, 
the duke of Holilcin. Charles, probably, would have made himfcU" 
mcfter of Copcnhiigcn, hnd not his Dau'ih Maji-Ry iigrred to the peace 
of TraV(.niIid;I, wKich was entirely in the duke's fa vovir. By another 
treaty cciichided with the States General, Charles obliged himfelf to 
furnifl^ a body of troops, Vvho were to be paid by the confederates ; and 
who aKeiv.'ard; did groat fcrvicc .-igainlt the I'rcnch. 

NotwithRanding this peace, Frederic was perpetually engaged in wars 
with the Swedes ; and while Charles war; an exile at Cendcr, he made a 
dcfccnt upon the Sv.cdilh I'omerania ; and another, in the year 171.";, 
wpon Eremen, and took the city of Stade, His troop >, however, were 
totally defeated by the Sv/edes at Gadeibulrh, who laid his favourite 
city of Altcna in alhcs. Frederic revenged himfeif, by ii'i/.ing great 
partof the ducal Hc^Utein, and (breing tiie Sv.edilh general, count Stein- 
bock, to furrender himfelf priioner, with all his troops. Jn the yc;ir 
1716, the fucceffes of Frederic were fo great, by taking ''i'onningcn and 
iitrrdfund, by driving llie Swedes out of Norv/ny, and reJueing Wifnuir, 
in Pomerania, that his allies began to fufpe^t he. was aiming at the fove- 
teignty of all Scandinavia. Upon the return of Charles of Sweden from 
.his exile, he reneu'd tl.e v/ar againit Denmark, wit!) a moil embittered 
i'pirit ; but on the deatli of that prince, who was killed at the fiege of 
J'rcdericnial, Frederic durii not rei'ufe the ofier of his Britannic majelly';! 
mediation between hini and the crov.n of Sweden ; in confequencc of 
which, n peace V.' as concluded at Stockholm, which left him in pofielfiou 
of tlie dutchy of Slcfwic. Frederic died in the year 1730, after having, 
two ycai.T biltjre, feen his ci'jwtal reduced to allies, by an accidental fire, 
iiib fon and lijcccifor, ChrilHern Frederic, made no other ufe of his 
power, and the advantages with v.hich he mounted the throne, than to 
cultivate ; eacc with all his neighbours, and to promote the happinefs of 
his fubjcL'ts ; whom he eafed i,l many oppreliive taxes. 

In 17J4, after guarantying the Pragmatic Sandion, Chrifliern fent 
60CO men to the aliiltanee oi ihc emperor, during the difputeof the fuc- 
celJion to the crovsn of I'oland. 'lliough he was pacilic, yet he was 
jealous cf his rights, e/peeially over llaiiiburgh. He obliged the Ham- 
Liiighirs to call in the mediaiion of Fruflia, to abolilh their bank, to 
admit the t(/in of Denm.".;k as current, and to pay him a millien of 
filver marks. He had, two years after, vi/,. 175)^, a dvputc with his 
Britannic majelly, about the little lordftdp of Steinhoril, which had 
been moiigaged to the latter by a duke of Kolflein Lawenburg, and 
which Cl.riiliern faid belonged to him. Sei',.; blood was fpilt during 
the tontcl; in which Chrllliern, it is thought, never v/as in earnelh 
It brt)i.'glu 'm, ho,vc\er, a treaty, in v/hich he availed himfelf of his 
Br; 'innic majelly's prediledion for his German donunions ; for he agreed 
to pay '!]!hrilHrrti a fubfidy of 70,0001. ilerling a year, on condition of 
keeping in readinefs 7000 troops for the proteilion cf Hanover : this 
\\as a gainful bargain for Dcnmarl:, And two years afier, he fei'cd 
iojne Dutch lliip;, for tradtr^g, without iiis leave, to Iceland ; but the 

dilicreuctt 



DENMARK. 



15 



difference was made up by the mediation of Sweden. Clirifllern had fo 
jl^rcat a party in that kingdom, tliat it was ;;cnera!!y thoiu^lu he would 
revive the union of Cahnar, by procuring liis fon to be declared fuc- 
ccflbr to his liien Swcdiih niajelty. Some Heps for that purpofe were 
certainly taken ; but whatever Chriflicrn's views n)i^ht have been, the 
dcfign was fruilraled by the jealoufy of other pov.crs, who could not 
bear the thoughts of feeing all Scandinavia fuhjeft to one family. Chri- 
ftiern died in 1746, with the character ol being tiic fatlier of his people. 

His fon and fuccenbr, Frederic V. h; d, in 1743, married the prin- 
ccfs Louifa, daughter to his Britannic nnjelly. He improved upon his 
father's plan, for the happine^^ of his people ; but took no concern, 
except that of a mediator, in the German wnr. For it was by his in- 
tervention, that the treaty of Cloller-feven was concluded between his 
royal highnefs the late dulce of Cumberland, and the French general 
Richlieu. Upon the death of his firil queen, who was mother to his 
prefent Danifh majefty, he married a dp.uglitcr of the duke of Brunfwic- 
Wolfenbuttel ; and died in 1766. His ion, Chniliern VI. was born 
the 2Qth of January, 1719; and married his Britannic niajelly'syoungell 
fiRer, ilieprincefs Carolina-Miitilda. I have already mentioned the many 
fair profpefts which this prince's I'eign has already opened for the good 
of hi.) people ; and can only add, Iiohi tiie fpccimrns he hrs given the 
public of his virtues, that he bids fair to be the grcatell king that ever 
filled the throne of Denmark. 



NORWAY. 

Name, nouNDARiEs, ] ^ fc ■* H R natural ilgLification of Norv/ay is, 
AND E.XTKNT. 3 ■*■ thc Northcm-way. It is bounded on 

the fouth by the entrance into the By'tic, called the Scnggerac, or Cate- 
nate ; on the v/elt and norlh, by the northern ocean; and on the eaft, it 
IS divide*! from Sweden by a Ion;.;- riuge of mountains, called at different 
parts by different name:; ; as i''illejicld, Dofi-efdd, Rundfield, and 
Dourfield. Tlie reader may confult the table ordiiaeniions in Denmark 
for its extent; but it is a country fo little i.nown to the rell of Europe, 
that it is difficult to fix its dimenfions with precifion, 

MouK'iAiNS.] Norway is reckoned one of the mcf^ mountainous 
countries in the world; for it coi;t;tins a chain of unequal mountains 
running from fouth to north : to ]>afs that of Hardang^ r, a man mull 
travel about fcventy Englifli miles; and to pafs others, upwards of fifty. 
Dofrefield is counted the highcit: mountain, perhaps, in I'.urope. 'i'ho 
rivers and catarads which inttrfodl thofo dreadful precipices, and are 
paifable only bv flight, tottering, wooden bridges, render travelling in 
tiiis country very tetrible and dangerous; though the governsr.ent is at 
the expence of providing, at differeiit Hagc;, houfes accommodated with 
fire, light, and kitchen furniture. Detached from this \alt chain, other 
imnienfe mountains prefent tluMiifclves ;ill over Norway ; fome ot them 
v\ith refcrvoirs of water on the top; and the whole forming a moil lur- 
prizing landfcapc. 'i'he attivity of the natives, in recovering their 
Iheep and goats, when penned up, through a falfe Uep, in one of ihofe 
rocks, is wonderful. 'I'he owner dirert-s himfelf to be lowered down 
from the top of the moui.ain, fatir.g on a crols flick, tied to tlie end of 
a long rope; and when he arrives at the place where the creature Hands, 
he luiietis it to jhe fame coid, and it h drawn up witii himfelf. Thu 

caverns 



I' "if 



i > 



D E N M A R K. . 

caverns that are to be met with in tliofe mountains, arc more wondcrfut 
than thofc, perhaps, in any other part of the work!, though Icfs liahlf 
to obfervation. One of them, called Dolilecn, was, in 1750, vihted 
by two clciigymcn ; who reported, th'it they proceeded in it till they 
heard the fea dafliing over their heads i that the paflage was as wide and 
high as an ordinary church, the fides perpendicular, and the roof vaulted : 
tliat they dcfcended a fliglit of natural ihiirs ; but when they arrived ;it 
another, they durll not venture to proceed, but returned ; and that they 
confumed two candles going and returning. 

'I'he rivers and frcih-water lakes in this country, are well (locked 
^ with iifli ; and navigable for veflcls of a confiderable burden. TJic molt 
extraordinary circumilance attending the lalccs is, that fome of them 
contain floating ilhinds, formed by the -roliefion of the roots of trees and 
Ihrubs; and thoug!\ torn from the main land, bear herbage and trees. 
So late as the yt"ar 1702, the nolde family feat of Borgc, near Fredc- 
ricftadt, fuddcniy fank, v;ith all its towers and battlements, into an 
abyfs a hundred fathom in depth; and its fite was inilantly lilled with 
a piece of water, which formed a lake 300 ells in length, and p.bout 
half as broad. This melancholy accii^ nt, by wliich fourteen people 
and 200 head of cattle perilhcd, was occafioned by the foundation be- 
ing undermined by the waters of a river. 

Forests.] The chief wcahh of Norway lie:; in its forefts, which fur- 
nifli foreigners witli malts, beams, planks, and boards ; and ferve bc- 
.fldes for all donvilic ufcs ; particularly the conllruffticn of houfes, bridges, 
fliips, and for charcoal to the founderics. The chief timber growing 
here are fir and pine, elm, aih, yew, benreed, (a very curious wood) 
birch, beech, oak, eel, or alder, juniper, the afpin-tree, the comf', or 
floe-trce, hafel, elder, and even ebony ; (under the mountains of Ktlen) 
Jyme and willows. The iiims which Norway receives for timb.j, ar*; 
very confiderable ; but the indullry of the iniiabitants is greatly aililled 
by the courfe of their rivers, and the fituation of their lakes ; wliich 
allbrds them not only the convenicncy already mentioned, of lloating 
down llieir timber, but tliat of ereding faw-mijis, for dividing their 
laro-e beams into planks and deals. A tenth of all fawed timber belongs 
to his Danilh majeily, and forms no mconfiderable part of his revenue. 

Cmmaik.] The climate of Norway varies according to its extent, 
end its expofiturc towards tlie fea. At Bergen, the winter is moderate, 
and the fea is pradicabh". The eallcrn parts of Norway are commonly 
covered with Jiiow ; and the cold generally fets in about the middle of 
Odol/'r, with intcnfe fjverity, to the middle of April ; the waters being 
:ill that while frozen to a coniiderable thicknefs. In 17 19, 7000 Sw»;des, 
who were on their march to attack Drontheim, perilhed in the fnow, on 
the mountains which feparate Sweden from Norway; and their bodies 
were found in difl'erent pollurcs. " ■*• "^vcn froil and fnow have their 
convenicncies, as they ficilitate the con>'eyance of goods by land. As 
to the more northerly parts of this country, called Finmark, the cold 
ij fo intcnfe, that they are but little known. At fk'rgen, the longi ll 
day conlills of about nineteen hours ;;.;d the Ihortiil about fix. in 
iuinnier, the inhabitants can read and write at midwiidit, by the li^;ht 
of the fky ; and in the molt northerly part.^, about nii-'.ruiuuKr, the inn 
i.s conlinually in view. In thofc parts, however, there is only a faint 
jdinimeiiiig of light at noon, for aI)out an hour and a iialf ; owing to the 
jcfkdUuu uf Uic Jiiu's .ro) i on Uit juouutiuuj. ^iiturv» upl>vithlUin.ling, has 

bfca 



?i?cn 



tlicy 

0]VJ11 

As 
h tha 
;'.t in' 



}; v\(n 
ii;l.!nt 
cuife 
and fn( 
w'h'dc 
Sto 

AN 



iliTginir 



NORWAY. 



17 



)ncIciTut 
i lialile 
I vifitod 
ill they 
ndc and 
/aulteu ; 
•rivcel ;it 
hat they 

i flocked 
^'hc moit 
of them 
Lrces and 
nd trees, 
ir F rede- 
in to an 
Ucd with 
nd p.bout 
n people 
itiun bc- 

diich fiir- 
fevve be- 
, bridfijes, 
growir.s; 
HIS wood) 
comf\ or 
ofKden) 
nb.i, ar«5 
adilled 
; which 
(loatiiig 
in|^ their 
belones 
revenue, 
ts extent, 
noderate, 
imimonly 
middle of 
ers being 
Sw«xles, 
fnow, on 
ir bodies 
ave their 
,md. As 
tlu! coKl 
le \vn[\< [\ 
fix. Ill 
the lij,ht 
the Inn 
ly a faint 
w'y to the 
,aing,h:'8 
bccu 



!ieen fo kind to the Norwegians, that in the midil of their darknefs, the 
fl:v is fo ferenc, and the moon and the aurora borealis fo bright, that 
they can carry on tlieir fiihcry, and work at their feveral trades in 



open air 



As the winter i;; cold, the fummer, In Norway, is proportionably hot ; 

fo that vegetation is incvcdibly quick ; for in fix weeks, or two montlis 

I'.t moll, barley is fown, grows, ripens, and is cut down. The air of 

Norway is faliibrious, excepting on fomc parts of the fca coafl, where it 

is noiliened by vapours and exhalations. It is Co pure in fomc of the 

inl.uul parts, that the inhabitants live fo lnn;>; as to be tired of lif; ; and 

caufe thcmfelvcs to be tranfported to a lefs falubrious air. Sudden tliaws, 

and fnow-falls, have, however, fometimes dreadful cfFcds, and deftroy 

whole villafTCs. 

Stones, metals, 7 Norway contains quarries of ?xcellent marble, 

AND MINERALS, j" 38 Vv'cU as iiiary other kinds of ftoncs ; and the 

magnet is found in the iron mines. The amianthus, or afbeilos, which 

vJu'n its delicate fibres are wove into clctli, are cleaned by the fire, is 

likewife found here ; as are chryftals, granates, amethylls, agate, thun- 

dcr-iloncs, and enale-iloncs. Gold found in Norway, has been coined 

into ducats. His Danilh majeily is now workii-g, to great advantage, a 

fdvcrmine at Koningfl^cr,^ ; other filvcr mines have been found in diftcrent 

pa.ts of the country ; and one of the many filvcr malTes that have been 

diilovcred, weig'iing 560 pounds, is to be feen in the Royal Mufeum at 

Copenhagen. 'I'lu lead, copper, and iron mines, are common in this 

country : one of th.c conprr-mines at Roraas, is tliought to be the richefl 

in Europe. Norway likewife produces quickfilver, fulphur, fait, and 

co:d mines; vitriol, allinn, and various kinds of loam ; the different 

rvinufaftures of which bring in a large revenue to the crown. 

Uncommon animals, } All the animals that arc natives of Den- 

rowLs A^M) fishes, j mark, nre to be found in Norway, with an 

adJiticn of many more. The wild bealls peculiar to Norway, are the elk, 

the rein-deer, the hares, the rabbit, the bear, the volf, the lynx, the 

fox, the glutton, the Icminpf, the ermine, the martn, and the beaver. 

The elk is a tal! afli-rolour;d animal, its iliape part: king at once of the 

horfe and the ilag ; it is harmlefs, and, in the wiuti r, focial ; and their 

tlclh tallcs like vcnifon. The rein-deer is a fpecies of Hag ; but we fhall 

have occafion to mention him more particularly afterwards. Rabbits in 

this country are fcarcc. The hares arc final 1 ; anc arc faid to live upon 

mice in the winter time, and to chanpe their colour from brown to white. 

The Norwegian bears are ftrong and fagacious : they arc remarkable for 

rot hurting children ; but their other qualities arc in common with the 

rclt of their fpecies in northern countries ; nor can we much credit the 

^ery extraordinary fpccimens of their fagacity, recorded by the natives : 

thev arc hunted bv little doos : and fome prefer bear hams to thofc of 

vV{;ll]-)halia. The Norwegian wolves, though fierce, are fhy even of a 

cow or a goat, unleis impelled by hunger: the n: tives are dextrous in 

;;giiig traps for thi-ni, in v/hich they icre taken or killed. I'he Ij'nx, 



III 



hy fi'ine called the goupcs, 
1 they are of the cat kind, a 



is fiiKillcr than a wolf, but as dangerous : 
and have cl:iws like tygcrs ; they dig under- 



ground, and often undermine fliecp-folds, where they make dreadful ha 

vock. The ikin of the lynx is be:uitiful and vaUudde ; as is that of the 

jbhckfo:. White and red foxes are likewile found in Norway, and par- 

Itake of tiie nature of that wily animal in other countries ; they have a 

y particular 



!■'■* 



itllirli 



i't , 



liff^: 



'i|Ji 



?m« 



-itttffi 



■I' VWl'^l, 



^': 



n 



i ' t 






}S 



NORWAY. 



particular way of dra«(ing cnihs afliore, by dipping tlicir tails In tlie 
water, wh'ch the crab lays hold of. 

The glutton, oihciv^ile called the erven, orvidfras, rcfcnibles a tiirn- 
ipit dog ; with ;•. 1< nj; bcdy, tliick legs, {}iarp ckiws and tt'ctli: his fur, 
which is varii"g;:lcd, ia U' precious, that he is Ihot with blunt arrf)\vs, to 
priferve the fl.in unhurt: he is bold, and fo ravenous, tl'at it is fidd he 
will devour a carcife L.rgcr than himfelf, and unl.uithcns his lloinach by 
fquecziiig Idinrcir IcLwcLii two elofe-ftanding tites : when taken, he has 
been even kn^wn to eat dene and moitar. The crn-.inc is a little crea- 
ture, remaikable for its lliyncfs and ck'i.nlinefs ; and lew of our readers 
need to be t dd, that thcJr fur form,; a principal part even of royal niag- 
nifcente. There is litrlc difierer.c-' b ■•ween the ii;:;rtin and a large brown 
fore rt cat, only its head and Juout ar^ fii: rper ; it is very ferce, and its 
bite dangerous. The beaver is now a v>ell knc wn ;:npl.il)ious animal, 
refcnibling in its fliape a drg, v.iti: Ihort kgs and head, fniuU rrunti eyes 
and e;:rs, and a largo thick Ic; Iv tail : the caltcucum, I'o ufiul in medi- 
cine, is found on thi^ creptnie m a bag; hisfkin is valuable: but 1 fiiall 
have cciTficn to mcn'ion him more at large in treating of r^'orth Anie- 
xica. Beiidcs the aboveniontioned quadrupeds, Norway contains almolt 
all the rtlior aniir.rds known in Eun,pe. 

No country produces a greater varis.ty of birds than Norway. I {ii;dl 
ini nticu thc!'e that arc pf.culiar to itfcif, Tlie alks bi:itd upc^n rocks j 
their numbers often darien the air, and the ncife of th'^ir wings refem- 
bles a I'cOrm ; their fi/.e is the b'gnefs of a large uv.ck : tbv , ; re an aquatic 
ibwl, and tl'.eir flclh is rr.uch Lltecn-'.cd. l"l;c bcrg-uglc i ■ ;' CuiAl bird, 
about the largenefs of a thrulh. No fewer th:.ii thirt}- <i:;i"ere!it icinds ct" 
thrud'.cs r-^'fidc in Norway; witli va:ious kinds of pigeons, .ukI fev.-ra! 
forts of beautiiiil wild ducks. The plumage of the he-dor;-pap6, or co- 
cothraus, is va:-icgated with red, black, and white; bi'.t the iien is ci a 
blue-grey: fome that are green, wit'i red t-ufts of feather, on the licad, 
nrc the moil valtiablc. IjLlidi.s the above, arc ihe jo-fvigi, the ! ra^c, 
thekr}k!;i:, thela.v-tite, tlielom, the gui!, or rnaagc, the .avorcu, iie 
Ikaw, or toon, the fkue, and the ticlt : but a defcription of erxl: would 
ex'ceedour bounds. The Norwfgiin cock-of-tlie-v. ■ ■'!, is of a b^ack or 
tlark-grey colour, his rye rci' :-nhl'r.g that of a pheai'ant ; and he is faid 
to be the largclt of all eatable birds. Norway produces tv. > '.l;;ds of 
eagles, the land and t!ie fca ; the firmer is fo irrong, that Lc) has been 
known to carry off a child of two years eld : the fea, or i.(l-.-e>.; Ic, is 
larger than the other ; he fubfilb on aquatic food ; and fctierimes darts 
on large hilies with fuch force, that bein^ unable to free !i;s tiilons t'lom 
their bodie?, he is dragged into the \v:-v-;- and diownLJ. Tiic tiuicn 
refcmbles an eag'e, iut is n-iore har?rl-"f>; he is reck^'ned g'od f od, 
and burnnvs hin.i;.lf i;: fnow in winter. The v.'.riety of iiawks is grtdtcr 
jn Norway than in any other country ; and we meet there with all •■ ihcr 
kinds of do:i!Clhc fov.ls th 't are c:Tinion in Turope. 

Nature leenis to have adapted thrie aerial irihabitants for the era!! of 
Norwry ; and indullry has produced a fpecics of mankind pe'v.iii.nly 
ilttcd f<:! making thein ferviceable tc the hum: n ra^c : ihk .u the Ivid- 
jncn, or tliirber;;, who arc amajdugly dexterous in mouiMiiig tlie luipeil 
Tcckr, and bringing av/ay t];c birus and their eggs: ti.c latter arc nutri- 
tive food, and .ire fcrneiimcs patbeiled in vin'"t,';;r; the hefh is e. ten by 
die peaiant.;, who generally leliili it; while tin lealheis iJ!)d doVvU li^iin 
a^'roii^bic coiiauodity. Even UiS dogs cf ihx lununj in lliu uoitlein 

diiUiO- 



■ tjHb-^' 



N O R W A Y. 



'9 



i in the 

5 a turn - 

his fui-, 
rows, to 
s fiud hi: 
m:ich by 
, he h;is 
ttlc crca- 
ir readers 
lyal nitig- 
oc brcAvn 
c, and hi 
is animal, 
Tund eyes 

in medi- 
bur. ! fuall 
n-lli Anic- 
ins almotl 



1 fnall 



5on locks; 
inn's refcm- 
: an ao^uatic 
{\.vA\ bird,_ 
;!it kinds ct" 
And fc\ -Tal 
lapb, or co- 
\\en i^ f'i 't 
the h.ead, 
the 1-rage, 
ivorcu, lie 
er(-l'. v.;;uld 
If a b'i.ck or 
he i:i laid 
o '.i:;ds of 
.e i:as been 
ll-.-t...;ie, h 
let", me;, darts 
t;.I"n:i from 
The tiuicii 
6 or od f' od, 
Is is grt .'.ter 
;h all ^ditr 

■'-.ccrallof 
I pv'':ali.!rly 
;i iho b'ld- 
the G.>..|)cll 
,• ar*. nutri- 
is e. ten by 
UU,\vn U'.m 
|,iO tund I'ln 
dilU.o-, 



difliit^ls, arc trained up to be aflillants to thofc bird-men in fcizing 
tiieir prey. 

The Scandinavian lakes and feas are aflonifliinidy fruitful in all fi(h 
that are found on tlie fea-coalls ot Europe, whicli need not here be cnu- 
nicratcd. Some f.Hies in thofe feas, however, have their pccidiarities. 
The hanc-mceren, is a fpecies of (hark ten fatlioms in lengtli, and its 
liver yields three calks of train-oil. 'J'lic tucUo-llyndcr ir. an exccfTu'C 
huoe turbot, v^hieli has been known to cover a man v.'ho had fallen ovcr- 
boi'.rd, to keep iiini from riilng. The feafon for hcrrihg-fifhing is an- 
nounced to tlie filhermen by the fpoucing of water from the whales (of 
which {cxcn difi'ercnt fpecies are mentioned) in following the hcrring- 
flioals. 'IhiC large whale refemblcs a cod, vvitli fniall eyes, a dark mar- 
bled (kin, and white belly : they fpout out the v/atcr, which 'hey take 
in hv infpiration, through two holes or openings in the head. They 
copulate like land-animals, Ihmding upright in the fca. A young whale, 
wlien firft produced, is about nine or ten feet long ; and the female fome- 
times brini's forth two at a birth. The whale devours fuch an incredible 
number of fiii-dl fiili, that his belly i-: often ready to buril ; in which 
cafe he makes a nwd. tremendous noiic from pain. The fmaller fiih have 
their revenge; fome of them fallen on his back, and inceflbntly beat 
him ; ')thers, with fliarp horns, or rather bones, on their beak?, fv/im 
under Ids belly, and lomctinies rip it up ; fome arc provided with long 
fliarp teetli, and te;ir his flelh. Even the aquatic birds of prey declare 
war againll him when he comes near tlie furface of the v.'ater; and ha 
has been known to be fo tortured, tJiat he has beat himfelf to death or» 
the rocks. The coafts of Norway may be faid to be the native co(Hntry 
of licrrings. Innumerable are the fhoals that come from under the ice at 
the nortii-pole; and about the latitude of Iceland divide themfeives into 
three bodies : one of thefe fupply the Weltcrn llles and coalls of Scotland, 
another directs its courfe round the cafrern part of Gre .t-liritain down 
the Channel, and the third enters tlie Baltic throin^h the Sound. They 
Ihrm great part of the food of the common people ; and the cod, ling, 
kabeliau, and torHc-fiflies, follow them, and leed upon their fpawn ; and 
;irj taken in prodigious numbers in (Ifty or lixty fathoms water : thefe, 
lijiccially their roes, and the oil extraited from their livers, arc cvported 
;iiid fold to great advantage; and above 150,000 people are maintained 
bv tlic herring and other filhing on the coall of Norv.'ay. The fea-devil 
h about iix feet in length, and is fu called fn m its mojillrous appearance 
;!na voracity. The fea-fcorprnu is likewile of a hideous form, its head 
being larger than it:, whole body, which is about four feet in length; and 
i(> hue is faid to i:e poilonou::. 

'i'he molt leemingl/ t.ibalous accounts of the ancients, concerning fea- 
!r.O!!)ler:s, are rendered credible by the productions cf the Norwegian leas ; 
;hk1 tlie i"ea-liiake, or ferpent of the ocean, is no loii'rer counted a chimera. 
la 1756, one cf them v/as llrjt by a matter ot a lliip ; its liead rcfemblcd 
that of a horib ; the mouth was large and bl ick, as were the eyes, a 
uliite mane hanging from il:s neck : it floated on the furface of the 
wat-T, and held its hi^ad at leail two feet out of the fea : between the 
lead and ne;.k were icvcn or eight folds, wliitdi were very thick ; and 
Itlie length cf this fnake was more than a hundred yard?, li)me fay fa- 
thoms. They have a remarkable avcrfion to the fmcll of caftor; for 
Uliicli reafon, fliip, boat, and bark mailers, provide themfeives with 
jiiuiimities of that drug, to prevent being overfet ; the ferment's olfaftory 

U i nerves 






H I 



«' 1, 



^ i r 



tr 



':"P 



t ^ .t ^?t 



»-i 



20 



N o II \v 7\ y. 



nerves btinj^- rcniaikably cxquifite. The particularitlcn rccountCtl of 
this animal wouM be incrciihic, were t!icy not atroiled upon oath. 
Ej;'jclc (a very acdiu;!)lc aiahor') iays, that on tlic 6th clay of July, 1 73^ , 
alarpe and tVighttVJ {l- a- men Her railed itfcif ii) high out of the water, 
that Its head reached aiwve the inain-top-inall of the Ihip ; that it had a 
long fharp f»out, broad paws, and Iponted water like a whale ; that the 
body feenied to be covered with fcales ; the flcin was uneven and wrink- 
led, and the lower p..rt\va, formed like a fn;ke. The body of this mon- 
fcer is faid to be as thicl: a . a hogiliead ; liis fkin is variegated like a 
tortoife-fiicU ; and his excrement, which floats upon the furfacc of tlie 
water, is ccnofivc, and blifLcrs the hands of the feamen if they handle it. 

1 fnould be under great diliicaky in incntioning the krakcn, or kor- 
ven, were not its cxillence proved fo ftrongly, as to put it out of all 
doubt Its bulk is faid to be a mile and a lialf in circumference; and 
when part oi' it appears rbovc the water, it refeniblcs a number of 
fmall illands and fand-banks, on which iiflies difportthemfelvcs, and fca- 
Aveeds prow : upon a farther emergement, a nur.ibcr of pellucid antennas 
each about the licig'-.t, form, and fy.e of a moderate mafi, appear j and 
by their aftirn and r;-aflion he gathers his food, confilling of fxnall fifhcs. 
When he fmks, wh'ch he does gradually, a dangerous fvvell of the fea 
fucceeds, and a kind of whirlpool is natuially formed in the water. In 

1680, a young krtikcn pcriHied among- the rocks and clifls of the parifl^ 
cf Alllahong; and his death was attended by fuch a Iknch, that the 
cuanncl where it died was ijT-paflr.ble. V'.ithout entering into any ro- 
mantic theories, we may fafely fay, that the exillencc cf this filh being 
proved, accour;t3 fur many of thofe phenomena of floating i Hands, and 
tranutory appearances in t-u fea, that have hitherto been held as fabu- 
lous by tlie loavned, vvho could have no idea of fuch an anim.al. 

The mermen and mcr-womcn, hold their refidcnce in the Norwegian 
feas ; bat J cannot give credit to all that is related concerning them 
by the natives. The mcnr.an is about eight fpans long, and, un- 
doubtedly, has as 3i;ueli rcfem.blr.nce as an ape has to the human fuc- 
cies ; a high fvirehead, little eyes, a flat nofe, and large mouth, without 
chin cr cars, charaderize its head; its arms are lliort, but v/ithout joints 
or elbows, and tliey terminate in members refembling a human hand, 
but cf the paw kind, and tUe lingers connected by a membrane : the 
parts of generation indicate their fe.ves ; though their under parti, which 
»emain in the vvater, terminate like tiicre of fifhes. The females have 
breails, at which they fucklc their young ones. It would far exceed the 
bounds allotted to this article, to follov/ the Norv/cgian adventurer.-, 
through all the diiTercnt defcriptions which tl'.ey have giv.'!"? us of their 
filTies; but they are fo well' authenticated, thrc 1 make no doubt, a new 
and very furprizijig theory of aquatic aniiraL may in tin-.e be formed. 
Peopi.k, language, religion, } The NMrwegians are a middling 

; AND CUSTOMS OK Norway. 3 kind of people, between the fun- 
pliciry of the Grcenlanders and Icelanders, and t'-^e more polifned man- 
ners of the Danes. Their religion is Lutlieran ; and they have bifhops, 
as thofe of Denmark, without temporal jurifdidicn. Their vicerovr 
like his mailer, is ablblute ; but we may eafdy conceive that he makes 
no barbarous ufe of his power, becaufe we knov/ of few or no rcprcfen- 
tations or infurrections of the people againit it. 

The Norwegians in general, are. flrong, robufi, and brave ; but quic'c 
in rcientir.o real or I'uppofcd injuries. The women are handfome and 

courteoui; 



N O R \V 



21 



DUntCu OK 



oath. 



1734' 



pon 

ly, 

the water. 
It it iKid a 
; that the 

nrl wrink- 

■ thh mon- 
ated like a 
ICC ot' the 
handle it. 
n, or kor- 
out ot" nil 
cncc ; and 
number of 
s, and fca- 
d antenna.', 
)r,car ; and 
fmallfifhcs. 
1 of the fca 
water. In 

■ the parifli 
1, that the 
ito any ro- 
s fiih tcinq; 
Hands, and 
:;ld as fabu- 
.1. 

Norvvf^ian 
rning them 
, and, un- 
human fpc- 
th, without 
thout joints 
irnan hand, 
ibrane : the 
r,vZ^, which 
ir.ales ha^■2 
exceed the 
adventurer:^ 
v.:s of their 
)ubt, a new 

tbriTied. 
^ a middling 
cen the fun- 
ilifned man- 
r.ve bilhops, 
:ir viceroVf 
lut he makes 
no rcprefcu- 

butquic"< 

ndfome and 
courteous ; 



(Oiirtcous ; and the TNorvveoiun f'Tin';, b)th i')r livin:', and enj<vln» pro- 
perty, arc mild, and gre:u!y relembling the Saxon anceilors of the pre- 
fent Enc^lifh. Every inhaintant is an arti7an, and luppiics his family 
in all its neccdaiijs with his Ovva manuf;i-:ture ; fo tliat in Norv/a) , 
there are few, by prcfVflion, who are hatters, lhoe-inaker.% taylors, 
tanners, weaver.-, carpenters, fniiths, and joiners, 'i he lov/ell Nor- 
Wfp;'an pcafant is r.:i artlli and a oi-ntIen;an, and even a poet. Th-'v 
dc.-i'Jo thfir-cjaarrcls by d.ueis : bui it is to b. rcoretted, that however fru- 
gal they are in tludr ordinary way of li\ia;;, they have particular times 
and feafons when they indub-.' themil-lvts even to intoxication ; and 
thofj Ibmedmrs produce fatal erects. They often mix with oatmeal the: 
bark of the lir, made into a kind cf flower; and they are reduced to 
very extraordinary ihiits for fuoolvino- the place cf bread, or fsraK'.c^oii.s 
fc.>d. The maniiers of the nr.d.l.'n^ Norv.i. plans, form a proper fubjctt 
of contemplation even to a r'hilofoplier, as they lead that hind of life v/hich 
we m.iy fay is furiiiihed with plenty ; but they are neither fond of luxury, 
nor dreadin^f pf-nury : this middle Itatc prolongs tlieir ages fv.rprizinglv. 
Though their drefs is accon-.'nodatcd to their climate, yet, by cuiiom, 
inil- d of c;aardinn; againil tiie inclemency of the weather, they outbrave 
i'j fo • t'ley expofc tliemfelves to ct^'ld, without anv coverture upon their 
brcalh or necks. A Ncrw .•r'ir.n of a hundred vears of arc, is not ac- 
counted pall his labour : and m 1733, four couples were married, and 
danced before his Danilh majcil:y at Frederlclhall, whofc ages, v/hen 
joined, exceeded 800 years. Notwitliilanding this, the inhabitants are 
fubjcct to the fcurvy ('vvhith breaks out in various manners) tlie catarrh, 
rheum.atifm, gout, and cpileply. The Norv/egian foldlers march with 
amazing expedition, cfpccially in winter, by the afTillapce of their (new 
Ihoes and icare«. TJie women wear clofe jackets, and girdles adorned 
with illver; with chains of the fame rctmd their necks, and gilt medals 
fixed to the eri'ls : thole lilver trinkets form the ornaments of a Norwe- 
<::an bride or bidic. 
The fimeral ceremonies of the Norwcf?ianr. contain veftifres of their 

^ ^ o o 

former paganifm : they play on the vijlm at the head of the coflin, and 
while the corpfe is carried to the church, v/liich is t")ften done in a boat. 
Jn fome places tiie :nourners afk the dead perfou why he died ; whether 
his v.'ife and neigiibours were kind to h^jn, and otiier fuch queiHons ; 
frequently kneeling down and alking forgivenefs, if ever they had of- 
ftr.dcd the deceaied. 

Curiosities.] Thofe of Norway are only natural. On the coaft, 
lantudc 67, is that divadful vortex, or vv'hiripool, called by navigators 
tlie navel of the fea, and by fome Malelirom, or M ^Ikoelh-on. Tiie 
iiland Moriioe, from whence this ftreai.i derives its name, lies between 
the mountain Hcfleggcn in Lofoden, and the ifland Ver, which are about 
one leajj-ue diftant ; and between the iiland and coall on eacli ude, the 
ftream makes its v.ay. Between Mollcoe and Lofoden, it is near 400 
fatiioni!) deep ; but between INloflcOG and Ver, it is fo fiiallow, as not to 
afrbrd palfage fnr a final 1 Ihip. When it is ilood, t!ie ilream runs up the 
country between Lofoden and Mofkoe with a boilterous rapidity; and 
when it is ebb, returns to the fea with a violence and noifp, unequalled 
by the loude.l: catarayts. Il is heard at thedillance of many leagues, and 
lorms a vortex or whirlpool of gi-eat depth and extent; lb violent, that 
if a Ihip comes near it, it is immediately drawn irrefilVibly into the whirl 
and I'here dirappears; being abforbed and carried down to the bottom in 




:i^>IL 






c 



a moment. 




22 



NOR \V .\ Y. 







> ■) 



a moment, where it is daflicd to phxcs againil thr- roclc,, : and jiifl at thtf 
tun of ebb and flood, when the water becomes Hill lor about a i]uartiT 
of an liour, it rifer) again in fcattcrcd fragments, icarccly to \,c kauv.va 
for the parts of a fliip. When it is agitated by a Itorni, it has reached 
veffels at the diftance of more than a Norway mile, where the crews luivo 
thought themfelvcs in perfedl fecurity. Perhap.-i it is liaidly in the pouc r 
of fancy to conceive a lituation of more horror, than of being thus driven 
forward by the fuJden violence of an impetuous torrent, to the vortex of 
a whirlpool, of v.'hich the noife and turbulence Hill incrcr.fir.g as it is ap- 
proached, are an earnefl: of quick and inevitable delhuilion ; while tl.c 
wretched viclims, in an agony cf defpair and terror, cry out for that help 
which they know to be impoflible ; and fee before them t.hc dreadful ahyls, 
in which they are about to be plunged and daihcd among the rockd at the 
bottom. 

Even animals which have come too near th- vortex, have expreficd 
the utmoft terror, when they find the ftream irrefiltible. Whales are fi j. 
quently can-ied away, and the moment they feel the force of the water, 
they ftruo-p-Ie againft it with all their might, howling and bellowing in a 
frightful manner. The like happens frequently to bears, v/ho attempt 
to fwim to the ifland to prey upon the ilieep. 

It is the opinion of Kirciier, that the malefcrom is a fea vortex, v.'liieh 
attracls the flood under the fhore of Norway, and difcharges it again in 
the giilph of Bothnia : but this opinion is now known to be erroneous, 
by tlie return of the {battered fragments oi'whatever happens to be fucked 
down by it. The large Items of firs and pines rife again ib Ihivered and 
fplintcred, that the pieces look as if covered with brillles. The vvholo 
phenomena are the effefts of the violence of tlie daily ebb and Hood, oc- 
cafioned by the contraftion of the llream in its courfe between the rock-,. 

Strength and revenue.] By the bell calculations, Norway can 
furnifh out 14,000 excellent feamen, and above 30,000 brave foldiers, 
for the ufe of their king, without hurting either trade or agriculture. 
The royal annual revenue from Norway amounts to about 200,000 1. 
and till his prefent majcdy's acccilion, tlie army, infcead of being ex- 
penfive, added confiderabiy to his majelly's income, by the fubfidics it 
brought him in from foreign princes. 

Commerce.] We have little to add to this head, difTercnt from whr.t 
we have already obferved as to Denmark. The duticj on their exports, 
moft of which have been already recounted, amount to about 100,000 
rixdollars a year. 

History.] We mull refer to Denmark likewifc for this head. The 
anticnt Norv.cgians certainly wtve a very brave and powerful people, 
and the hardie it feamen in the v.'orld. If we are to believe their hilloiies, 
they were no ihangcrs to America long before it was difcovered by Co- 
lumbus. Many cuftoms of their anccilors are yet difccrnible in Ireland 
and the north cf Scotland, where they made frequent defcents, and foine 
fcttkments, which are generally confounded with thofe of the Danes. 
From their being the molt turbulent, they are become now the moft loyrd 
fubjedls in Europe ; which we can cafily account for, from the barbarity 
and tyrannv of their kings, when a feparatc people. Since the union of 
Calm;ir, tiieir hiltory, as well as intcrell:;, are the fame with that of 
Denmark. 



H4S 



D E N M A R K. 



ft3 



jufl elf. ^hs 
a quarter 

as reached 

:rews luivu 

the pou'CT 

;liU9 driven 

c vortex of 

as it is ap- 

whilc tliC 

)r that help 

vclfal abyls, 

•ocki at tlic 

e expreficj 
ilcs arc l\.:- 
the water, 
lowinor in a 
'lio attempt 

rtex, v/l'.ich 
it again in 
2 erroneous, 
:o be lucked 
blvercJ ami 

The whole 
d iiood, oc- 
1 the rock^. 
^lorway can 
ive foklieij, 
a'jriculturc. 
;oo,003k 
being ex- 

"ubridicb i; 

from wlir.t 
icir exports, 

lUt lOOjOOO 

lead. The 
ful peopk', 
eir hillorics, 
red by Co- 
in Irckir.d 
, and fome 
the Danes, 
e rnoil loyal 
le barbarity 
he union of 
►vith that ot 



His Danish Majesty's GERMAN DOMINIONS. 

TIT O SR dominions are mentioned in a fcparate article chiclly for the 
fake of order, as the inhabitants dilltr little or nothing from other 
Germans ; wc iludl therefore be more general in defcribing them. The 
duchy of Sl'fv.ic, which fome fiy properly belongs to Denmark, is 
bounded by Jutland, the Baltic, the duchy of MolUcin, and the German 
ocean. It is well watered, and produces plenty of corn ; but the capital 
city of Slefwic, which itands upon a fmall arm of the fea, called tlie Sley, 
is much decayed both in trade and population. Gottorp Hands likewile 
upon the SIcy ; and was once famous for tlie magnificent palace of its 
dukes, and for being tiic rcfidencc of tlic celebrated aurunomir Tycho 
IJralic ; fome of his planetary machines and globes IHU remaining in one 
of the fummcr-hnufe^ of the palace. 

Ilolilein belo!igs partly to Denmark and partly to Rufila. The capital 
of the Danifli Ikvidein is Gluckftadt, a well-built town and fortrefs, in 
a marfiiy fituation, on the right of the Elbe; in which is a Lutheran, a 
Cal\ inilt, a RomiOi church, and a Jews fynagogue ; and has fome foreign 
com.'ncrce. Kc}l is the capital of the Ducal Holliein, and is well built, 
has a harbour, and neat public edifices. 

The famous city of Hamburgli lies, in a geographical fenfe, in Hol- 
liein, but is n"vv an imperial, I'vec, and Ilanliatic city, lying on the 
verge of that part of Holliein called Stormar: it has the fovereignty of 
a fi.iall diih-ifft round it, of about ten miles circuit : it is one of the molt 
llourifliing commercial towns in Europe; .nnd though the kings of Den- 
mark 'liU lay claim to certain privileges within its walls, it may be con-» 
(idcred as a well-regulat^-d commonwealth. The number of its inhabi- 
tants are faid to amount to 180,000 ; and it is furnilhed with a vaft va- 
riety of nnble edifices, both public and private : it has two fpacious 
liarixiurs, fonncd by the river Elbe, vdiich runs through thetov.'n, and 
84 bridges are thrown over its canals. Hamburgh has tlie good fortune 
of liaving been peculiarly favoured in its commerce by (jrcat-Britain, 
with whom it Hill carries on a great trade. The Hamburghers maintain 
twelve coiTipr.nies of foot, ai>d one troop of dragoons, bciides an' artil- 
lery company, 

in Wcilphalia, the king of Denmark has the counties of Oldenburg 
and Dclmenhorlt ; they lie near the Ibuth fide of the Wefcr ; their capi- 
tab, of the fame name, are both regularly fortified : and Oldenburg 
gave a title to the firll royal anceftor of his prefent Danifli majelly. 



L A P L A N D. 

THE northern fitu;,'.icn if Lapland, and the divifion of its property, 
require, before I proceed faitiier, that I treat of it under a diltindt 
head, and in the fame method that lobfervein other countries. 

jle country of Lapland extends, fo 
known ; from the North Cape in 
71 •^o N, lat. to the White-Sea, under the an^tic circle. Part of Lap- 
l.uid belongs to the Danes, and is i-iicludcd in the govcrnnunt of Ward- 
Kuys ; part; to tiic Swedes, wkich is by far the molt valuable ; and foire 

C ^ parts, 



• ■■ 

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S IT U A T 1 N , E X T E N T , 7 The whol< 

01 VISION AND NAME, j far as it is 



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WEBSTER, N.Y. MS80 

(716) 172-4503 



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LAPLAND. 



H 



parts, in the caft, to the Mufcovitcs. It would be liiilc better tlian 
waiting the rcaJer'b time, to pretend to pjjiiit out the fuppofcd dimcn- 
fion.'s of tach. I'hat belonging to the Sweden, may he fccn in t!ie t-'.bl'j ci 
dimenficns given in the acc:uiitot" Sweden : but ctlier rcccunta fay, tlut 
it is about ico German miles in length, and 90 in breadth ; it coin- 
nrehends all the country from the Baltic, to the mountains tiiat fepanita 
Ncr.vay fr'::n Sweden. Th-j; Mufcoviie part lies tov/ards tJic ea!l, be- 
tween the lai-'.c Enarak. and tlic White-Sea. Thcfc parts, nitwiihitand- 
ing the rudenefs of the caunliy, are divided into fmalkr dlilricb ; gc::c- 
rafly taking their names from rivers : but, unlefs in the Sweuifii part, 
which is fubjecl to a prcfeil, tlie Laplanders can be faid to be und.-r no 
regular government. The SvveJifn Lapland thcrcibie is tiie obje^l con- 
fidered by authors in defcribing this country. It has been generally 
thought, that the Laplanders arc the defcendants of Finhnu'crs driven 
out of t'-.eir own country, and that they take their name from Lap-^.i's, 
which fignifics exiles. The reader, from what I have faid cf other 
northern countries, n;ay eafily conceive that in Lapland, fjr fome months 
in the fummer, the fun never fcts ; and during winter, it never rifes : 
but the irhi.bitants arc h well alliftcd by the twilight and the aurora bo- 
realis, that they never difcontinuc their work through darkncfs. 

Mountains, rivers,) The reader mull form in hi., mind, avail 

LAKES, Ar;D roRESTs. 3 mafs cf mountaini irregularly crowded toge- 
ther, to give him an idea of Lapland: they are, however, in fome in- 
tcrftices, feparatcd by rivers and la!:e3, v.'liich contain an incredible 
number of iflands, fome of which form delightful habifations ; and are 
believed by the natives to be the teri-eftrial Paradife : even roles and li;:wcrs 
grow wild on their borders in the fummer ; but this is but a fliort gleam 
of temperature ; f(/r the climate in general is exccllivcly fevcrc. Dufriy 
forefts, and ncifomc, uidiealthy mcraflcs, cover great part of the \\:x 
'. ountry ; {o that nothing can be more uncomfurtabit thjm the Hate of die 
inhabitants. 

Climate.] In winter, it Is no unr.runl\lnng for their lips to be fro- 
zen to the cup in attempting to drink j and in fome tliermometcrs, fpirits 
of v/ine arc concreted into iee : the limbs of the inJiabitants very often 
mortify with cold : drifts cf fnow threaten to bury the traveller, and 
c:?vcr the ground four or five feet deep. A thaw fumetimes tidies place, 
and tlicn the froll that fiiccceds, prefjnts tl\e Laplander widi a fmooth 
level of ice, over which he travels in his ilodge with inconceivable fwift- 
ncfs. T'le heats of fummer are e:;ccnivr for a Ihort time ; and the cata- 
rads whicli dalh from the mountains, often prefent to the eye the moll 
pit^urcfoue appearances. 

Metals and mitjerals.] Silver and gold mines, as well as thofe 
cf copper and lead, have been difeovered and w rked in Lapland : beau- 
tiful chryftals are found here, us are fome am.ethylls and topazes ; aifo 
various forts of mineral Hone-; furprizingly poliflied by the hand of na- 
ture ; valuable peaiL have been fometimes found in rivers, but never in 
the fcas, 

Ar<iMALs, quadrupeds, birds,') We m-ft refer to our accounts 
r I s H E s , A N D 1 N s :: c 1' s . \ of Denmark and Norway for great 

part of this article, us its cv.'ntei^ts are in ci-mmon with all the three coun- 
tries. The zibebn, a creature refembling the marten, is a nativ of Lnp- 
Jand; and its flcin, whether black or white, is fo mr.ch elleemed, that it 
l" freijucntiy gt\cn as prcrtnts to royal and dillinguifaed perfoiiages. 

4 The 



LAPLAND. 



*5 



The Lapland hares grow white in the winter; and tl'.c country produces 
a hirgc tlauk c::t, whic:h atcci.ti:. ti.c n-.tivcj in liuuiing. Ly fur the 
nioll rcmarkaMe, however, of tlic Laphind iinimals, h the rciu-dcer ; 
which natujc {\:i:v:\:i t:) JiiiVi: {;rov:dcd to fohicc tlic Laplanders for llie pri- 
vation (if the oihcr comforts of life. Tlvis r.:;imal, the moll ufcful per- 
haps of any in the creation, rciemLles th'.' uag, only it fumc-.vhat droops 
tbx head, and the horns prujeLt f. r.vard. In luuimcr, tlii.' rein-deer pro- 
\ide theniJcl\ej with Icau:; and {.^r,.!"", and in the v, inter they live upon 
the mofs already defcribed : liicy have a v.OiiJciful fagacity at finding it 
cut, and when t'ound, ihey fc -ape away the fnaw, that covers it, with 
tiieir feet. The fcaiitlncfs of their fare is inconceivithle, as is tlie length of 
thcjoiirn?ys whieh tiiey can pcrforn; willioutanyoi-hcr fapp.vrt. 'I'hoy fix 
the rein-deer to a kind of lledre, ihaped like a fniall boat, in which the 
traveller, wcil fecurcd from cold, is laced down, with the reins in one 
hand, and a kind of MuJ.geon in ihe otiier, tj keep tlie carriage clear of 
ice and fnow. Ihe deer, whofc harnciTing is very fimpk', fees out, and 
continues tiie journey with prodigious fpeed; and is fo fafe and tracl:ablc, 
that the driver is at litilc cv no trouble in direflln-j him. At night they 
look out fjr their own pt nender ; and th.ir milk often helps to fupport 
tiieir maftcr. Their inuinil in chuHng their road and directing their 
courfe, can ojily be accounted for, by their being well acKjuainted with 
the c:iuntry during the iuninicr mciiti'.s, wh.en they live in woods. Their 
fielh is a well-tafted food, w hethcr frelli or dried : their fkin forms ex- 
cellent cloat]\lng both for tlie bed and the body : their milk and cheefe 
ajv nutritive and pkufant; and their iiitclunes and tendons fupply their 
r.alkr? with tlircad and c:-jdage. Vv'hen they run about wild in the 
fijlds, the) may be fliot at as other game. But it is liiid, that if one is 
killed in a flock, tlij farvivcrs will gore and trample him to pieces ; 
thr.cfore finglc ftragglors are generally pitched upon. Were I to recount 
every clrcuniflance, related by the credulous, ot this animal, the whole 
would appear fabulous. li. is fufhcient to obferve furtlicr, that the num- 
ber of tame re'i-d'"?rs poiTciTed by a Laplander, forms the chief part of 
ills riches. With all their excellent qualities, however, the rein-deer 
have their inconveniences. 

It is difricult in u;mmer to keep them from ftraggling ; they are fome- 
tiiucs buried in the fnow ; and they frequently grow reilive, to the great 
danger of the driver and his carriage. His furprizing fpeed (for they 
r.re faid to run at the rate of 200 miles a day) feems to be owing, to his 
Impatience to get rid of his incumbrance. None but a Laplander could 
bear the uneafy p'.-ilure, when he is confined in one of thofe carriages or 
p;'lkhas ; or believe that bv whifpering the rein-deer in the ear, they 
kiv:nv the place of their dcilination. But after all thofe abatements, the 
natives would have difliculty to fubfil. without their rein-deer, whicll 
icrves them for more purpofes than I ha/e room to mention. 

PtopLK, CUSTOMS, AND MANNERS.] The language of the Lap- 
landers is barbarous, but it feems radically to have come from Finland. 
Learning has made no progrefs aniong ther.i ; and they praftife fuch arts 
only as fupply them with the means of living. IVIiflionaries from the 
chriilianized parts of Scandinavia, introduced among them the Chriftian 
religion ; but they cannot be fiud even yet to be Clirillians, though they 
hae among them feme religious feminaries, inllituted by the king of 
Denmark. Upon the whole, the majority of the Laplanders pratlile as 
^rols fupcrlUtiuiis and idolatries, ai are to be found among the moft un- 

iiiiiruAed 



i6 



L A P I. A N D. 






I i 



inftniiflcd pr^gp.ns; aivl fo abfunl, that the)- fcarccly dffcrve to be men- 
tinned, were it iv;t tli.-.t the number and oddities of their fuperftitiou ;, 
have indncvd the mrthcni traders to believe that they arc (kilful in ni.i- 
gic and divination. iVr tiii.s purpofc, their magicirjib, who are a pccii- 
liai- fet of nien, m::ke ufe.of wl'at they call a nrum, made of the hcl- 
lov.-vd trunk cf a f.r, pin'*, or bijch tree, one end of which if covered 
viih a fitin ; on thib they draw, v.ith a kind of red colour, the figures of 
their Gv.n gods, as vvcil :is of jefii.'. Chrill, the apolHes, the fun, moon, 
liars bird.-;, and river.-.; on tliefe tlicy place one or two brafs rinos, 
w'hi; h, vvhcn tlie drui'n i;; beaten Vvith a little hammer, dance over the 
figures ; and accordii:;-; to their progrcis, the forcerer prognollicnies. 
Ilxnic fraritic opera'i'.r.s arc generally performed for gain ; and the 
northern fliip-maLcra are fuch dupes to the arts of the inipoftors, lliat 
they ol'.en Inty frwni theiri a mngie cord, v.hich contains a number of 
knot-s by opening of v/hich, according to the magician's dircd\ion, thcv 
gain v/hat \-. iiid they \v;int-. This i:; a \ery coinnion ti-aftic en the ban!:'; 
of the Red-S:a, and i:: managed v;idi great addrcis on the part of the for- 
ccrer, who keeps up the price of his knotted tnlifman. The Laplande, j 
ftill retain il.c v.nriliip of n.any of the Teutonic gods, but luive amor^ 
them great remains of the d -nidical inllitutions. They belie\c the tran;- 
migration of the f .'jI ; and have leilivals f't apart for the worfliip of cer- 
taiji gciii, called Juhles, v.ho tliey tliink inhabit the air, and have great 
pov er over liuman aCii-^ns ; but being without f^rm or fubftance, they 
afi:!';n to thcr:! neither images nf^r ftatues. 

Lapland h but poorly peopled, ov.ing to the general barrennefs of m 
fc'I. I'he v.Jiole iuin\ber of ils i;d\abitants may amount to about 60,000. 
Both ine)i and wonun arc in j^eneral facrter by the head than more 
fouthcrn Europ'uans. Mauper:u-$ nieafured a woman, who was fuckling 
her own child, v. h'ie hei^lit did not exceed four feet two inches and 
about a half; tlicynake, howeve]-, a more human appearance tiian the 
jnen, v.ho ai-e ili-lhaped and v.'Ay, and their heads too large for their 
bodice. 

Wlien a ^ .plar.dcr intend-, to marry .1 female, he, or his friends, 
court her faiiier with l^andy ; wIumi with iomc difliculty he gains ad- 
mittance to liis fair one, he ofTers her a beaver's tongue, or fome other 
eatable ; which flie njeds before compaiiy, but accepts of in private. 
Coh.ibitr.tion cfren precedes raa.Tiage ; but every admittance to the fair 
one ir. purchafcd from her father by the lover with a bottle of brandy, 
and tills prolongs tlie coiw-tOiip foinetimcs for three years. The prie'd of 
the pa,ilh at lalt celebrates the nnptials ; but the bridegroom is obliged 
to ferve his father-in-law for four years after. He then carries his wife 
and her frnunc home. Thni; marriages are feldom prolific ; but it is 
fu:pr!;-.ing f) fee hov>' quickly the women recover from the pains of chilJ- 
biiih, and how hard;!,- the children of both fe.ves arc brought up. In 
rclicious matters the Laplanders have different priefts ; thoie under the 
Riiliians, and their ceremonies, being of the (jreck church. 

Co.MMEiJcr..] LirJe can be fa:d of the commerce of the Laplander'-. 
Their experts confill (>f ftlh, rein-deer, furs, baflcets, and toys; wit!i 
fome dried pikes, and checfes made of rein-deer milk. They receive for 
thcfe, ri.vdoilars, v/.-^'dlcn cloths linen, copper, tin, flour, oil, hides, 
needles, knives, fpirltuous liquors, tobacco, .ind other neceflaries. Their 
mines are generally wo:k„'d by fireignrrs, and produce no inconfidernhle 
ir. jfit. I'he Laplanders tiavel in a kind of caravan, with their famili:'\ 
3 ^" 



I. 

di 

cl 



S W E D E N. 



^7 



to the Fiiil:iiul and Norway fairs. And tlie reader may make Come efli- 
xnntc ol" the indium of commerce among them, when he is told, that 
lifty fquirrt-ls fl:iiis, or one fbx-ftin, and a pair of I/ipland Ihoes, pro- 
duce one rixdollnr; but no computation can be made of the public re- 
venue, the G^rcaljil part of which is allotted for the maintenance of the 
clergy. With regard to the fccurity of their property, few difputcs hap- 
pen ; and their judges have no military to enforce their decrees, the people 
havinc; a lemarkablc nverfion to war ; and fo far as we know, never em- 
ployed in any army. The above is the lateft and bcft account that lia« 
been received of his extraordinary people. As to the other particulars 
relating to them, they are in common with their neighbours the Danes, 
Norwegians, Swedes, and Ruflians. 



SWEDEN. 



Boundaries AND 7 'TpHLS country is bounded by the Baltic (ea, 

EXTENT. 3 A the Sound, and ilie Catcgatc, or Scag- 

gcrac, on the fouih ; W/ the impanhblc moant.iins of Norway, on the 

well ; by Danilh or Norwegian Lapland, on the nortli ; and by Mul'- 

covy on tiie caft. 'Die fituation and extent of Sweden are as follow. 

lo 

E. Lon. 



Between 



Between 




Being 



N. Lat. 



8oo miles in length. 



500 miles in breadth. 



is divided into fcv^:! provinces 
Livonia. 4. fni^-ia. (thole two 



I. Sweden Proper. 2. Gothland, 
provinces belong now, however, to 
the Runians, having been conquered by Peter the C^reat, and ceded by 
pcilcrior trc;.tic;..) ^. Finhiud. 6. SweJiih Laphand : and 7. The Swedifli 
illands. Great aoatcmcnts mull be made for the lakes, and unimproved 
parts of Sweden ; wiiich are fo cxtenfivc, that tlie habitable part is con- 
lined t'l iiarrovv boundii. The following are the dimcnfions gi\en us 
of tliis kingdom. 





Sijuars 


Sum 


r 


ta 


1 


Sweden, 


miles. 


total. 


trs 


^ 


Capital Citii.2. • 




'7<^>s?'; 


223,715 


f 


■ 


S\»'L-c!:;!l — — 


— 47,90c 




"42 


194 Stockholm 


Gotiu.iriJ — — 


— 2^,975 




21-? 


160 Calmar 


Schoncii — — — 


— 1960 




77 


56 I'Uiidcn 








76,83s 










r Lapland, and 
^1 W.Bothnia 


J 1 76,cpo 






1 Tin-nc 




420 


34°lU.na 


4j J rir.land, ; iiJ 

3 1 E. Kothni.i 


^ 1 73.C00 




395 


■A > 
*^5 iCaienburg 


I 1 r.oilil.md 1. — 


— 1 ICOO 




Ko 


2-, -\V.JI,y 


•^ L Oelind I. — 


— 


560 


1 50,-; Co 


«S 


10 Barkh hn 


Upper ^ Pom^r iiiia, 1*, 




960 


47 


24 'Stialfiiiid 


Saxony S f^Hr-" '• 




3.0 




a4 


2 1 Ikrgen 






T -"' 







' Tk9 



tS 



SWEDEN. 



1,^ 



' i 



The face of Sweden is pretty fimilar to thofe of its neirjhL-.uriiig coun- 
trica ; only it has the auvautage of navigable rivtrt. 

Climate and seasons, | The fame may be faid with regard ti 
SOIL AND PRODUCTION, j rhis urticlc, oumnier buriU from winter; 
and vegetation is more fpeedy liian in foiithern climates ; for the fun is 
here i"o hot, as fometimes to fet foivlls on fre. Stoves and warm furs 
miti^;ate tjic cold of winter, which is fo intenfc, that the nofcs and e>c- 
tremities of tlie inhabitants are fomctimcs mortiiied ; and in fuch cafes, 
the beil remedy that has been found out, is rubbing the uucdcd part wicii 
Inow. 'I'h:; Swedes, fmce tlie days of Charles Xil. have been at incre- 
dible pains to correcf the native barrennelj of their couni.rv, by ereding 
collcgea of a[;riciiltun', cr.d in fonii; plu.ces with e.vceliCnt fuccefs. The 
ibil is much the fame svIlIi tliat of Denmark and fome parts of iNorway, 
<i;enerally very bad, but in ihiwc vallics furprizingly i'ertile. The Swedes, 
till of late }'ears, had not induilry fuuicient to remedy tlie cnc, nor im- 
prove the otlKT. Tlie peaihnts r.ow follow the agriculture of France luid 
England ; and fome late aecor.:;tj fa}', tiKit tliey vear ahnolt a:; much 
gram as maintains the natives. Gotiiland produces wheat, rye, barlev, 
oats, peas and beans ; and in cafe of deficiency, the people are fupplied 
from Livonia and the Baltic provinces. In fummcr, the fields are ver- 
dant, and c^'.cred Vvitli flowers, and produce ftrawberries, raiberries, 
currants, and other fmall fruits. The common people know, as yei, 
little cf the Culdvatiun of apricots, peaches, nedarines, piue-applei;, and 
the like high-Havoured fruits; but melons are brought to perfection in 
dry feafons. 

Seas.] Their ftas arc the r.altlc, and the gulphs of Bothnia and Fin- 
land, which are arms of the Er.f.ic ; and on the weft of Sweden are the 
Categate fca, and tlie Sound, a fueigiit about four miles over, which 
divides Sweden from Dciimarh. 

Thefe feas have no tid.^s, and are frozen up ufually four months in the 
year ; nor are they fo fait as the ocean, never mixing v>'ith it, becaufe a 
current lits always cut of the Baltic fea into the ocean. 

Animals, quadrupeds, 7 Theie differ little from thofe already 
BIRDS, and fishes. ] dcfciibcd in Norway and Denmark, to 
which I mult refer ; only the S\\ edtfn horfes are known to be more ferviceable 
in war than tlie German. 'l"he fyd:iif,van is faid to be peculiar to Sweden : 
it is about tliC fize of a lieldfare, but of a liner flavour, and beautifully 
feathered. I'he Swedilh luuvks, when carried to France, have been 
known to revifit tiieir n; .ive country; as appears from one that was 
killed in Finland, v/ith an infciiptluu on a iiuall gold plate, fignilying 
that he belonged, to the French kir.g. The fillics found in the rivers and 
lakes of Sweden, are the fune wiili t!iofe in other northern countries, 
nnd taken in fuch quantities, tliat their pikes (p.articularly) are faked 
and pickled for exportation. M'lie train-oil of the feals, taken in the 
gulph of Finknd, is a confidciablc article of exportation. 

Minerals and metals.] Sweden produces chryftals, amethyils, 
topazes, porphyry, lapij-iazuii, agaic, cornelhan, marble, and ether 
foifils. The chief wealt'i of Sv/eden, however, arifes from her mines of 
filvcr, copper, lead, and imn. The laft mentioned metal employs no 
fewer than 450 forges, ham-.r.crin^-nulls, and fm.elting-houfes. A kind of 
a gold mine has lil-ewife been diicovered In Sweden, but fo inconfiderable, 
that fjom the year 1741 to 1/47, it produced only 2,398 gold ducats, 
eath valued at 9 s. 4a. iteiling. The fint galhi y of one iiiver mine i» 



SWEDEN. 



i9 



•ver, wiiica 



too fatlioms below the fuffaco of the earth ; the roof is fupported by pro- 
di^^ions oaken beams ; and from thence the miners deftcnd about fori 
fathoms to the lowell vein. This mine is laid to produce 20,000 crown 
a year. The produdl of the copper-mines is uncertain ; but the whole i. 
ioaJcJ with vaft taxes and reductions to the government, which has nr» 
other refources for the exigencies of ftate. Thofe fubterraneous manfions 
are nftoniihinj^ly fpacious, and at the fame time commodious for their 
inhabitants, u» that they fcem to form a hidden world. The water-fall* 
in Sweden afford excellent convcnicncy fi)r turning mills for forges ; and 
fjr ibmc years, the exports of Sweden for iron, brought in 300,000!. 
llcrling. Dr. Bufching thinks that they conftituted two-thirds of the 
national revenue. It muft, hov/e\cr, be obferved, that the extortions 
of the Swediih government, and the importation of American bar-iron 
into E'.irope, and fome other caufcs, have greatly diminilhed this manu- 
friturein Sweden ; fo that the Swedes very foon mu<l apply themfelves to 
ether branches of trade and improvements, efpccially in agriculture. 

CoMMERCK AND MANUFACTURES.] The Swedifli commonalty fub- 
fifl by agriculture, mining, gradng, hunting, and filhing. Their ma- 
terials for traflic, are the bulky and ufeful commodities cf mafls, beams» 
deal-bo.irds, and other forts of timber for fliipping ; tar, pitch, bark of 
trees, pot-aih, wooden utenfds, hides, flax, hemp, peltry, furs, copper, 
lead, iron, cordage, and filh. F.ven the manufafturing of iron was in- 
troduced into Sweden fo late as the fixteenth century ; for till that time 
they fold their own crude ore to the hanfe towns, and bought it back 
a^ain mnnufadured into utenfds. About the middle of the feventeentli 
century, by the alTdbnce of the Duich and Flemings, they fet up fome 
mr.nufiiftures of glaf?, ftarch, tin, woollen, filk, foap, leather-dreffing, 
and faw-mills. Bdok-felling was in that time a trade unknown in Sweden. 
They have fince had fugar-bnking, tobacco-plantations, and manufac- 
turos of fail-cloth, cotton, fuftian, and other fluffs ; of linen, allum, 
brimftone, paper-mills, and gunpowder-mills ; vaft quantities of copper, 
brafs, rtcel, and iron, are now wrought in Sweden. They have alfo 
founderics for cannon, forgeries for fire-arms and anchors, armories, 
wire and flatting-mills ; mills alfo for fulling, and for boring, and 
llamping ; and of late they have built many Ihips for fale. 

Certain towns in Sweden, being twenty-four in number, are called 
Staple-towns, where the merchants are allowed to import and export 
commodities in their own (hips. Thofe towns which have no foreiga 
cornmcrcc, though lying near the fea, are called land-towns. A third 
kind are termed mine-towns, as belonging to mine diftrifts. The Swedes, 
about the year 1752, had greatly encrcafed their exports, and diminifhed 
their imports, moft part of which arrive, or are fent off in Swediih fliips ; 
the Swedes having now a kind of navigation-aft, like that of the En- 
glifli. Thofe promifing appearances were, however, blafted, by the 
madnefs and jealoufies of the Sw "I1 government; the form of which 
Ihall be hereafter defcribed ; and the people are now fo oppreft with taxes, 
that fome important revolution is daily expefted in that kingdom. 

Stockholm is a ftaple-town, and the capital of the kingdom ; it ftands 
about 790 miles north-eaft from London, npon about fix contiguous 
illands, and built upon piles. The caftle, though commodious, and 
covered with copper, has neither ftrength nor beauty ; but accommodates 
the royal court, and the national courts and colleges. The number of 
Ijoufe-keepers who pay taxes, are 60,000 j fo that Stockholm is fup- 

poied, 



3* 



SWEDEN. 






pcfcd to contain 100,000 inJiabitants. The haihour Is fpncious anj 
tonvenieiit, though difficult of accefi, and is furnillicd with all the exte- 
rior marks of magnificence, antJ ercdlions for maiiufafturc; and commerce 



(pirticiiiuly a niitional bank, the capital of which is .|/,o,(»661 
fltrling) that are common to cdu-r great European cities 



4d. 



LOPLii, LANGUAGE, ) Tlierc is a great divcriily of charnflcis 
AM) RKLiciON. J amoHg the people of Ssveucn ; and what is 
peculiarly remarkable among lliem, they iiavc been kno-.vn to have dif- 
ferent ch.iracters in diiFcrent ac;es. At preient, their peafants fl-cm to be 
a heavy plodding race of men, Jhnng and hardy ; but wlJ-.^nt any other 
ambition than that of fubfilHng themfclves and tiieir f'.milies as well as 
tliey can : the mercantile clafl'es are much of tlic fante cull ; but great ap- 
plication and perfcvcrance is difcovered among them all. One could iorin 
no idea that the modern Swedes are the dcfcendants of thofe, who, under 
Ci:llavas Adolphus and Charles XII. carried terror in their names through 
the moil diilant countries, and fliook the foundations of the greatell em- 
pires. Tiie intrigues of tlieir (tMiators drapged tlicm to take part in tlic 
late war a";ainll Pruffia ; yet their behaviour was fpiritlefs, and their 
coun.ge contemptible. The principal nobility and gentry ot Sweden are 
naturally brave, ptuite, and hofpitable ; they have high and warm no- 
tions of honour, .:nd are jer.Icus of their national intcrelb. 'Die drc'fs, 
cxercircs, and dixciliono of the common pev)ple, are aitncil the fame with 
tjjofe of Denmark : the better fort are iniatUuLcd with f'lcnch modes and 
faHiions. 'I'hcy are not tbiul of mnrrying their daughters v.'htn young, 
a.-? they have liuie to fp.ue in their own lifo-iime. 'J'ho v/onicn go to 
plough, tl'.reJli out the corn, row upon the v.'.-.ter, ferve the biieiJayers, 
carry burthens, ar.d do ail the common drudgeries in hulbandv) , 

The Swcdidi language is a dialce'l of the Teutonic, and relbmblcs that 
of Denmark. Chriilianity was introduced here in the ninth century. 
Their religion is Lutheran, which v.as propngateJ among them byCulhi- 
vus Vafj, about the yrar }^:.^. I'he Swedes are iurpir/ingiy uniform 
and unremitting in relirjous matter;. ; and have ftcu .-'ii aveiTion to po- 
pery, that calhation is tlie fiite ef every Rrnian-cathciic prieit difcovered 
in their country, 'i'he arehbiiliop of Upfal has a revenue of about 400 1. 
a year ; and has under him llilrtccn futt'ragans, beiidcj fuperiiuendents, 
with moderate llipends. No cieri;\inan haj the leali: direiMion in die 
ailairs of flatc ; but their m^ials, aiid the fan;!uty of tlieir lives, endear 
them fo much to the people, tiir.t the government woi.id repent making 
tinem its enemies, I'heir churches are neat, and often ornanK'nled. A 
body of ecciefiailical laws and canons dirccl their religious oeccnomy, 
Accnvcrfion to popery, or a lorg continuance under excommunication, 
HJiich cnnot pufs without the king's pcrniiinoii, is punilhed by im- 
prifonment and exile. 

GovtKNMu NT.] The government of Sweden, by v.hich I mean its 
political coni'litutionj, is of itfclf a Ihidy, ( ccafior.od by the checks which 
each onlcr has upon anotiiCr. The Swede', like the Danes, were 
v;i'^;inany free; but alter various revrlulion:;, which will be hereafter 
BJciitioncd, Charles XII. who was kil e^ in 1718, became defpctie. He- 
was fucceeded by his filler, Ulrica; \Vi o confented to the abolition of 
dt-fpotifm, and rclkned the ihitcs to their fornjer liberties ; and they, in 
return, alfociated her hufhand, the landgrave of K( ac-Cahol, with her 
in th': government. A new model of the c.ndlitutlun was then dra^n r,p, 
by vvluch the royal pewer was brought, ^cihaps, too low; lor the kin"; 

tif 



SWEDEN. 



3' 



rf Sweden can fcarccly be called by tliat name, bi-inj; limited in every 
exercife of jTOvcrnment, and even in the L-dvcnti'^n of his ov.n chiKlren. 
The diet of the llaics appointed the rrcat ofliccis of the kiii^ u(»m ; and all 
employments of any value, ccclcfiallical, civil, or mir!:.;ry, arc con- 
ferred by the king only with tl\c approbation of ihc fcnatc. The cftates 
arc formed of deputies from the four orders, nubJUty, clcr;^y, burghers, 
andpcafants. The reprcfentatives of the nobility, wliich iacludcs the gen- 
try, amount to .il)Ove a thouftnd, tlicfe c-f ihc cl.'i^^y to v.v.t liiindrcd, tlie 
burghers about a hundred and fifty, and the nealiints two hundred and fifty. 
Kach order fits in its own houfe, and has its own fpi akcr ; and cacli chuies 
a fccrct committee for the difpatch of bulinefs. 'ri.'C fiatJi are to be con- 
voked once in three years, in the montli of January ; and their coHcdlive 
body have greater powers than the parliament <'f Gi rat-Britain ; bec.iufe, 
as it has been obfc;ved, the king':, prerogative i^^ far more Iiounded. 

VN'hen the ib'.tes are not fitting, the aiiairs vi the pid^Hc are managed 
by the king and the fenate, uhich are no other liir.n a committee of the 
ilatcs, but chofen in a particular manner : the nobility, or uppcr-houfe, 
appoint tvventy-.iUir deputies, the clergy tv.chc, ar.d the burghers twelve; 
thefe chufe three peifons, who are to be prelented to the king, that he 
may nominate one out of the three for each vacancy. The peafants have 
no vote in electing a fenator. Almoll all the executive power is lodged 
in the fenate, which cunfilts of fourteen members, befides the chief 
governors of the provinces, the prcfident of the cliancery, and the grand 
inarthal. Thofe fenators, during the rccefs of the iKatc,^, form the kng's 
privy-council ; but lie has no more than a calling vote in their delibe- 
rations. Appeals lie to them from dili'erent courts of judicature; but 
e.xh fenator is accountable for his conduit to the llatCb. Thu:., upon 
t!ie vshoic, the government of Sweden may be called repul)]ican, lor the 
king's power is not fo great as a lladtholder. The fenate has even a 
power (f impofing upon the king a fub-committee of their number, 
wlio is to attend upon his prrlbn, and to be a check uprn all his pro- 
Crt'dinos, down to t'-.e very mnnarcment of his familv. It would be 
endlcis to recount the numerous fubordinute courts, boards, cominiilions, 
and tribunals, Vvhich the jealoufy of the Swedes liave introciaced into 
the adminirtration of civil, military, commerciai, and otherdepart- 
mcnts ; it is fuflicient to fay, that though nothing can be more plaufible, 
yet notliing is lefs praflicib.c than the v.h )!c plan of their dillribiuive 
pcu'crs. Their officers and niinillers, under the notion of making them 
checks upon one anotlierj arc mukiplicd to an inconvenient degree ; 
many of their courts ha 'e little or nothing to do ; and every operation of 
jfO'/ernmcnt is retarded or rendered incfn'c^ual, by the tedious forms 
tl.iongh which it mull pafs. This is fecn in the pr ent deplorable Itate 
el" Sweden, where its whole fyllem of government was lately in danger 
of'aniilhilation ; which mull Aill be the confequence, if feme material 
alter... ions arc not introduced into it by tlie itates ; for the king and 
people equally complain of the fenate. 

Li'ARNiivG AND LEARNtD MEN.] The Swcdifli nobiHty and gentry 
ar", in general, more converfant in polite literature thtin thofe of many 
other more ilourKh'no' (rates. Thcv have of late exhibited fome noble 
I'pecim.cns of their muniikcncc for the improvement of literature ; witnefs 
itk'ir fending, at the expence of private pcilons, that excellent and can- 
did n.atural philolbpher Hafelquill, into the eallern countries for dif- 
I coverics, where lie died. This noble fpiiit is eminently encouraged by 

the 



n 



S W E D E N. 



the royal family ; anil her Swcdlih nvjcfly purchaffj, at no Incnnfi' 
derabl'.' cxpcnce for that country, all HaiLlcjuiR's collodion of curiofi- 
ties. That able ci\iHan, llatefnian, and hillorian, Puffcndorff, was ;i 
rative of Sweden ; and fo i-, the prefer. t Liiuiaus, who has carried na- 
tural philofophy, in fome branchvs at leaft, to the highcft pitch. The 
jiaflton of the famous queen Chr'il'nafor literature, is well known to the 
public ; and flic may b'; accounted a genius in many brunches of know- 
ledge. Even in tjie midfc of the prc;lnt ciiftraJlions of Sweden, the fine 
arts, particularly drawing, fculptiirc, and archltedlurc, arc encouraged 
and protefted. y\gricultural learning, both in theory and prafticc, h 
carried to a great hcio;l'.t in that kingdvn ; and the character given by 
fome writers, that the Swedes vn a dull heavy people, fitted only for 
bodily labour, is in a great meafure owing to their having no oppor- 
tunity of exerting their taknt.i. 

Curiositie;.] Two admirable clocks arc the chief artificial curio- 
fities to be fccn in Sweden ; one in Upfd, and the other in Lunden : 
the latter fluws not only the cay, hnur, and minute, but alfo the 
remarkable motions of the cclellial bodies ; with nil fellivals, both fixcj 
and moveable ; and feveral other plcafant operatiems. A fev/ leagues 
from Gotfnburg, there is a hideous precipice, down which a dreadful 
cataraft of water riilhes with Aich impetuosity, from the height into fl) 
deep a bed cf water, tliat large malls, and other b-xlies of timber, th:^ 
are precipitated down it, difappear, fomC for half an hour, and others 
for an hour, before they arc recovered : the bcttcm of this bed has never 
been found, though founded by lines f f feveral hundred fathoms. A 
remarkable flimy hike, which fir.gcs things put into it, has been found 
in the fouthern part of Gothl.-nd: and feveral parts of Sweden contains 
a (lone, which being of a )\^lIow c lour, intermixed with feveral llreaks 
of white, as if compofed of gold and fiver, aflbrds both fulphiir, vitriol, 
allum, and mi;n'.:m. The Swcvles pretend to have a mnnufcript copy of 
a tranflation of the Gofpcis into Gotliic ; 'done by a bilhop 1300 
years ago. 

Strength and forcfs.] I have already hinted, that no country 
in the world has produced grf :iter iicroes, or braver troops, than the 
Swedes ; and yet th.-y cannct be faid to maintain a Handing army, as 
their forces confift of a reguhted militia. The cavalry is cloathcd, 
arm.ed, and mainlained, by a rate raiftd upon the nobility and gentry, 
according to their eftatcs ; and the inf jntry by the peafants. Each pro- 
vince is obliged to find its proportion cf foldicrs, accordin:; to the num- 
ber of farms it contains ; every farm of fixty or feventy pounds per ann. 
is charged with a foot folJicr, furnifliing him with diet, lodging, and 
ordinary cloths, and about tv.tr.ty lliiliings a year in m.oney ; or elfe a 
little wooden houfe is built him by the fanner, who al'ows him hay and 
pailurage for a cow, and pbi'.ghs and fov."5 land enough to fupply him 
with bread. When embodied, they are fubject to military law, but 
otherwife to the civil lav/ of the country. It may therefore literally be 
faid, that every Swcdilh foldicr has a property in the country, he defends. 
This national army is thought to amount to above 40,000 men ; and 
Sweden formerly could have fitted cut forty fiiips of the line. 

Revenue and coin.] The revenue of Sweden, fince the unfor- 
tunate wars of Charles XII. has been greatly reduced. Her gold and 
filver fpecic, in the lat-: reign, aro'c chiefly from the king's German 
dominions. Formerly, the crown-lands, poll-money, tithes, mines, and 

other 



SWEDEN. 



3i 



other .irtlcles, arc faul to have produced a inillion ftcrling. The pay- 
(inents that arc made in copper, which is hero the chief medium of com- 
iii«rce, is extremely inconvenient ; ionie of thofc pieces being as large 
as tiles ; and a cart or wheelbarrow is often required to carry home a 
moderate l\\m. The Swedes, however, have gold ducats, and eight- 
mark pieces of filver, valued each at 5 s. 2 d. and the fubf:dies paid themi 
bv France helps to encreafe their currency. 

PoLiTicAi, iNTBRuars 1 Thc Swedes of late have been little better 
OK Sweden. J than penfioners toFrance. Through a llrangc 

jnedley of aftairs, and views of interelt, that crown has vail influence in 
all thc deliberations of their fenate ; though it is evident, that the great 
fchcme of the French is, to enlarge the royal powers fo as that the kingj, 
who mull depend upon them for fupport, may have it in his power to 
controul the refolutions of the fenate. 'I'he imprudence of the majority 
of that body, by reducing the royal power into too narrow a compafs, 
and, at the fame time, oppreffing the people, aft'ord them a fair profpedl of 
fuccefs. It is, however, to be hoped, that his Sweuifli majefty, the mo- 
ment he is extricated from the prcl'ent difficulties of las government, will 
apply himfelf to the true interelb of his country, and be contented, under 
the guaranty of Great-Britain, to obferve a llrift neutrality with regard 
both to Dennuurk and Rulfia. The interell of Sweden even reaches as 
far as Turkey ; for that empire found its account in balancing the power 
of Ruflia by that of Charles XII. At prefent, Sweden is crippled in every 
operation ; and fuch are the public diftraAions, that her fubjedls are 
even difabled from availing themfelves of the natural produce of their 
country in manufa£lu> is aftd exports. 

Royal Stile.] The king's ftile is. King of the Goths and Van- 
dals, great prince of Finland, duke of Schonen, Pomeran, &c. 

History of Sweden.] The reader is not here to expeft, that I am 
to follow the wild romances of Swedifti hiftorians through the early ages. 
It is fufHcient to fay, that Sweden has as good a claim to be an ancient 
monarchy, as any we know of. Nor fhall I difpute her being the para- 
mount date of Scandinavia ; and that fhe borrowed her name from one 
of iicr princes. The introdudion of Chrillianity, however, by Anfga- 
rius, biftiop of Bremen, in 829, fceras to prefent the firft certain period 
of the Swedifli hiftory. 

The Goths, the ancient inhabitants of this country, joined by the 
Normans, Danes, Saxons, and Vandals, have had the reputation of fub- 
duing the Roman empire, and all the fouthem nations of Europe. 

It appears that the countries of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, and 
Norway) were fometimes under the dominion of one prince, and at other 
times had each of them their refpe£livc fovereigns. 

The hiftory of Sweden, and indeed of all the northern nations, during 
the dark ages of Chrillianity, is confufed and unintereiling, and often 
doubtful; but fufficiently replete with murders, maflacrec. ^d ravages. 
That of Sweden is void of confiflency , till the death of Eric, the fon of 
Margaret, whom I have already mentioned to be the Semiramis of the 
North ; he was fucceeded by Canutfon, who reigned by the name of 
Charles I. and was acknowledged likewife by the Norwegians for their 
king ; but he grew fo unpopular, that he was befieged m Stockholm, 
and forced to fly to Dantzic; while Chriftierr, invited by the Swedilh 
nobility to renew the union of Calmar, was crowned king of Sweden : 
but the arfhluihop of Upfal declaring himfelf protector of the Swediih 

D UberticS| 



,; I 



Ji 



i 


i'i 

' 1 


1 


1 



■tl ' 






34 



SWEDEN. 



liberties, forced Chriftlern to accept of a capitulation ; to which, how- 
ever, he paid no regard. Chriftiern and his archbifhop then fell into 
variance with each other ; and both concurred in augmenting the miferies 
of the unhappy Swedes. At laft the archbifhop was fent prifoner to Den- 
mark : but Katil, the bifhop of Lincoping, defeated Chriftiern, and 
drove him into Denmark. Chriftiern endeavoured to regain his crown 
of Sweden, the garrifon he had left in the caftle of Stockholm making a 
vigorous refiftance ; but he was once more defeated byKatil, and a fenator, 
one Nelfon ; and Charles, who had lived all this time at Dantzic, was 
replaced upon the throne. Katil and Charles foon fell at variance ; and 
the archbiihop of Upfal beir.^ difcharged from his confinement by Chri- 
ftiern, Canutfon was beficged in Stoclcholm, where a battle, almoft un- 
paralleled in liiftory for (ury and bloodflied, was fought upon the ice. 
The prelates were victorious ; and Canutfon was obliged to renounce the 
crown of Sweden, and retire upon a fmall ftipend. The archbifliop, 
after this, aCled as lord paramount of Sweden ; but was oppofed by two 
of Canutfon's relations, Nils Sture a Eric Axelfon. The archbiihop 
was overpowered in the conteft, and Charles was recalled ; though hi< 
fon-in-law, Eric Axelfon, had been declared regent. Various flcirmiftics 
and abundance of bloodlhed followed; but in the year 1470, Charles 
died at Stockholm, after recommending his nephew, Steen Sture, to be 
adminiftrator. He was oppofed by Chriftiern, who was beaten in 148 1 ; 
and Sture perceiving a llrong bias among the Swedes for renewing the 
union of Cahnar, fcemed to give way to wie cleftion of John, the fon of 
the late Chriftiern : but Sture ftill retained the adminiftration, which oc- 
cafioncd a powerful confederacy of John's party, and the clergy, againft 
him. The event was, that Sture was forced to refign the adminiftrator- 
fliip, ujKjn his being declared governor of Dalecarlia, with a large re- 
venue ; and John was raifed to the throne with more unlimited power 
than any king of Sweden had ever enjoyed. 

John's army, though very ftrong, was Ihamefully beaten by a handful 
of Ditmarfians, for which he fell into contempt ; and Sture was again 
made regent. This rekindled the war with Denmark ; and Sweden was, 
for feme time, "n little better than a ftate of anarchy, under the govern- 
ment of adminiftrators. 

John dying in 15 13, his fon Chriftiern was proclaimed king of Den- 
mark and Norway. His unparalleled cruelties upon the Swedes, who 
chofe him for their king, and crowned him in 1520 at Upfal, have been 
mentioned in the hiftory of Denmark ; as has been the famous Guftavus 
Vafa, who emerged from the mines of Dalecarlia, where he had fecreted 
himfelf to avoid the fury of the tyrant. Ericfon, the father of Guftavus, 
had been murdered by Chriftiern, who intended to have thrown Vafa's 
mother and filters into the fea, but fuftered them to pcrilh in prifon. 
Chriftiern was fo much detefted, that Guftavus, who had been declared 
protector of the kingdom, was every where vidlorious ; and the tyrant, 
being forced by the Swedes and Danes to retire to the Low Countries, 
Guftavus was declared king of Sweden. He then reduced Stockholm, 
nnd made peace with Denmark ; whofe king, Frederic, had an intercft 
in oppofing the return of Chriftiern. Vafa, however, pofleffed the crown 
without a revenue ; for the clergy not only engroftcd all the gold and 1!'. '^r 
«f his kingdom, but all its commerce. This encreafed their we?.! th \A 
their luxury at the fame time; while their enormities, and th« cruf'';^ 
tJiay commilted itt their cupti, gave the Swedes fuch a dcteftatioa of th 



;r 



'Mi: 



SWEDEN. 



35 



I 



ftrder, that Vafa ventured to introduce proteHantifni into the kingdom. 
Olaus Petri, and fome lludents from Wirtcmbcrg, were upon this occa- 
fion the proteftant apoftles of Sweden. The trading cities embraced ilie 
reformation with great avidity ; but the internal parts of the provinces 
were fo tindured with poperv, that Vafa threatened to abdicate the crown, 
unlcfs the clergy was obligea to fubmit to fuch a reformation as had been 
eftablilhed in Germany. The nobility made fome dilliculty in agreeing 
to this propofition ; becaufe it tended to .idd the wealth of the church to 
that of the crown, which might thereby become defpotlc. Many .alterca- 
tions happened upon this pomt ; but Guftavus, at lall, triumphed over 
all oppofition ; and the exercife of the Roman-catholic religion was pro- 
hibited, under the fevereft penalties, in the year 1544 ; which have never 
et been relaxed. Guft.ivus, after a glorious reign, died in 1 559 ; while 
is eldeft fon, Eric, was preparing to embark for Eng^"'- 1, to marry 
queen Elizabeth. 

Under Eric, who fucceeded his father, Guflavus Vafa. ^lie titles of 
count and baron were introduced into Sweden, and made hereditary. 
Eric's miferable and caufclefs jealoufy of his brothe'i^ forceU them to 
take up arms ; and the fenate fiding with them, lie was depofcd in 1566. 
His brother Jolr fucceeded him, and entered into a ruiiiOUj war with 
Kuflia. John attempted, by the advice of his queen, to le-ertablifli the 
catholL religion in Swv Jen ; but, though he made ftrong efforts for tliat 
purpofe, and even reconciled himfelf to the pope, he was oppoled by his 
brother Charles, and the fchcme proved 'ncfl'eftual. John's fon, Sigif- 
mund, was, however, cLofen king of Poland in 1587, upon which he 
endeavoured again to rcllore the Roman-catholic religion in his domi- 
nions, but he uied in 1592. 

Charles, brother to king John, was chofen adminiftrator of Sweden ; 
and being a llicuuous protellant, his nephew, Sigifmund, endeavoured 
to drive him from the adminiftratorfhip, but without effed ; tili at laft, 
he and his family were excluded from the fucccflion to the crown, which 
was conferred upon Charles. The reign of Charles, through the prac- 
tices of Sigifmund, who was himfelf a powerful prince, and at the head 
of a great party both in Sweden and Ruflia, was turbulent; which gave 
the Danes encouragement to inv.nde Sweden. Their condudl was checked 
by the great Gultavus Adolphus, though then a minor, and heir appa- 
rent to Sweden. Upon the death of his father, which happened in 161 1, 
he was declared of age by the ftates, though then only in his eighteenth 
year. Guftavus, foon after his accefllon, found himfelf, through the 
power and intrigues of the Poles, Ruflians, and Danes, engaged in a war 
with all his neighbours, under infinite difadvantages ; all which he fur- 
mounted. He narrowly mified being mailer of Ruflia; but the Ruflians 
were fo tenacious of their independency, that his fcheme.was baffled. 
In 161 7, he made a peace, under the mediation of James I. of England, 
by which he recovered Livonia, and four towns in the prefcdlure of No- 
vogorod, with a fum of money befides. 

The ideas of Guftr:vus began now to extend themfelves. He had feen 
a vaft deal of military fervice, and he was affifted by the counfcls of 
La Gardie, one of the befl; generals and wifeft ftatcfmen of his age. His 
troops, by perpetual war, had become the beft difciplined anc? moft war- 
like in Europe ; and he carried his ambition farther than hilljrians are 
willing to acknowledge. The princes of the houfe of Auftria, were, it 
is certain, early je;ilous of his enterprizing fpirit, and fuppjrttd his 

D 2 anticnc 



36 



S W E » E N. 



1 




n 


! ■; 


lo 


1"- 


ii 


II; 



antient Jn-'DlacaMc enemy Siglfmiind, ulinin Gidliivii'; dt-featcd ; and in 
1627, he tormcd the ficgc of Dantric, in which hf w:\s xinkncvl^t'iA ; 
but the attempt, which wa;; defcalfd only by the Oiddcn rife of the \i- 
ftula, added fo nnich *.<» hi.s military charai'U-r, tliat the protelhmt caufe 
placed him at the head of the conlederacy for rediieino; the houfe of 
Aulh-ia. His life, from that time, was a continued chain of the moll 
rapid and wonderful fucccllcs : even tl:c menlioa of each wtnild exceed 
our hound.^. It is fufficicr.t to fay, that ai'ier taking Riga, and over- 
running Livonia, he entered Poland, where he was vidorious ; and from 
tiience, in 1630, he landed in Pomerania, drove the German;5 out of 
Mccklenburgh, defeated t]\e famous count Tilly, the Auitrian gene- 
ral, who was till then thought invincible ; and over-ran Franconia. 
Upon the defeat and death of Tilly, Vv'alltnilcin, another Auilrian 
general, of equal rcpntiition, was appon-.ted to command againll Gulla- 
vus, who was killed iijHjn the plain of Lutzen, after gainin^i; a battle; 
which had he furvi'.cd, it would probaldy ha\-e put a period to the 
Aultrian grcatnefs. 

The amazing abilities of Guftavu? Ad'^lphus, both in the cabinet and 
the field, never appeared fo I'ully as after his death. He left behind him 
a fet of generals, trained by himfelf, who maintained the glory of the 
Swcdilh army Vv'ith nioft altonifliing valour and fuccef^;. The names of 
duke Bernard, Bannicr, Torllenlon, Wrangcl, and others, and their 
prodigious aftions in war, never can be torgotten in the annals of 
Europe. It is uncertain what courfc G;;(tavu3 would have purfued, had 
his life been prolonged, and his fuccefTes continued ; but there is the 
Ilrongcft rcafons to believe that he had in his eye fomewhat more than 
the relief of the protellants, and the rellojation of the Palatine family. 
His chancellor, Oxcnfticrn, was as confummatc a politician as he was a 
warrior ; and during the minority of his daughter ChrilHna, he managed 
the affairs of Sweden with fuch fuccefs, that ilie in a manner diftated 
the peace of Wcftphalia, which threw the affairs of Europe into a new 
i^'ftem, 

ChrilHna was but fix years of age when her father was killed. She 
received a noble education ; but her fine genius took an uncommon, and 
indeed romantic turn. She invited to her court J^efcartes, Salmafius, and 
other learned men ; to whom ihe was not, however, cxtreraely liberal. 
She exprefled a value for Grotius ; and fhe was an excellent judge of the 
polite arts; but illiberal, and indelicate in the choice of her private 
favourites. She at the fame time difchargod nil the duties of her high 
ftation ; and though her generals were baiely betrayed by France, Ihe 
continued to fupport the honour of her crown. Being refolved not to 
marry, Ihe rcfigned her crown to her coufm, Charles Guftavus, fon to 
the duke of Deux-Ponts, in 1654. 

Charles had great fuccefs againft the Poles : lie drove their king, John 
Cafimlr, into Silefia ; and received from them an oath of allegiance, 
which, with their ufual inconftancy, they broke. His progrefs upon the 
ice againft Denmark, has been already meiuioned ; and he died of a fever 
in 1660. His fon and fucceflbr, Charles XI. was not five years of age 
at his father's death ; and this rendered it neccflary for his guardians to 
conclude a peace with their neighbours, by which the Swedes gave up 
tlie ifland of Bomholm, and Drontheim, in Norway. All diH'erenccs 
were accommodated at the fame time with Ruifia and Holland ; and 
Iwe^ci) qootinue^ \9 pal^ a v^ry rc^fp c^abl^ ^^ur? in the affaixs of Eu- 



s% 



SWEDEN. 



37 



ted ; an J in 
nfm- eel '.fill ; 
lb of the \i- 
clh:nt caufi; 
the houfe of 
of the moll 
oiild exceed 
I, and ovcr- 
5 ; ;ind frnm 
nana out of 
ilrian genc- 
Francnnia. 
itr Aullriaii 
-ainll Gurta- 
\g a battle ; 
:riod to the 

cabinet and 
; behind him 
glory of the 
'he names of 
I, and their 
e annals of 
)ijrfued, had 
there is the 
It more than 
itine family. 

as he was a 
he managed 
iner dilated 

into a new 

killed. She 
)mmon, and 
Imafius, and 
iiely liberal, 
jutfge of the 
" her private 
5 of her high 
France, Ihe 
folved not to 
avus, fon to 

r king, John 
' allegiance, 
refs upon the 
ed of a fever 
years of age 
guardians to 
des gave up 
II differences 
olland ; and 
ft'aixs of Eu- 
rope. 



rnpe. When Chnrlcs came to be of age, he recfivetl a fubfidy from the 
Kr^-nch king, Lewis XIV. but perceiving the liberties of Kiinipe to be in 
danger from that monarch's aniiiition, he entered int;) the alfinnce with 
Kngland and Holland ai^aiiill: him. He afterwards joined with iMauce 
againlt the houfe of Aiillria ; but being beaten in German) at iclem- 
Bellin, a powerful confederacy was formed againll h'm. The clctidr of 
Brandcnburgh made himfeh mailer of tjie Swfdiih I'omerania ; the biiliop 
of Muniler overran Drenien andVciden, and the Danes took Vvidr.iis, 
and fcvcial placts in Schoncn. They were afterwards beaten ; and Charles, 
by the treaty of St. Germains, which followed that of Niuie: wen, reco- 
vered all he had lofl, except Ibrne places in Germany. lie lnui married 
Ulrica Leonora, the king of Denmark's filler : but niude a very bad v.fc 
of the tranquillity he had regained ; for hr enfiaved and beggared b.is 
people, that he might render his power defpotic, and his army for.Mii- 
dable. The Hates jolt all their power; and SueJeu was reduced to t!;c 
condition of Denmaik. He ordereil the brave Patkid, who v^as at the 
head of the Livonian deputies, to lofe his head and hi ; rigiit Iiar.d, for 
the boldnefs of his remoniinince in favour or iiis ciUinlrymor., but he 
favcd himfelf by flight ; and Charles became io conliderable a power, 
that the conferences for a general peace at Ryiwic were opened und;.'r 
his mediation. 

Charles XL dleu in 1697, and was fuccceded by his minor fon, 
the famous Charles Xll. 'I'he hillory of no prince is better known than 
that of this hero. His father's will had fixed the age of his majority to 
eighteen, but it was liit afide for an earlier date by the management of 
count Piper ; who became thereby his firll ninifter. Soon after his ac- 
celilon, the kings of Denmark and Poland, and the czar of Mufcovy, 
formed a powerful confederacy againll him, encouraged by the mean 
opinion they had of his youth and abilities. He matle head irgainll them 
all ; and befieging Copenhagen, he didated the peace of Travcndahl to 
his Danilh majclly, by which the duke of Holllein was re-eilablilhed in 
his dominions. The czar Peter was at this time ravaging Ingria, at the 
head of 80,000 men, and had befieged Narva. The army of Charles 
did not exceed 20,000 men ; but fuch was his impatience, that he ad- 
vanced at the head of 8000, entirely routed the main body of the Ruf- 
fians, and raifed the fiege. Such were his fucceffe* ''nd fo numerous 
his prifoners, that the Ruflians attributed his aftit-i.j to necromancy. 
Charles from thence marched into Saxony, where his v^arlike atchieve- 
mcnts cqti ailed, if they did not excel, thofc of Guftavus Adnlphus. Hft 
dethroned Auguihis king of Poland: but he ftained all hi^ laurels, by 
{nitting the brave count Patki'.l to a death equally painful and ignomi- 
nious. He raifed Staniflaus to the crown of Poland ; and his name car- 
ried with it fuch terror, that he was courted by all the powers of Europe ; 
and among others, by the duke of Marlborough, in the name of queen 
Anne, amidil the full career of her fucccfles againft France. His llub- 
bornncfs and implacable difpofition, however, was fuch, that he can be 
confidered in a little better light than that of an illuftrious madman ; for 
he loll, in the battle of Pultowa, which he fought in his march to de- 
throne tne czar, more than all he had gained by his viftories His brave 
army was ruined, and he was forced to take refuge among the Turks at 
Bender. His adions there, in attempting to defend himfelf with 300 
Swedes againft 30,000 Turks, prove him to have been worfe than fran* 
lie. The Turks found it, however, convenient for their aiTairs, to fet 

D 3 him 






mi 






'S« 



RUSSIA. 



him at liberty. But his misfortunes did not cure his military madneH; • 
and after his return to his dominions, he profecuted his revenge againfi; 
Denmark, till he was killed by a cannon-fliot, at the ficge of Frede- 
riclhal, in Norway, belonging to the Danes, in 1718, when he was no 
more than thirty-fix years of age. 

Charles XII. was fucceeded, as I have already mentioned, by his fifter, 
the princefs Ulrica Eleonora, wife to the hereditary prince of Hefle. 
We have already fcen in what manner the Swedes recovered their liber- 
ties ; and given the i'ubllance of the capitulation figned by the queen and 
her hufband, when they entered upon the exercife of government. Their 
lirft care was to make a peace with Great-Britain ; which the late king 
intended to have invaded. The Swedes then, to prevent their farther 
loffes by the progrefs of the Ruffian, the Danifh, the Saxon, and other 
arms, made many great facrifices to obtain peace from thofe powers. 
The French, however, about the year 1738, formed a dangerous party 
in the kingdom, under the name of the Hats; which not only broke the 
internal quiet of the kingdom, but led it into a ruinous war with Ruflla. 
Their Sv/edilh majefties having no children, it was necelTary to fettle the 
fucceffion ; efpecially as the duke of HoUlein was defcended from the 
queen's eldeft fifter, and was, at the fame time, the prefumptive heir to the 
empire of Ruffia. Four competitors appeared ; the duke of Holftein 
Gottorp ; prince Frederic of HefTe-Caflel, nephew to the king ; the 
. prince of Denmark, and the duke of Deux-Ponts. The duke of Hol- 
ilein would have carried the eleftion, had he not embraced the Greek 
religion, that he might mount the throne of Ruffia. The czarina inter- 
pofed, and offered to reftore all the conquefts fhe had made from Sweden, 
excepting a fmall diftrift in Finland, if the Swedes would receive the 
duke c "^ Holftein 's uncle, the bifliop of Lubec, as their hereditary prince, 
and fucceftbr to their crown. This was agreed to ; and a peace was con- 
cluded at Abo, underthemediationof his Britannic majefty. This peace 
was fo firmly adhered to by the czarina, that his Danifti majefty thought 
proper to drop all the efFefts of his refentment, and the indignity done 
his fon. The prince fucceflbr married the princefs Ulrica, fifter to the 
king of Pruffia ; and entered into the pofleffion of his new dignity, which 
has proved to him a crown of thorns, in 175 1. The reader, from what 
has been already premifed, can be at no lols to know the fequel of the 
.iiwedifti hiftory to this prefent time. 



GREAT RUSSIA, or MUSCOVY, in Europe, 

Situation, extent,) A Ccording to the moft authentic accounts 

AND NAME. J "^^ of this mighty empire, it confifts of 

f5fteen (Mr. Voltaire fays fixtecn) provinces, or governments ; bofides 

part of Carelia, Efthonia, Ingria, and Livonia, which were conquere4 

from Sweden. It is generally agreed, however, that it lies 

and 
65 



Between 



between 



HH 



> £. Lcn. 



1500 miles In length. 



Bein:; 



N. Lat. 



1 100 miles io breadth. 



The; 



try madncfs j 
elige againfi: 
ge of Frede- 
[\ he was no 

by his fifter, 
ICC of Heffe. 
:d their liber- 
he queen and 
iment. Their 
the late king 

their farther 
on, and other 
thofe powers, 
ingcrous party 
only broke the 
ar with Ruflia. 
ry to fettle the 
ided from the 
tive heir to the 
ke of Holftein 
the king; the 
; duke of Hol- 
iced the Greek 

czarina inter- 
e from Sweden, 
uld receive the 
ireditary prince, 

peace was con- 
■y. This peace 
[majefty thought 

indignity done 
[ca, fifter to the 

dignity, which 

'cr, from what 
fequel of the 



In Europe, 

lentic accounts 
[, it confifts of 
[ments; boftdes 

/ere conquered 



in length. 



ij;i breadth. 



The 




i; 



.\» 



M 



,/.' 



.<»* 



>^ 



^>' 



x, 



A 



V 



/ 



'C 






V M () Z F, N O c' h, 

*KoU 



"<• 



V 



/ 



^, 



^v> 



'</ 



^; 



Jj 






Xsij-'. /"^a- ^oT^I^ ^Ki^...M 



N\ 



A-^ 



/ 









'.^-v (Jiiir oi l'inl..iul 



/.!> 






'''-'»> 



'// 



^-^v 



*^r ''^^-'A, 



/^.. 



-vi 



./y. 



''<' 



^^C^i-'-i 



'?«'. 



•i/y! 






""'^^ 



A^ 



/>; 



^^'^^o 



.^^^.- , ^ ^^i^« 



n 



'-T-A.. 



i= 



■it t>0 /A» /A; 



4' 






' J * ^1 I- »<^ 



t//t/lH'/t*>l 'N . 



iJi>/L 



^'t.. 



T U U K"»^ 






'*v>^ 



■^ ^- ■ 



^\ JO^Atf.i/ 2t'/iyif.//\'//i /.o/ii/o/i 




"■L "^ 




"^ ;* \y^ 






» 




■ 


^ v/ 1 '" \ ^'^ 










l^^^ 


■ 


11 Vv >M >1^^^''^^^u4 






7: AVt.Ai., .»V//^'. 



■n 



The 



Greek 



Nk 



from 
fince 



*f # 






ll>i» 



But 

I RuiTia 

in the 



> 



/. 



»/ 



/ 



# 



« 



RUSSIA. 39 

TThe following are the dlmenfioiu of it, given us by Templcman. 







Square 
miles. 


r 


? 




ro 


Dili. tr. 




Ruflia. 


sr 

• 


a* 

• 

1050 


Chief cities. 




Pcterf. 
burg. 


" R«f. or Muf. 


784.650 


1 160 


Mofcow, 


1^86 


360 




Belgorod, 


71,900 


•^7'; 


28 s 


Woroncti, 


1480 


567 


Creek Church i 


Don Coffacks 


57,000 


400 


280 


Panchina, 


1800 


900 




Uk.Coffacks, 


45,000 


3 so 


205 


Kiow, 


115c 


570 




L Lapland, 


72,000 


405 


270 


Kola, 


503 


S«5 


Conquered 


r Finland, 


4».3>o 


^20 


I So 


PZTERSIURC, 


47' 




from Sweden « 


( Livonia, 


21,525 


218 


145 


Riga, 


385 


280 


fince 1700. 


[ Ingria, 

Total- 


9,100 


175 


90 


Notteburg, 


1 170 


22 


1103,485 



But according to Monf. Robert's map, publifhed at Paris in 1751, 
Ruffia in Europe confifts of the following provinces and governments : 
in the government of Archangel, are the provinces of Bielozerflcoi, Olo- 
neckoi, Ufting, Solfeamflcoi, Wiatka, Vologockoi ; tlie governments of 
Novogorod, Mofcow, Bielogorod, Kiowir, and Voroneflcoi ; the pro- 
vinces of Alatirfkoi, Galiczfkoi, and SoLHcamfkoi. Conquered from 
Sweden, part of Carelia, the provinces of Efthonia, Ingria, and Li- 
vonia. 

The reader, however, is to obferve, that the knowledge the public has 
of this empire, is but lately acquired ; and is Hill fo doubtful, that it i) 
very difficult to fix even the limits between the European and Afiatic^ 
RulTia. As to the names of Ruffia and Mufcovy, by which this empire^^ 
is arbitrarily called, they probably are owing to the antient ir habitants, 
the Ruffi, or Boruffi, and the river Mofca, upon which the ant'.ent capital 
Mofcow was built : but of this we know nothing certain. 

Mountains, rivers, forests, 7 The Zimnopoias mountains, 
AND FACE OF THE COUNTRY. J whicli lie in this fmpire, are 
thought to be the famous Montes Ripha;i of the antients. TIte moft con- 
fiderable rivers are theWoIga, which, after traverfing the grea^^ft part of 
Mufcovy, and winding a courfe of above 2000 Engfilh miles, difcharges 
itfelf into the Cafpian fea : it is not only reckoned the largeft, bu t one 
of the moft fertile rivers of Europe : it produces all kinds of filh ; and 
fertilizes all the lands on each fide with i>e richeft trees, /ruits, and «rege- 
tables : it rifes at tlie lake of Urano, at a fmall diftance from t-hc city of 
Rzeva Ullodimerfki, near the frontiers of Lithuania, about 56 15 lati- 
tude, and begins to be navigable about fix miles belo\v its fpring. The 
Don, or Tanais, which divides the moll eaftern part of Ruffia from Afja; 
its fpring is in the province of Rezan, on the nortli-eaft of the lake Iwan- 
Qfero ; and in its courfe towards the call, comes fo near the Wolga, that 
the late czar had undertaken to have cut a communication between them 
by means of a canal : this grand projedl, however, was defeated by the 
inuptions of the Tartars. This river, exclufive of its turnings and wind- 
ings, difcharges itfelf into the Palus M.xotis, or fea of Afoph, about 
400 miles from its rife. The Borifthenes, or Dnieper, which is likewile 
one of the largeft rivers in Europe, rifes in the Walchonfki foreft, rung 
throuG[h Lithuania, the country of the Zaporog Coflacks, and that of the 
Nagaifch Tartars, and falls into the Euxine, or Black-fea, near Ocza- 
kow ; it hfis ;hirte^n catar^dts within a fmall diftance, 

4. ^s 



I, 



M 



4<5 



RUSSIA. 



<M 



noie, JYluJCovy is in general a nat icvei coumry. 
Climate, soil, productions, 1 In the fouthein pj 

VEGETABLES, MINES, AND Ml- > Or MufcOVy, the fo] 

NtRALS. 3 ""* exceed fifteen 



As to forefts, they abound in this extenfive country ; and the noithorn 
and north-eallcrn provinces, are in a manner dcfart ; nor can tlie ttw in- 
habitants they contain be called ChritHans rather than Pagans. Upon the 
whole, Mufcovy is in general a flat level country. 

Climate, soil, productions, ") In the fouthern parts of Rudin, 

fongolt day c!oc« 
hours and a 
half; whereas in the moft northern, the fun is feen in fummcr two 
months above the horizon. The reader from this will naturally conclmle, 
that there is in Mufcovy a valt divcrfity of foil x well as climate, and that 
the extremes of both are to be feen and felt in this vail empire. The 
<iuicknelh of vegetation here, is pretty ninch the fame as has. been de- 
Icribcd in Scandinavia. The fnow is the natural manure of Uuffia, 
where grain grows in plenty, near Poland, and in the warmer provinces. 
The bulk of the people, however, are miferably fed : the foil produces a 
vaft number of mulhrooms for their fubfiftence ; and in fome places, 
befides oaks and firs, HuiTia yields rhubarb, flax, hemp, pafture for 
cattle, wax, honey, rice, and melons. TJie boors are particularly care- 
ful in the cultivation of honey, which yields them plenty of metheglin, 
their ordinary drink : they likewife extraft a fpirit from rye, which they 
prefer to brandy. 

That a great part of Ruflia was popnlous in former days, is not to be 
tiifputcd ; though it is equally certain, that the inhabitants, till lately, 
were but little acquainted with agriculture j and fupplied the place of 
bread, as the inhabitants of Scandinavia do now, with a kind of faw-duft 

4nd a preparation of fifh-bones. Peter the Great, and his fucceflbrs, 
own to the prefent emprefs, have been at incredible pains to introduce 
agriculture into their dominions ; and though the foil is not every where 
proper for corn, yet its vait fertility in fome provinces, bids fair to make 
gram as common in Ruflia as it is in the fouthern countries of Europe. 
The vaft communications, by means of rivers, which the inland parts of 
that enipire have with each other, ferve to fupply one province with thofe 
prodnAs of the earth in which another may be deficient. As to mines 
and minerals, they are as plentiful in Ruffia as in Scandina\'ia ; and the 
people are daily improving in working them. 
Animals, quadrupeds, birds, > Thefe do not differ greatly from 
FISHES, AND INSECTS. ) thofe dcicribcd in the Scandina-i 

vian provinces ; to which we muft refer the reader. The lynx, famous 
for its piercing eye, is a native of this empire ; and makes prey of every 
creature it can matter : they are faid to be produced chiefly in the fir-tree 
forefts. The hyaenas, bears, wolves, foxes, and other creatures already 
«fefcribed, afford their furs for cloathing the inhabitants ; but the furs of 
the black foxes, and ermine, are more valuable in Ruffia than elfewhere. 
The dromedary and camel were formerly almoft the only beaft of burden 
•known in many parts of Ruffia. Czar Peter encouraged a breed of large 
JjoHes for war and carriages ; but thofe employed in the ordinary pur- 
poies of life are but fmall ; as are their cows and ibeep, whic}^ (h^y fait 
for their winter provifions, 

We know of few or no birds in Ruffia, that have not been already de, 
feribed. The fame may be faid of fiflies ; only the Ruffians are better 

Erovided tha^i their neighbours are with flurgeon, cod, falmon, and be^ 
gas : the latter rcfemble a fturgeon, and is from twelve to fifteen feet in 
hngih i its fieih U white ^nd deHcious. Qf the roe of the ilurgeoiv tni 



RUSSIA. 



41 



I the belaga, the RuHians make the famous cavenr; fo much efteemcd for 

I its richncfs and flavour, that it is often fcnt in prefcnts to crowned heads. 
\ Hth called moA'a, in the noriiiein Dart of Europe, has tteth of which 
the inhabitants make handles for knives and fcymetars. Several fpecies 
of Ihell-riHi, as oillcrs, fcaU.'tp.-., cockles, and mufclcs, arc found here in 
ficlh-water lakes and rivers. 

As to infeifts, Ruflia, like other uncultivated countries, is peftcred 
with them in the fummcr time, from their lakes, niorafl'es, fwamps, and 
forefts ; but in the winter they difappear : Ionic of them ar*.' faid to retire 
to hollows in banks and rocks, till they are Called forth by the warmth of 
the fuccceding fummer. 

Before 1 quit this head, it is proper that I mention the baranetz, oi- 
lamb-plant, which has been impofed upon fome travellers and naturaliiU, 
as a vegetative animal, rcfembling a lamb, with a (kin of white curled 
wool. Many extraordinary properties have been afcribed to this plant, 
which is now found to be an ingenious fiction of the inh.ibitant8, barba- 
rous as they are efteemed ; and is prepared in the following manner t 
they open a fheep at the very time of yeaning, and taking out the lamb^ 
they flay it; they then extend the Ikin on the grafs ; and by the help of 
the dew and four milk, they render it prodigiouily thin, foft, fmooth« 
and white as fnow. As the Mohammedan neighbours of thofe Ruflian* 
are faid to be prohibited from wearing (kins of animals, the Ruffians pre- 

[tend that thofe (kins are a vegetable produftion, and difpofe of them to 
vaft advantage ; and they are highly cUcemcd likewife by the Rufiiaii 

I nobility. 

Character, manners, customs, 7 As the prefent Ruflians are 
AND POPULATION. § the dcfcendants of mtfTv dif- 

j ferent people, and inhabit prodigious trafts of country, fo we find among 

[them a vail variety of the particulars which fall under this article; ana 
the great reformations introduced of late years, as well as the dif-r 
coveries made, render former accounts to be but little depended upon, 
Many of the Tartars, who inhabit large portions of the Ruflian domir 
nions, now live in fixed houfes and villages, cultivate the land, and pay 
tribute like other fubjedls. Till lately, they were not admitted into tho 
RulTian armies ; but tljey now make excellent foldiers. Other Ruffiai) 
Tartars retain their old wandering lives. Both fides of the Wolga are in- 
habited by the Zeremiflcs and Morduars ; a peaceable induflrious people* 
The Ba(kirs are likewife fixed inhabitants of the tradl that reaches ffom 
Cafan to the frontiers of Siberia ; and have certain privileges, of wbich^ 
they are tenacious. The wandering Calmucs occupy the reft of thia tratft 
to Aftracan and the frontiers of the Ufbecs ; and in confideration of cer- 
tain prefents they receive from her imperial majefty, they ferve in h<ar 
armies without pay, but are apt to plunder equally friends as foes. 

As the Co(racs make now a figure in the military hiflory of Europe,^ 
fome account of them may not be unacceptable They were originally 
Polifh pea^nts, and ferved in the Ukrain as a militia againft the I'artars. 
3eing opprefled by their unfeeling lords, a part of them removed td the 
Bncultivated banks of the Don, or Tanais, and there eflablifhed a colony. 
They were foon after joi|ied, in 1637, by two other detachments of thei» 

I countrymen ; and they reduced Afoph, which they were obliged to aban- 
don to the Turks, after laying it in a(hes. They next put themfelves undeii 
the protedion of the Ruffians, built Circa(ky, on an ifland in the Don 1^ 
Sr4 \hpif pofQ^ffions^ wlu9h coai;%4 of thirty-niqe tow|i$ on both fides 

that 



i 



4« 



RUSSIA, 



\m 



■Ik t 



, ,1 



Aat nrer, reached from Ribna to Afoph. They there lived in a fruuful 
conntry, which they took care to cultivate ; and they were (o wedded to 
tfteir orighral ciiftoins» that they were little better than nominal fubjsAs of 
ihr czars, till the time of Peter the Great. They profefled the Greek 
■eligion ; their incUnations were warlike, and occailonally ferved againft 
tiie Tartars and Turks on the Palus Ma:otis. 

The internal government of the Colfacs approaches very near to the 
i&a wc form oi that of the antient Germans, as defcribed by Tacitus. 
The errptains and officers of the nation chufe a chief, whom they call 
Hetnuin, and he refides at Circaika ; but tltis choice is confirmed by the 
czar ; and the hctman holds his authority during life. He adts as a iupe- 
fior over the other towns of the nation, each of which is formed into a 
ieparate commonwealth, governed by its own hetman, who is chofen an- 
nually. They ferve in war, in confidcration of their enjoying their laws 
and liberties. They indeed have feveral times rebelled, for which they 
iJi»fFered feverely under Peter the Great. But the RuOian yoke was (o 
much eafier than that of the Poles, that in 1654, the Cofl'acs of the 
Uitrain put themfelves likcwife under the prote^ion of RuiTia. They 
complained, howewr, that their liberties had been invaded ; and in the 
war betwern Charles XIJ. and Peter, their hetman, Mazeppa, joined the 
Ibrmer ; but he found himfelf unable to fulfil the magnificent promifes 
le had made to Charles. He brought over, however, fome of the Za- 
yarovian Coifacs, who are fettled about the falls of th,e river Nieper, but 
nofl of them were cut in pieces. 

The Ruffians, properly fo called, were formerly barbarous and igno- 
saRt, mean, and addified to drunkcnncfs an^ fmoaking tobacco. No 
fcwer than 4000 bi-andy-fhops have been reckoned in Mofcow ; but the 
jfeverky of Peter, and the prudence of fucceeding governments, have 
lendered the court and cities of RufTia, as to manners and cuftoms, pretty 
much the fame with thofe of other European countries. The Ruffian 
Inyars, or nobles, and the better fort of people in general, live and drefs 
» the Englifh or French manner. In their perfons, the RufCans of all 
d'enominations are hardy, vigorous, and patient of labour, efpecially in 
the field, to an incredible degree. Their officers and foldiers always 

fnfkffed a large fnare of paflive valour ; bat in the late war with the 
in^ of Pruflia, they proved as aftive as any troops in Europe. They 
are implicitly fubmiffive to difcipline, let it be ever fb ferere ; and on 
litcb occafions they appear to be void of the fenfations to which ether 

nlc are fubje^, efpecially in the meannefs of their repafls, and the 
[lefe of their fare. 
It i» commonly thought that the Rufllan ladies are as fubmiffive to 
t&dr huftands in their families, as the latter are to their fuperiors in the 
feM ; and that they think themfelves ill treated if they are not often 
Tcminded of their duty by the difcipline of a whip, manufadlued by 
themfelves, which they prefent to their hufbands on the day of their mar- 
xiage. Their nuptial ceremonies are peculiar to themfelves ; and for, 
merty confifled of fome very whimfical rites, many of which are now 
difufied. When the parents are agreed upon a match, though the parties 
perhaps have never feen each other, the bride is examined ftark naked 
oy a certain number of females, who are to correft, if poffible,. anyde, 
fefts they find in her perfon. On her weddjng day fhe is crowned with 
a garland of wormwood ; and after the prieft has tied the nuptial knot, 
Juft ckrk or fexton throws a handful of hops upon the head ot the bride, 

v/ilhing 



RUSSIA: 



in a fruitfal 
Co wedded to 
al fubjsdls of 
■d the Greek 
erved againll 

^ near to the 
by Tacitus, 
om they call 
firmed by the 
&.S as a fupe. 
'ormed into a 
is chofcn an- 
iig their laws 
)r which they 
yoke was fo 
oflacs of the 
.ufTia. They 
; and in the 
a, joined the 
:ent promifej 
; of the Za- 
Nieper, but 

js and igno- 
obacco. No 
3w ; but the 
ments, have 
ftoms, pretty 
The Ruffian 
live and dceft 
uffians of all 
efpecially in 
Idiers always 
war with the 
rope. They 
ere; and on 
which ether 
iHa, and the 

Fubmiffive to 
jeriors in the 
ire not often 
ufiiftu ed by 
of their mar- 
:s ; and for-> 
ich are now 
h the parties 
I ftark naked 
ble^ anyde- 
rowned with 
iuptial knot, 
of the bride, 
v/ifbing 



41 



wifhing that (he may prove as fruitful as that plant. She is then led 
home, with abundance of coarfe, and indeed indecent ceremonies, which 
are now left off even by the lowed ranks ; and the barbarous treatment 
of wires by their hufbands, which extended even to fcourging or broiling 
them to death, is either guarded againft by the laws of the country, or by 
particular ilipulations in the marriaee contrail. Little can be added 
with any certainty with regard to tlie inhabitants of Ruffia ; and to recur 
back to former barbarous times, could give a rational reader no entertain- 
ment. It is to be lamented, that among the many excellent regulations 
introduced into the Ruflian government, inebriation Hill continues, not 
only among the lower ranks, but perfons of dilHndlion ; nor are evea 
priefts or ladies aihamed of it on holidays. Among the mnny conve> 
niencies introduced of late into Ruflia, that of travelling upon poll roads, 
or in fledges during the winter, is extremely remarkable, and the ex- 
pence next to nothing. Her imperial majefty, in her journeys, is drawn 
in a houfe f hich contains a bed, a table, chairs, and other convenicncies 
for four people, by twenty-four po|l-horfes ; and the houfe itfclf is fixed 
on a fledge. 

Nothing can be more injudicious, or remote from truth, than the ac» 
counts we have from authors, of the population of this vail empire ; the 
whole of which, they think, does not exceed, at moft, feven millions. 
It is furprizing that fuch a miftake fliould have continued fo long, when 
we connder the immenfe armies brought into the field by the fovereigns 
of Ruflia, and the bloody wars they maintained in Afia and Europe. 
Mr. Voltaire is, perhaps, the firfl author who has attempted to undeceive 
the public in this refpeA ; and has done it upon very authentic grounds* 
by producing a lift, taken in 1747, of all the males who paid uie capi- 
tation, or poll-tax, and which amount to fix million, fix hundred and 
forty-fix thoufand, three hundred and ninety. In this number are in- 
cluded boys and old men ; but girls and women are not reckoned, nor 
boys born between the making of one regifler of the lands and another. 
Now, if we only reckon triple the number of heads fubjcA to be taxed. 
including women and girls, we fhall find near twenty millions of fouls. 
To this account may be added three hundred and fifty thoufand foldiers, 
and two hundred thoufand nobility and clergy ; and foreigners of all 
kinds, who are likewife exempted from the poll-tax ; as alfo (fays Mr. 
Voltaire) the inhabitants of the conquered countries, namely, Livonia. 
Efthonia, Ingria, Carelia, and a part of Finland ; the Ukraine, and the 
Don Coflacs, the Calmucs, and other Tartars ; the Samojedes, the Lap- 
landers, the Oftiacs, and all the idolatrous people of Siberia, a country 
of greater extent than China, are not included in this lift. Upon the 
whole, this writer does not exaggerate, when he affirms, that the inha- 
bitants of Ruflia do not amount to fewer than twenty-four millions. 

As her imperial majefty of all the Ruflias pofTefles many of the coun- 
tries from whence the prodigious fwarms of barbarians who overthrew 
the Roman empire ifllued, thtre is the flrongeft reafon to believe, that 
her dominions muft have been better peopled formerly than they are at 
prefent ; twenty-four millions being but a thin population for the im- 
menfe trafts of country flie pofTefles. As the like decreafe of inhabitants 
is obfervable in many other parts of the globe, we rre to look for the 
reafon in natural caufes, which we cannot difcufs here. Perhaps the in- 
troduAion of the fmall-pox and the venereal difeafe, may have aflifted in 
jhe depopulation ; aiid U is likely, that the prodigious quantity of llrong 

»n4 



4\ 



i 



tut 



\k 



^ RUSSIA. 

•ml fplritoous liqiioro, con fumed by the Inhal)itant9 of the north, u un* 
fricnuly tO{i;ennmtK>n. 

Revenue and expences.] Nothinij certain can bef«i«l concerning 
the revenues of this mijjhty empire ; but they arc, undoubtciIIy» ntprcfent, 
far fnperior to what they were in former times, even under Peter the CJrcat, 
lljcvalt exertions f t pnniotiny indullry, niiulcbylus fucccilbrs, cfpccially 
her prefcnt imperial mnjclly, nicilUiave greatly added to their income, which 
can fcarcely be reckoned at Icf^ than four millions ilerling annually. When 
the reader coiilidcrs this fum relatively, that is, according to the hij^h 
value of money in that empire, compared to its low value in Great-Bri- 
tain, he will find it a very confiderable revenue. 'I'hat it is fo, appears 
from the vaft armies maintained and paid by the late and prefent emprcfs, 
in Germany, Poland, and clfewhcre, when no part of the money returned 
to RufTia } nor do I find that they received any cOnfiderable fubfidy from 
the houfes of Bourbon and Aullria, who, indeed, were in no condition 
to grant them any. Mr. Voltaire fays, that in 173;, reckonng the tri- 
bute paid by the Tartars, with all taxes and duties in mon*y, the fum 
total amounted to thirteen millions of rubles (each ruble amounting to 
about 4s. 6d. fterling.) 'I'his income waa at that time furticient to main- 
tain 339,500, a;; well fca as land forces. The other expences, befidcs 
the payment of the army and navy of her prefcnt majelly, is very con- 
fiderable ; the number and difcipline of which are at leall equal to tliofe 
of her greateft predeceflbrs. Her court is elegant and magmficent ; her 
gnards and .itrendants fplendid ; and the encouragement fhe gives to 
Kamin^, the improvement of the arts, and ufeful aifcoverics, colls her 
▼aft fums, exclufive of her ordinary expences of ftate. 

The Raffian troops, while in their own country, fubfift chiefly on pro- 
vifions furnifhetl them by the country people, according to their internal 
valuation. Some of the Ruffian revenues arife from monopolies ; which 
arc often neceffary in the infancy of commerce. The mott hazardous en- 
terprize undertaken by Peter the Great, was his imitating the conduft of 
Henty VIII. of England, in fcizing the revenues of the church; He 
ibuwd, perhaps, that policy and rjeceffity required that the greatett part 
«f them fhould be rellored, which was accordingly done ; his great aim 
being to deprive the patriarch of his exceffive power. The clergy, how- 
ever, are? taxed in Ruflia : but the pecuniary revenues of the crown arife 
fi'om taxes upon eftates, bagnios, bees, mills, iifheries, and other par- 
tiiculars. 

Commerce akd poli- ) I have joined thofe two articles nnderone 
TiCAL iNTBKESTs. y head, bccaufe (uch is the fituation and 
^rength of Ruflia, that flie has nothing either to hope or to fear but from 
commerce. It is true, her territories are acceflible on the {rde of Poland, 
«nd therefore it is her intereft to prefcrve a ftrong party in that country; 
hut even this pohcy has commerce ciiiefly for its objeft, becaufe tKe 
g;ieateft part of the Diflidents of Poland arc the only traders in that great 
country ; a*id three-fourths of them being of the Greek church, confidcr 
her imperial majefly as their patroncis and proteftor. 

In treating of the Ruffian commerce, former accounts are of little fti' 
vice at this time, becaufe of it; great improvements and variations. By 
the b^ft and fareft information, the annual exports of Ruflia at prefent 
amount tot four millions of rabies ; and her imports do not exceed three 
Afllions ; fo that the balance of trade is yearly two hihidred and twtoty- 
Sve (h6ttfstrdpOQnd& iierling i» her favotur. This calculation^ however, 

is 



voyage. 



RUSSIA. 



45 



is fuhjc*^ to fuch uncortninties as tinte alone c.nn remove, arifing from 
Rujna'.*) commtrrcial conncitions with Grcat-Britiiin, from whom, alxxrt 
foiirteeii years ago, (he gained the grcatelt part of chat balance. Greats 
Britain, however, has, within that time, given Uich encouragement ta 
her American colonies, and to the Scotch and Irilh linen manufactures, 
that her imports from Kullla are greatly diminilhcj. On the other hand, 
the vail advantages which by later tnatics between Kngland und Ruflia, 
her imperial majelly has been enabled to acquire upon the Cal'pinn fea, and 
in the inland parts of Afia, will probably more t!»an counterbalance all 
tlie diminution which the Rufliun cx^x^rts to (jrcat-Brltain may have 
luffcred. 

Ruifia's produftions and exports, in general, are many, and very 
raluable, w'n.. furs and peltry of various ki^u^^, red leather, linen and 
thread, iron, copper, iail-eloth, hemp and fla\, pitch and tar, wax, 
honey, tallow, ifing-glafs, linfccd-ojl, pot-ufli, fonp, feathers, train- 
oil, hogs briltles, muflc, rhubarb, and other drugs ; timber, and alfo 
raw-filk from China and Perfia. 

Her foreign commerce, with the reft of Europe, is much cncreafed 
fince her conquefts from Sweden, efpecially of Livonia and Ingria ; and 
fince the eftablifliing of her new emporium of Petcrlburgh; whereby her 
naval intcrcourfe with the rell of Europe is made much more Ihort and 
leaiy. 

Ruffia carries on a commerce over l^nd, by caravans, to China, chiefly 
I in furs : and ihey bring back from thence tea, fiiks, cotton, gold, &c. 
To Bochara, near the river Oxus, Ruflia fends her own merchandize, 
in return for Indian filks, curled lamb-flcins, and ready money ; and alfo 
from the annual fair at Samarcand : Ihe likewife trades to Perfia, ly 
[Aftracan, crofs the Cafpian fea, for raw and wrought filk. 

Before the time of Peter the Great, Archangel, which lies upon the 
I White-Sea, was the only port of naval communication which RuiTia had 
'with the reft of Europe; but it was fubjeft to a long and tempeftuou* 
voyawe.' This town is about three Englilh miles in length, aiid one in 
breadth: built all of wood, excepting the exchange, which is of Hone. 
Notwithftanding the decreafe of the trade of Archangel, by building 
Fcterfburgh, it IHII exports a confiderable quantity of merchandize. 

The hite and prefent emprclfes of Ruffia, were fo fenfible of the bene- 
fits Tiilling to commerce through peace, that they feem to have poftponed 
other valuable interefts to that confideration ; witnefs the facrihces made 
by the emprefs Elizabeth, to preferve the tranquillity of the north, in 
I latling the Swedifli Aiccelfion j and the moderation which her prefent 
majefty obferved in her fon's claims upon Denmark for the duchy of 
Holftcin when her hufband died. This difference, however, if not pru- 
dently prevented, may, fomc time or other, kindle a general flame in 
Ithe north, if not all over Europe. 

Cities, towns, palaces, ) Peterlburgh naturally takes the lead 
ANDOTHERBuiLDiNGs. ) in this di vii\on . It lies at the j unftion 
lofthc Neva with the lake Ladoga, already mentioned, in latitude 59 57 ; 
Ibut the reader may have a better idea of its fituation, by bein^ informed 
Ithat it ftands on both fides the river Neva, between that lake and the 
Ibottom of the Finland gulph. In the year 1703, this city confided of 
Itwo fmall fifhing huts, on a fpot (0 waterifh and fwampy, that the ground 
Iwas formed into nine iflands ; by which, according to Voltaire, its prin- 
apal c^uartcrs are ftill divided. Without cnterir^ into 100 minute 3 

defwiption, 



4« 



RUSSIA, 



y I 



defcription of this wonderful city, it is fufficient to fay, that it extendi 
atcut fix miles every way ; and contains every llruAure for magnificence, 
the improvement of the arts, revenue, navigation, war, commerce, and 
the like, that are to be found in the moll celebrated cities in Europe* 
It may appear furprizing, that the lateft authors who treat of that coun- 
try, diifer widely as to the population of Prterlburgh. Voltaire tells us, 
that it is faid to contain at prefent 400,000 fouls. This feems to be an 
over-rate, even admitting the imperial troops, attendants, and officers 
cf ftate to be included. Bufching, whom I am rather inclined to follow, 
thinks that Peterlburgh confifts of about 8000 houfes, and contains about 
100,000 inhabitants: a number, however, that would feem.to be dif- 
p. oportioned to tliat of the houfes, did we not reflect on the great num- 
oe.- of fervants maintained by the Ruffian nobility and merchants. The 
new fummer palace is reckoned one of the lineft pieces of architcfture in 
Europe. In the middle of the city (which has neither gates nor walls) 
is a ftrong, beautiful fort ; and the admiralty and dock-yards are like- 
wife fortified. 

As Peter/burgh is the emporium of Ruffia, the number of foreign Ihips 
trading to it in the fummer time is furprifing. In winter, 3000 one-horfe 
fledges are employed for paflengers in the llreets. It contains twenty 
Ruffian, and four Lutheran churches, befides thofe of the Calvinifts ani 
Roman-catholics ; and is the feat of a univerfity^ and feveral academies. 
Peterlburgh is tlic capital of the province of Ingria, one of Peter the 
Great's conquefts. 

The city of Mofcow was formerly the glory of this great empire, and 
is ftill confiderable enough to figure among the capitals of Europe. It 
fiands, as has been already mentioned, on the river from which it takes 
its name, 1414. miles north-eaft of London; and though its llreets are 
not regular, it prefents a very pidurefque appearance, for it contains 
fuch a number of gardens, groves, lawns, and ftreams, that it feoms 
rather to be a cultivated country than a city. The antient magnificence 
cf this city would be incredible, was it not attellcd by the moft un- 
qiiellionable authors : but we are to make great allowances for the uncul- 
tivated ftate of the adjacent provinces, which might have made it appear 
with a greater luftre in a traveller's eyes. Neither Voltaire nor Bufching 
gives us any fatisfadory account of this capital ; and little credit is to be 
given to the authors who divide it into regular quarters, avid each quarter 
inhabited by a different order or profeffion. Bufching fpeaks of it as the 
largeft city in Europe ; but that can be only meant as to the ground it 
ftands on. It is generally agreed, that Mofcow contains 1600 churches 
and convents, and forty-three places or fquares. Bufching makes the 
merchants exchange to contain about 6000 fine (hops, which difplay a 
vaft pa.ade of commerce, efpecially to and from China. No city can 
contain a greater contrail than Mofcow docs, of magnificence and raean- 
nefs in building. The houfes of the inhabitants in general are miferable 
timber booths ; but their palaces, churches, convents, and other public 
edifices, are fpacious and lofty. The Krimlin, or grand imperial palace, 
is mentioned as one of the molt fuperb Ihufturcs in the world : it lies in 
the interior circle of the city, and contains the old imperial palace, plea- 
fure-houfe, and llablcs, a victtiulling-houre, the palace which formerly 
belonged to the patriarch, nine caihcdralE, five convents, four pariih 
churches, the arfenal, with tlie public colleges, and other offices. All 
the churches in ihc Krindin have bcauUlul fpires, moft of them gilt, or 
3 COvei-eJ 



RUSSIA. 



47 



covered with filver : the archittfture is in the Gothic tafte ; bat the in- 
iidcs oi" the churches are richly ornamented ; and the pictures of the faiaa 
are decorated witli cold, filver, and precious ftones. Mention is made 
of the cathedral which has no fewer than nine towers, covered with cop- 
per double guilt, and contains a filver branch with forty-eight lights, 
{aid to weigh 2800 pounds. A volume would fcarcely fuffice to recount 
the other particulars of this city's magnificence. Its fumptuous monc- 
incnts of tne great dukes and czars, the magazine, the patriarchal palace, 
the exchequer, and chancery, are noble ftrudures. The public is na 
ftranger to the barbaious anecdote, that the czai* John Bafilides ordenel 
the architeft of the church of Jerufalcm to be deprived of his cye-fight, 
that he might never contrive its equal. The ftory is improbable, and took 
its rife from the arbitrary di(pofition of that great prince, i Umll kave 
occafion hereafter to mention the great bell ot Mofcow ; where the inha- 
bitants are fo dillrafledly fond of bells, that they are always tinkling » 
every quarter. 'I'he jewels and ornaments of an image of the vixgr» 
Mary, in the Kremclin church, and its other furniture, can be only 
equalled by what is fecn at the famous Holy Houfe of Loretto in Italy. 

Three colleges were founded by Peter the Great at Mofcow ; one for 
claflica'i learning and philofophy, the fecond for mathematics, and the 
third for navigation and aftronomy. To thefe he added a diipenCiry, 
which is a magnificent building, and tinder the care of fomc able Ger- 
man chemifts and apothecaries ; who furnifli medicines not only to the 
army, bat all over die kingdom. Mr. Voltaire fays, that Peter, who 
was attentive to every thing, did not negled Mofcow at the time he wa» 
building Peterlburgh ; for he caufed it to be paved, adorned it with noble 
edifices, ,md enriched it with manufadlures ; and within thefe few years, 
Mr. <le Shorealow, high chamberlain to the emprefs Elizabeth, iiaughtor 
to Peter the Great, has founded an univer^ily in this city. 

Nothing can be faid with certainty as to the population of MolccHr. 
When lord Carlifle was the Englifh ambaflador there, in the reign of 
Charles II. this city was twelve miles in compafs, and cht number of 
houfes vi'as computed at 40,000. Voltaire fays, that Mcfcow was then 
twenty miles in circumference, and that its inhabitants amounted to 
500,000, but it is almoft impoflible to make an eftimate of its prefent 
population. Bufching fays, that its inhabitants confift of fLatefmsn, no- 
bility, and their retinue ; of merchants, foldiers, prieils, monks, nuns, 
and their fervaats ; mechanics, carriers, fledge-drivers, and labourers. 
The bell judges, notwithllanding, think his number too fmall. Mr. Vol- 
taire's information is certainly more to be depended upon, than that of 
any tranfient trsvellev. 

Learning and learneo men.] The Ruffians, hitherto, have made 
but an inconfiderable appearance in the republic of letters ; but the great 
encouragement pi\ en by tlidr fovereigns, in the inflitutioa of academic*, 
and other literary boards, ha: produced iufiicicnt proofs, that they art- no 
way deficient as to intelleiJtual abilitit". The papers exhibited by them, 
at their academical meetings, have been favourably received all over 
Europe; efpecially thofe that relate to aftronomy, the mathematics, and 
natural philofophy. The fpeechcs pronounced by the bifliop of I'urer, 
I the metropolitan of Novogorod, the vice-chancellor, and the r.iarlhal at 
the late opening of the commiflion for a new rode of laws, arc elegant 
and claiCcal; and the progrefs which learning has made in that empire 
Uiicc the beginning of this century, is an evidence, that the Kulii.ios 

are 



Iv. 



u 



4» 



RUSSIA. 



are as capable as any of their neighbours to fhine In die arts and 
iciences. 

Travelling.] Nothing ftrikes, either a reader or a ftranger, more 
than the facility with which the Ruffians perform the longell and moll 
uncomfortable journies. Like their Scandinavian neighbours, already 
difcribed, they travel in Hedges drawn by rein-deer, when the fnow is 
frozen hard enough to bear I'lem. In the internal parts of Ruflia, horfes 
/draw their fledges ; and the fledge-way, towards Februar)', becomes fo 
well beaten, that they erect a kind of coach upon the fledges, in which 
they travel night and day ; fo that they often perform a journey of about 
400 miles, fuch as that between Peterlburg and Mofcow, in three days 
and three nights. 

Constitution, laws, and ) The conftitution and laws of Raflia, 
DISTINCTIONS OF RANK, j like thofe of other arbitrary govern- 
ments, reft in the bread of the fovereign. The fubjeds, however, had 
fome general rules to guide them, both in criminal and civil matters, 
which always took place, when no interpofition of government happened 
* fet them afide. The czar Alexis, who mounted the throne in 1641, 
drew up an imperfe^l code of laws ; but he never could fufficiently en- 
force them, being perpetually engaged in war, either foreign or domeftic j 
fo that they became in a manner ufelefs or unknown. Even Peter the 
Great, never could bring his fubjeiSls into tliat ftate of civilization as to 
truft them with any law but his own will. In matters of importance, 
fuch as the trying and condemning his fon to death, he generally ap- 
pointed a commiffion, with fome perfon of diftindion at its head, for 
trying them ; but this was only to fave the appearance of defpotifm ; for 
the commiflioners always pronounced judgment according to what they 
knew to be his fentiments. The late emprefs, Elizabeth, made a law, ' 
but it only bound herself, that flie would fufF no capital punifliments to i 
be inflided in her reign. Were not the fad undoubted, pcltcrity could j 
no;, believe, that one of the moll extenfive governments in the world 
couk' fubfirt in peace and tranquillity within itlelf, under fuch an ck- 
ception of juttice. The truth is, the dreadful punilhments incurred by 
delinquents, though not capital, were fufllcient to deter them. Upon! 
the whole, the virtues of the Ruffian fovereigns, fxnce Peter's time, have| 
fupplied the deficiency of their laws. 

The Ruffian monarchy is hereditary, but after a particular mode ; fori 
ihe fenate and the great lords make tkemfelves judges of the proximity of j 
blood in their fovereigns : as may be feen in their hillory. The prefentf 
emprefs was raifed to the throne, by being wife to the emperor, and! 
mother of his fon; and flie has fufficiently jiiftified the partiality thad 
has been fliewn her, by the wifdom, patriotifm, and vigour of her go- 
vernment ; but in nothing fo much as in her care to give her fubjefts 1 
new code of laws. With this view, in 1768, flie afiembled deputies! 
from all the diftrifts and provinces of her dominions, fo as to form, in 
effeft, a Ruffian parliament. When they were met, they were prefented 
with inftrudions, which contained her ideas of diftributive juftice; and 
which do the higheft honour to her political and perfonal virtues. Thej 
code which has been drawn up, has not yet been rrade public, at leaftta 
the rert of Europe; but there can be no doubt that it is highly worthy o| 
its imperial patronefs. 

The diUindions of rank, form a confiderable part of the Ruffian conj 
illtution. The late ?mpreflfcs took the t'Ue of Autociatrix, whicf 

implies 



RUSSIA. 



49 



he Irts and 

anger, more 
ell and moil 
urs, already 
, the fnnw is 
lufiia, horfes 
, becomes fo 
es, in which 
ncy of about 
in three days 

aws of Ruffia, 
itrary govern- 
however, had 
civil matters, 
lent happened 
one in 1645, 
fufficiently en- 
n or domeftic ; 
ven Peter the 
/ilization as to 
of importance, 
generally ap- 
Lt its head, for 
defpotifm ; for 
r to what diey 
I, made a law, 
unifhments to 
jclkrity could 
in the world 
ler fuch an ck- 
Its incurred by I 
them. Upon 
er's time, have| 

ar mode ; for 
le proximity 
The prefent 
emperor, and 
partiality thai 
lur of her go^ 
! her fubjefts 
ibled deputie 
as to form, i 
were prefente 
e juftice; an 
virtues. Th 
lie, atleaftt 
;hly worthy o| 

ie Ruffian conj 

ratrbc, whicf 

implies 



In'olics, that they owed their dignity to no earthly power. Their antient 
nobility were divided into knczcs, or knazeys, Loyars, and vaivod's. 
The knc7.es wno fovereigns upon their own cll:.tc:., tiil they were re- 
duced by the czar; but they llill retain tl'.e name. The boyars were 
nobility under the knczes ; and the vaivi (h v.crc governors of provinces. 
Thole titles, however, fo often revived the ideas c£ their antient power, 
that the prefent and late cmpreflcr. have iutr.ojuced ainon;^; their fubjecls 
the titles of counts and princes, and llie other dillinifticns of nobility 
thut are common to the relt of Europe. 

A fenate, compofed of the moil rcfpcflnbie member:, of the empire, ftill, 
fubfiits in Ruiiia ; but though the emprcfs reatj the ir.llitiitioa with the 
hin-hell regard and deference, and fubmits the greateil concerns of her 
empire to their deliberation, yet tlicy ra'c no better ihiui her privy coun- 
cil ; and they feldom or never give her any advice, b • t fuch as is con- 
formable to her plcafure. 

Religion.] The eftabliilied religion of Ruala is that of the Greek 
church, the tenets of which are by far too ni;merou3 and ccmnlic.itcd to 
be difcufled here. It is fuilicient to fay, that they deny the pope's fupie- 
macy ; and though they diftlaim im.agc-worfcip, t;iey retain many ido- 
latrous and fuperllitious culloni:.. Their churches are full of piftures of 
bints, whom tliey confider as mediators. They obfcrve a number of 
falls and lents, fo that they live half the year very abftemioufly ; an inlli- 
tution which is extremely convenient foi their foil and climate. They 
have many peculiar notions witli regard to the facraments and Trinity. 
They oblige their biihops, but not their pviefts, to celibacy. Peter the 
Great Hiewed his profound knowledge of government in nothing more, 
iihan the reformation of his church. He broke, as I have already ob- 
fcrved, the dangerous powers of the patriarch, and the great clergy. lis 
Icclaied himfeif the head of the church ; and prefcrvcd tJie fubordmations 
|of metropolitans, archbiOnps, .and bifliops. Their prielts have no fixed 
income, but depend for fubfdlence upyn the benevoLnKe of their flocks 
and hearers. Peter, after ellablilliing this great p;ditical reformation, 
left his clergy in full pollc.'Tir^n of all their idle ceremonies; nor did he 
cut off the beards of his clergy ; that impolitic attempt V'/as re lerved fur 
tk late emperor, and greatly contributed to his fatal catailrophe. Beforu 
his Jays, an incredible number of both fl'xes were ibut up in convents ; 
r/r has it been found prudent entirely to aboliih thofe Ibcieiies. The 
abufes of them, however, are in a great meafure removed ; for no male 
can become monk till he is tuj'ned of thirty ; and no female, or nun, till 
fne is fifty ; and even then not without the exprcfs permiifion of their 
Iflperiors. 

The conquered provinces, as I have already obferved, retain the ex- 

itrcife of their own religion ; but fuch is the extent of the Ruflian empire, 

t'nat many of its fubjefts are Mohammedans, and more of them no better 

pan pagans, in Siberia and the uncultivated countries. Many ill-jiidgcd 

tempts have been made to convert them by force, which have only tended, 

ID confirm them in their infidelity. 

FuM. K.ALS.] The Ruffians entertain many fjintaftic notions with 

igard to the ftate of departed fouls. After the dead body is drefl:, a 

Iricit is hired to pray fer his foul, to purify it with incenfe, and to 

[prinkie it with holy water, while it remains above ground ; Vvhich, 



'.K 



pong the better fort, it generally does fur eight or tea days, \vhen the 
ody is carried to the grave, which is done witli many geiUcularions of 

£ fyrruv*'. 



m\ 



I; 



; '4 ' ; 



■fiU' 



.<o 



R U S S 



A. 



} * f 



forrow, tlic piioft pro.lvices a ticket, fi^rncd by the liifliop and another 
clergymiin, as the dcceafcd's paflport to heaven. When this is put into 
the c'ofiin, the company returns to the dcceafed's houfe, where they drown 
their forrow in intoxication ; which lafts, among the better fort, witii ;i 
tew intervals, for forty days. During that time, a prieli every day fay.j 
prayers over the f^-rave of the deceafcd ; for though the Ruffians do not 
Dfelicve in purgatory, yet they imagine that their depirted friend may he 
afTifted bv prayer, in his long journey, to the place of his deftinatiou 
after tliis life. 

MiscEi.LAhi^ous CUSTOMS.] Before the days of Peter the Great, 
net only tlic common people, but many of the boyars, lived in a con- 
tinual i'iate of idkntfs and intoxication; and the moft complete olijcfts 
of mifcrv and barbnrity prcfenti.'i themfehes upon the ftrects, while the 
court ot' I\'Iofcov.' was by far tho moii fplendid of any upon the globe. 
The czar and tlie grandees dreffed .^fter the noil fupcrb Afiatic manner; 
and their magnificence e.vceedcd every idea that can be conceived from 
modern c::arnplcs. '^I'lic carl of Carl He, in the account of his embaij^, 
favs that he could fee nothing but gold and precious llones in the rnbts 
of the C7,ar and his courtiers. The manuladures, however, of thcfj.-, 
and all other luxuries, v.-crc carried on by Tlalians, Germans, and other 
foreigners. Peter f iw the bulk of his fubjcfts, at his acceflion to tlti' 
throne, little better than bcalh of burden to fupport the pomp of the 
court. He forced his great men to lay afide their long robes, and drcfs 
in the European manner ; and he c\'cn obliged the laity to cut off their 
teards. The other improvements, in learning ind the arts, which he made, 
have been more than once mentinried. The P,uffians, before his days, 
had not a fliip upon their coaft;^. They had no conveniencies for .ra- 
velling, no pavements in their Ureets, no places of public diverfion ; and 
they entertained a fovereign contempt for all improvements of the mind. 
At prf'fent, a French or Engliih gentleman may make a fliift to live as 
comfortably and fcciably in Rufiia, as in any other part of Europe. 
Their ftovcs which they make ufe of, dilfufe a more equal and genial 
warmth than our grates and chimnics. Their polite aflemblies have, 
ipnce the acceflion of the prefent emprefs, been put under proper regu- 
lations ; and few of the antient ufages remain, but fuch as are of public 
lltilityj and adapted to the nature of their country. 

The Ruffians v/iTe formerly noted for fo llrong an attachment to their 
native foil, that they leldom vifited foreign parts. This, however, v.ns 
only the consequence of their pride and ignorance ; for Ruffian nobility, 
befides thofe who arc in a public charafter, are to be found at every court 
in Europe. Her imperial majefly even interells herfelf in the education 
of young men of quality, in the knowledge of the world, and foreign 
fervices, particularly that of the Britiih fleet. No people have fhewn a 
greater adventuring fpirit than the Rullians ; wttnefs the difcovery d 
Kamtfchatka, a people fo little known, that it is doubtful to what quar- 
ter of the globe it pertains j but it certainly bids the faireft of any coun- 
try in the world, to lie contiguous to America : and perhaps it may foon 
appear, that the Kamtfchadalei and the Americans are the fame. la fo 
large an empire as that of Ruflia, it is impracticable to give any parti- 
cular account of its different inhabitants. I fliall therefore juft mention 
the Kamtfchadales. The bell account we have of them, is from Mr. 
StcIIcr and Mr. Kraflieninicoff, the latter of whom publiflaed their difco- 
vcries, under the fandlion of the Peterfburgh academy. The Kamtfcha- 
dales, 



m*:> 



RUSSIA; 



51 



dr.lcs, from being a people as wild as their country, are now in a fair 
way of becoming good Chrillians. They are now acquainted with the iife 
of iron and linen, which they wear under their furs ; and they fuppjy the 
ufe of bread flour, by a curious compcfition of iilh-bone powder. '1 hey 
travel in fniall carriages drawn by dogs ; and a complete Kamtichadulian 
erjuipage, dr>gs, harnefs and all, colb in that country 4 1. 10 s. or near 
twenty rubles. Though fuicide is common among them, yet, in war, 
tlicy are the moft rank cowards in nature, making ufe of a kind of ar- 
niouT, and poisoned arrows. In going through the ceremony of mar- 
riage, the bridegroom mufi: fairly raviih his lady, in fpitc of all the rc- 
fiftance of her female attendance, before he can become a hulhand ; 
and then he himfelf grows fo indifierent, that he fuff^rs a kind of raps 
in his turn from the amorous affiduities of his fair one. The Kr.mtfcha- 
dalcs believed the immortality of the foul, before they were Chriuiuns. 
They are fuperftitious to extravagance ; and extremely fingular and ca- 
pricious in the different enjoyments of life, particularly their convivial 
entertainments. They feem to be of Tartar original ; and before they 
were humanized, their appearance and manners partook f:rongly of thofe 
of the Efquimaux in North America. 

The Siberians are another nation of RuiHa, whofe ufages deferve to 
be mentioned ; but we know lefs of them, than v/e do of the Kamtlcha.- 
tlales. Many of them, as has been already hinted, are Hill grofs pa- 
gans ; and their manners were fo barbarous, that Peter the Great thought 
iiC could not inflidt a greater puniihmcnt upon his capital enemies the 
Swedes, than by banifliing them to Siberia. The effeft was, that the 
S"'tedifli officers and foldiers introduced European ufages and, manufac- 
tures into the country, and thereby acquired a comfortable living. The 
Mohammedan Tartars form a confiderable part of the natives : and ac- 
cording to the lateft accounts, nature has been fo kind to the country, 
that an exile to Siberia will hereafter be but a very flight puniihmcnt. 

Persons and habits.] The Ruffians are in general a perfonable 
people ; but their eye-fight feejns to be defeftive, occafioned, probably, 
by the fnow, which for fo long a time of the year is continually prcfcnt 
to their eyes. Their complexions differ little from thofe of tlie Englilh 
or Scotch ; but the women think that an addition of red heightens their 
beauty. The conlHtutions of the Ruffians are vigorous ; but the inha- 
bitants of the coafts of the Frozen Ocean, who are of Tartar defcent, 
fill continue to cloath themfelves i.i deer-llcins, with the hairy fide in- 
wards. In other refpefts, the habirs of the RulT.ans of every denomi- 
nation, difi'er little or nothing from thofe of the moil polite nations ia 
Europe. 

Punishments.] The Ruffians are remarkable for the feverity and 
variety of their punifhments, which are both infliilcd and endured with 
wonderful infenfibility. Peter the Great ufed to fufpend the robbers 
upon the Volga, and other parts of his dominions, by iron honks fixed 
to their ribs, on gibbets, where they writhed themfelves to death, hun- 
,drcds, nay, thoufands at a time. The fingle and double knoute were 
lately Inflided upon ladies, as well as men of quality. Both of them 
-•Ire excruciating ; but in the double knoute, the hands are bound behind 
(he prifoner's back, and the cord being fixed to a pulley, lifts him from 
the ground, with the diflocation of both his Piioulders ; and then his 
back is in a manner fcarified by the executioner, witli a hard thong, cut 
rom a wild afs's ikin. This punifhment has been ib often fatal, that 

K a a fur- 



I 



M 



II 1 

5* 



b.r 



' I 



HH 


11 


'^1 


1 


il^n 


S; 


il^B 




iBI 




mi 





52 RUSSIA. 

a furjeon generally attends the patient, to pronounce the moment that 
it ihould ccafe. The boring and cutting out of the tono;ue, are likewiftt 
pradifcd in Jli'/lia ; and oven the late cmprcrs Elizribeth, though ilie 
prohibited capital puniflinicnls, was forced to give way to the nccelhty 
of thofc tortures. Fr r.t thcfe particulars, many have concluded that 
the feclin"T. of tJie Ruffians are different from thofe of mankind in 
general. 

Curiosities.] This article afFords no great entertainment, as Ruflia 
has but lately been admitted into the rank of civilized nations. She 
can, however, produce many ftupendous monuments of the public fpirit 
of her fovcrcigns ; part'cularly tlie canals made by Peter the (Jreat, Ibr 
the benefit of commerce. I ha\e already hinted at the paflioai the Ruf- 
fians have for bell-ringing ; and we are told, that t!ie great bell of Moi- 
cow, the largclt in the world, weighs four hundiod and forty-three thou- 
fand, fovea hundred and fcventy-two pounds v. ei^ht ; and was caft in 
the reign of the cmprcfs Anne: biit the beam on which it hung being 
burnt, it fell, and a large piece is broke out of it; lb that it lately lay 
in a manner ufclefs. The building of Pctcrfburgli, and raifmg it of a 
fudden from a i'cv/ ufliing-hut: to be a populous and rich city, is per- 
haps a curiofity hardly to be paralleled fince the erection of the Egyptian 
pyramids. The fame may be faid of the fortrefs of Kronlladt, which ii 
aimofl impregnable. This fortrefs and city emploj'ed, for fome years, 
300,000 men, in laying its foundations, and driving piles, night and 
day ; a work which no monarch in Europe (Peter excepted) could have 
executed. The whole plan, v.dth a very little afTulance from fonie Ger- 
man engineers, was drawn by his own hand. Equally wonderful was 
the navy which he raifed to liis people, at a time when they could not 
be faid to have pofTclfed a ihip in any part of the globe. What is more 
wonderful than all, he vv;->i'.ght in perfon in all thofe amazing works, 
with the fame afliduity as if he had b;;cn a common labourer. 

Language. 1 The common lanc'uape of Ruilia, is a mixture of the 
Polifh and Sclavonian ; tlicu' pnclLs, however, and the moft learned of 
their clergy, make ufe of v.'luit is called modern Greek ; and they who 
know that language in its purity, are at no lofs for underiianding it in 
its corrupted ihite. The Uuflians have thirty-fix letters, the forms of 
which have a ilrong refemblance to the old Greek alphabet. 

History.] It is evident, b'lh from anticnt hillory and modern dif- 
cbveries, that fome of the moil: negiccled parts of the Rufllan empire at 
prcfent, were formerly rich and populous. I'lic reader who throws his 
eyes on a general map of Europe and Afia, may fee the advantages of 
their fituation, and their coniinuiiicatirn by rivers v.'ith the Black Sea, 
and the richeft provinces in tlie Roman and Greek empires. In later 
times, tliC Afiatic part of Rui?ia (which we have had yet no opportunity 
cf dclcribing) bordered witJi Sam.arcand, once the capital, under Jeng- 
hi? khan and Tamerlane, of a far more rich and powerful eiripire, dun 
any mentioned by hiilory ; and nothing is more certain, than that the 
conquell of RuiTia was among tlie lall attempts made by the former of 
thofe princes. Wc cannot, v.itii the fmallcll: degree of probability, 
ca-rry our cor.jcdlures, with regard to the hiiiory of RulTia, higher than 
the introdu'!lioii of Chriilianity, which happened about the tenth cen- 
tury ; when a princef; cf this country, called Olha, is faid to have been 
bapti7.ed at Conilantinoplc, and refufed the hand of the Greek emperor, 
John Zimijces, in marriage. Tius accounts for tlie Ruffians adopting 

th« 



Dment tlist 
ire likewiftf 
thovigh ihe 
he ncccfiity 
eluded th:it 
lankind in 

•, as RufTia 
ions. She 
ublic fpirit 
C J rent, lor 
ii the Ruf- 
'Al of Mof- 
thrce thou- 
•as caft in 
iinig being 
t lately lay 
ing it of a 
ty, is per- 
L' Egyptian 
i, which ii 
"ome years, 

night and 
could have 
fome Ger- 
derfiil was 

could not 
lat is more 
ing works, 

ture of the 
learned of 
they who 
ding it in 
: forms of 



RUSSIA. •- 51 

the Cjreck religion, and part of their alphabet. Photlus, the famous 
Greek patriarch, fcnt priclls to baptize the Rufiians, who were for fome 
time fubjet^ to the fee of Conlhintinoplc ; but the Greek patriarchs 
afterwards refigned all their authority ov«>r the Ruilian church ; and its 
bilhops ercdcd themfelves into patriarchs, who were in a mar.ner inde- 
pendent of the civil power. It is certain, that till the year 1450, the 
princes of Ruilia were but very little coniidercd, b'jirig chiciiy fub- 
jecled by the Tartars. It was about this time, th;it Jolm, or Iwan Ba- 
iilides, conquered the Tartars, and, among otiiers, the duke of Great 
Novogorod ; from whom he is faid to have carried 300 cart loais of 
gold and filver. 

His grandfon, the famous John Bafilowltz II. having cleared his 
country of the intruding Tartars, fubducd the kingdoms of Cal'an and 
Allracan Tartary, in Alia, and annexed them to the Ruinan dominions. 
By his cruelty, however, he obliged the inhabitants of fome of his linel't 
provinces, particularly Livonia and Ellhonia, to throw themfelves under 
the protCiShion of the Poles and Swedes. Before the time of this John Jf. 
the fovereign of RufHatook the title of Welike Knez, i. e. great prince, 
great lord, or great chief; which the Chriltian nations afterwra'ds ren- 
dered by that of great duke. The title of Tzar, or, as v/e call it, czar, 
was addzd to that of the Ruflian fovereigns, but it feems to have been of 
i'crfian or Afiatic original ; becaufe, at firlt, it was applied only to Ca- 
fan, Allracan, and the x\uim Siberia. Upon the death of John Bafi- 
iowit?., the Ruffian fucceliion was filled up by a fct of weak cruel princes, 
and their territories were torn in pieces by civil wars. In 1597, Boris 
Godonow, according to Voltaire, whofe information I prefer, as it 
fecms to be the molt authentic, aifaffinated Dcmetri, or Demetrius, the 
lawful heir, and ufurped the throne. A young monk took the name of 
Demetrius, pretending to be that prince, who had. efcaped from his 
murderers ; and with the afliftancc of the Poles, and a coniiderable party 
(which every tyrant lias againft him) he drove out the ufurper, and 
feizcd the crov/n himfelf. 7'he impoliure v/as difcovered as foon as he 
came to the fovereignty, becaufe the people were not pleafed v.'ith him, 
and he was murdered. Three other falfe Demetrius's llarted up one 
after another. 

Thefe impollures prove the defplcable ftate of ignorance in which the 
RuiTians were immerged. Their country became by turns a prey to the 
I'oles and the Swedes ; but was at length delivered by the good fenfe of 
the boyars, impelled, by their defpair, fo late as the year 1613. The 
independency of Rufiia was then on the point of being extinguiflied. 
Uladiflaus, ion to Sigifuuind II. of Poland, had been declared czar; 
hut the t}'ranny of the P.olcs was fuch, that it produced a general rebel- 
lion of the Rufiians, w!io drove the Poles out of Mofcow, where they 
had for fome time defended themiclvcs with unexampled courage. Phi- 
larete.^, archbilliop of Roilow, whofe wife was defcended of the antient 
fovereigns of Rallia, had been fcnt ambaffador to Polajid by Demetrius, 
one of the Ruffian tyrants ; and there he was detaijicd prifoner, under 
retence, chat his countrymen had rebelled againil Ulacliflaus. The 
oyars met in a body ; and fuch was their vencratioai for Phllaretes an<) 
liis wife, vyiiom the tyrant had Ihut up in a nunnery, that they elefted 
their fon, Michael, a youth of fifteen years ol'age, to be their fovereign. 
The father being exchanged for fome Polilh prifoners, returned to 
Rulija J and being created patriaixli by his fon, he reigned in the youngj 

£ ? niara'g 



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RUSSIA. 



..,, 



man's right with great pnulcncc and fuccefs. lie defeated the attempt; 
cf l!ic Poles to replace LHadiflaiis upon the throne, and likcwifc tho 
claims of a brother of Gullavus Adolphus, but fuhmittcd to young 
Michael without any terms. The claims of the Swedes and Poles upon 
R ilia, cccafioned a war between tuofe two people, which gave IViichad 
r. kind cf a breathing-time ; and he made ufe of it for the benefit of his 
ful'jtfts. I find, that focn after the clcftion of Michael, James I. of 
England font, at his invltatirn. Sir John Meyrick, as his ambaflador t>i 
Ri liia, upon fomc CGmmcrci.;l a^.airs, and to reclaim a certain fum of 
money \%hich Jaines had advanced to Michael or liis predecelTors, The 
F-ngiifh court, however, was fo ignorant of the affairs of that country, 
though a Ruflian company had been then eflabliflied at London, that 
James was actually unacquainted with the czar's name and title, for he 
cave him no other dcnorninaticn than that of Gieat duke and h-rd of 
Kufiia. Three yearn after, James and Michael became much better 
acquainted ; and the lutter concluded a commercial treaty v/ith England; 
which fliev.s him to have been not only v.'cll acquainted v/ith the intcrclls 
cf his cv.n fubjecls, but the Inws and ufages of nations. Before we take 
lca\c of iViichael, who furvivcd his father, I am to mention the modes cf 
the czar's nuptial.';, which I could not introduce into the mircellantous 
culloms < f their fubje^ls, and which are as follov/. His czarifli majelly's 
intention to marry being known, the moft celebrated beauties of his 
dominions v/ere lent for to court, and there entertained. They were 
vifited by the czar, and the moll magnificent nuptial preparations were 
made, bei'ore the happy lady was declared, by fending her magnificent 
jcvvtls, and a wedding robe. The reft of the candidates were then dif- 
miffcd to their feveral homes, with fuitablc prefcnts. The name of the 
lady's fatlicr who pleafed Michael, was Strefchnen ; and he was plough- 
ing his own farm, when it was announced to him, that he was father- 
in-law to the czar. 

Alexis fucceedcd his fatlier Michael, and was married in the fame 
jTianncr. He appears to have been a prince of great genius. He re- 
covered Smolenlko, Kiow, and the Ukraine ; but was unfortunate in 
hh wars with the Swedes. When the grand fignior, Mohammed IV, 
haughtily demanded fome poflefiions from him in the Ukraine, his an- 
swer was, *' that he fcorned to fnbm.it to a Mohammedan dog, and tha 
Jhis fcymitar was as good as the grand fignior's fabre." He attempted to 
drav,' up a code of laws for the civil government of his fubjefts, which is 
/aid to be ftiU in being. He cultivated a polite ccrrefpondence with the 
other powers of Europe ; and even with the court of Rom.e, though he 
ordered his ambafiador not to kifs the pope's toe. He fubdued a chief of 
the Don Cofiacs, named Stcnko Rafin, who endeavoured to make him- 
felf king cf Aftracan j and the rebel, with 12,000 of his adherents, were 
lianged on the high roads. He introduced linen and filk manufafturei 
into his dominions : and inltead of putting to death or enflaving his 
Lithuanian, Polifh, and Tartar prifoners, he fent them to people the ; 
hanks of the Volga and the Kama. He died fuddenly, at the age ot i 
forty-fix, in the beginning of the year 1675, after (hewing himfelf worthy j 
of being father to Peter the Great. | 

Alexis left behind him three fons and a daughter, who was a woman of 
great intrigue and fpirit. The names of the fons were Theodore, Iwan 
or John, and Peter, who was by a fecond marriage. Theodore mounted 
the throne, and (hewed excellent difpofiuons for the improvement of his 

fubjefts } 



R U 



S 



S I A. 



55 



Tiibjcfts ; but his bodily infirmities prevented hi:n fiom carr.ing thcai 
int.) c.vccution. He died witliout any iiTiio. His br< tlicr lvv;ui, hcin;^- 
r.lnioll blind and dumb, and otherv/ilb dillempercd, Tlv/'^dore, before 
his death, named his youn_p;er brother, Peter, to tlie fovcn-ii^-nly ; though 
thiM only ten years of age. This drilimtion waj dilplcafir.rr t) the atn- 
b'.d'nis piincefi Sophia ; and the found means to excite a ]ii)nible iedition 
among the Strelit/.cs, who then f ;r:ned the llanding amy cf RiifTia. 
Their excefTer. fii,-pr.(!ed all defcription ; but Sophia, by her manaoc- 
n:;:it, rt'placed her brother Iwan in his birthright ; and cxercifed the 
(Toverrinicnt herfclf, with the crcalell feverity and inhumanity ; for all 
the Rulfian grandee.; wlio were related to Peter, or whc^/m Iho fuppofcd to 
favour him, were put to cruel deaths. The inftances n^'vc^^ ^Y Voltaire, 
of her inhuman adminiib-ation, arc fliocking to humanity. At length, 
in 1682, the two princes, Iwan and Peter, were declared j nnt fove- 
reigns, and their filter their affjciate and co-regent. Her admiaillration 
was bloody and tumultuous ; nor durll fhe venture to clicck the fury of 
the Strclitzes, and other infurgents. Finding this debility in Jier own 
perfon, (he intended to have married prince Bafil Galitzin, who is faid 
to have been a man of fenfe and fpirit, and fome learning. Being placed 
at the head of the army by Sophia, he marched into Cnm Tartary; but 
Peter was now about feventeen years of age, and ailerted his right to the 
throne. Sophia and Iwan were then at Mofcow ; and upon Peter's pub- 
iiihing aloud, that a confpiracy had been formed by his fiiler to murder 
him, he was joined by the Strelitzes, who defeated or deilroyed Sophia's 
party, and forced herfelf to retire to a monallery. Galitzin's life wai 
ipared, but his great eftate was confifcated ; and the following curious 
fcntence was pronounced as his punifliment, " Thou art commanded by 
the moft clement c/ar, to repair to Karga, a town under tlie pole, and 
there to continue the remainder of thy days. His majefty, out of his 
extreme goodnefs, allows thee three pence per day for thy fubfillence." 
Upon the death of Iwan, which happened in 1696, Peter reigned alone. 

It far exceeds the bounds prcfcribed to this work, to give even a fum- 
inary detail of this great prince's adions. They may be collefted from 
the hiftories of the northern nations, Poland, Germany, and other 
countries ; fome of which I have already exhibited, as I intend to do the 
rell. All therefore that is neceflary in this place, is to give a general 
view of his power, and the vail reformation he introduced into His do- 
minions. 

Peter, towards the end of the laft century, though he had been but 
very indifferently educated, through the jcaloufy of his fifier, afTociated 
himfelf with Germans and Dutch ; the former for the fake of their manu- 
faftures, which he early introduced into his dominions ; and the latter, 
for their fkill in navigation, which he praftifed himfelf. His inclinations 
for the arts were encouraged by his favourite Le Fort, a Piedmontefe ; 
and general Gordon, a Scotchman, difclplined the czar's own regiment, 
confifting of 5000 foreigners ; while Le Fort raifed a regiment of 1 2,000, 
among whom he introduced the French and German cxercifes of arms, 
with a view of employing them in curbing the infolencies of the Stre- 
litzes. Peter, after this, began his travels ; leaving his military affairs 
in the hands of Gordon. He fct out as an attendant upon his own am- 
baffadors ; and his adventures in Holland and England, and other courts, 
are too numerous, and too well known, to be inferted here. By work- 
ing as a coramofl fhip-carpent^r at Deptford an^ Sajdam, he com- 

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5^ R U S S I A. 

plctcd hiiTifelf In fliin-huiUling and navigation: and thro' the excellent 
difciplinc introduced r.mong'his troops by the forci-ncrs, he not only 
ovcr-avved or criiflied all civil inlurrcftions, but all his enemies en ihij 
fide of Afia ; and at la't he even exterminated, all but two feeble n-gi- 
r.icnts, thri whole b'-dy of the Strelit7.cs. He rofe gradually through 
fvery ran!; and fcrvice b;)ta by fea and land ; and the many defeats 
which he received, cfpcciaily at Narva, fcemcd only to enlarge his am- 
bition, and e*{tcnd his ide:is. '^J'he buttles he loll rendered him a con- 
queror upon the \v!-.ole, by adding experience to his courage : and tl;c 
(>rner<>u:> friendlhip he Ihcu'ed to Aii^ullus, kin^ of Poland, both before 
and after hi wa<; dctiimned by the king of Sweden, redounds^ greatly to 
iiis honour. He haa no regard for rank, dillint't from merit : and he 
at lall married, by the name of Catherine, a young Lithuanian woman, 
v.'lio had been betrothed to a SwediHi foldler ; becaufc, after long coha- 
l)"t:itlon, he foand her p-jfreflbd of a foul formed to execute his plans, 
and to aillil: lihs cnunfLls. Cr.therine was fo much a ftrangcr to lier own 
country, that he;- hufband afterwards difcovered her brother, who fervcd 
i&s a c"imm'in foldier in his armies. But military and naval triumphs, 
wnich fuccccded one another alter the battle of I'ultowa, were not the 
chief glories of .Peter's reign. Ho applied himfelf with equal afliduity, 
as 1 i.avc already mentioned, to tlie cultivation of commerce, arts, and 
fciences : and, upon the whole, he made fuch acq uifitions of dominion, 
even in Eiimpe irfclf, that he may be ilnd at the time of his death, which 
happened in 1725, to have been the moft pov/orful prince of his age. 

Peter the Great was unlbrtunate in his cldell fon, who was called the 
c:^nrev.it7,, and who marivine; witliout his conlent, entered, as his father 
alietlgcd, into (:,:t,z dangerous pradlices againlt Jus perfon and govern- 
n:cnt ; for wliich he was tried and condemned to death. Under a fove- 
reign fo dcrpotic as Peter was, we can fay nothing as to the julHce of the 
charge. It was, undoubtedly, his will, that the young prince fl^ould 
\i(i tcund guilty ; but he died, as is faid, of a fever, before his fentence 
was put into cxccition, in 1722. Peter then ordered his wife Catharine 
to be crowned, witii the hime ma'Tniiicent ceremonies as if (lie had been 
a Greek cmorefs, and to be rtccr^nrzcd as his lucceffor ; which fhe ac- 
cordingly was, and mounted the Ruffian throne. S!ie died, after a glo- 
rious reign, in 1727, and was fucceedcd by Peter II. a minor, fon to 
the czarewitz. Many dcmellic revolutions liappened in Rufiia during 
the ihort reign of this p'-lnce ; but none was more remarkable than 
the difgrace and exile of prince Menaikoff, the favourite general in the 
two late reignK, and eilcemed the richeil fubjsdt in Europe. Peter died 
of the fmall-pox in 1730. 

Notwithtcauding the defpotlfm of Peter and his wife, the Ruffian 
fenate and nobility, upon the death of Pctjr II. ventured to fet afide 
the order of fiicccflion v.hich they had eftabliihed. The male ilTue of 
Peter was now extinguiflied ; and the duke of Holftein, fon to his cldeft 
daughter, was, by the dcilination of the hate emprefs, entitled to the 
frown : but the Ruffians, for political reafons, filled their throne with 
Anne, duchefs of Courland, fecond daughter to Iwan, Peter's eldell 
brother; though her eldcH fiUcr, the duchefs of Mecklenburgh, was 
elive. Her reign was profperous and glorious ; for though (he accepted 
cf the crown under limitations that were derogatQjry to her dignity, yet 
Ihe broke them all, aflerted the prerogative of her anceftors, and pu- 
nilhed the afpirin? Dolgoruki family, \wlio hftd impo(i;d upon her the 
■' 3 ' limitjvtions. 



limit; 
vouri 
to m 
John, 
Uhic 
fucce( 
to be 
was 



RUSSIA. 



51 



r, who fcncj 



limitations, that tliey themfelves might govern. She r.iifcd her fa- 
vourite, Biron, to the duchy of Coiirland ; and was obliged to give way 
to many feverc executions on his account. Upon her death, in 1740, 
John, the fon of her niece, the prir.cjl-i of Mi-cklenbiifgh, by Antony 
Uhic, of Brunfwic Wolfenbuttel, was, by her will, entitled to the 
fucceliion : but being no more than two years old, Biron was appointed 
to be adminiftrator of the cmpliv: during hij nonage. This dellination 
was difagrecable to the princefs of Meckl Jnburgh and her hulband, and 
unpopular among the Ruflians. Count Munich was employed by the 
princcfs of Mccklcnburgh to arrell Biron ; who was tried, and con- 
demned to die, but was fent in exile to Siberia. 

The adminiftration of the princefs Anne of Mecklcnburgh and her 
hufband, was, upon many accounts, but particularly that of their Ger- 
man connexions, difagreeable, not only to the Ruliians, but to other 
powers of Europe ; and notwithftanding a prol'perous war they carried 
on with the Swedes, the princefs Elizabeth, daughter, by Catharine, to 
Peter the Great, formed luch a party, that in one night's time Ihe was 
declared and proclaimed emprel's of the Ruffias ; and the princefs of 
Mecklenburgh, her hulband, and fon, were made prifoners. 

Elizabeth's reign may be laid to have been more glorious than that of 
any of her predecefibrs, her father excepted. She aboliftied, as ha« 
been already hinted, capital puniihments ; and introduced into all civil 
and military proceedings a moderation till her time unknown in Ruflia: 
but at the fame time flie punilhcd the counts Munich and Ofterman, 
who had the chief management of affairs during the late adminillration, 
with exile. She made peace with Sweden ; and fettled, as we have 
I already fecn, the fuccefiion to that crown, as well as to her own domi- 
Inions, upon the moil: equitable foundation. Having glorioufly finiftied 
a war, which had been Itirrcd up againft her, v.'ith Sweden, (he replaced 
the natural order of fuccelhon in her own family, by declaring the duke 
of Hdhlcin-Gottorp, who was defcended from her elder filler, to be her 
heir. She gave him the title of Grand duke of Rulfia; and foon after 
her acceffion to the throne, Ihe called him to her court ; where he re- 
nounced the fucceffion to the crown of Sweden, which undoubtedly be- 
longed to him, embraced the Greek religion, and married a princefs of 
Anhalt-Zerbll, by whom he had a fon, who is now heir to the Rulliatt 
empire. 

Few princes have had a more uninterrupted career of glory than Eli- 
zabeth. She was completely vidorious over the Swedes. Her alliance 
was courted by Great-Britain, at the expcnce of a large fubfidy; but 
many political, and Ibme, as is laid, private reafons, determined her to 
take part with the houfe of Auftria againft the king of Pruflia in 1756? 
Kcr arms alone gave a turn to the fuccefs of the war which was in disfa-r 
voiir of PrufTia, notwithftanding that monarch's amazing abilities both 
in the field and cabinet. Her conquefts were fuch, as portended the en- 
I tire deftruflion of the Prufhan power, which was favcd only by her cri- 
tical death, on January 5, 1762. 

Elizabeth was fucceeded by Peter III. grand prince of Ruffia, an4 
I duke of Holftein : a prin e whpfe conduft has been varioufly reprefented, 
He mounted the throne pofleiied of an enthufiaftic admiration of hi» 
JPruflian Majefty's virtues ; to whom he gave peace, and whofe prin-t 
Iciples and practices he feems to have adopted as the direftories of his 
Ifutufe reign, He might have fwmouajsd the ^ffe^s even of tkofe {)ecu.r 

liaritiesj, 




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ISLES or SCOTLAND. 



liaritlcs, unpopular as they then were in Ruflia; liut it is faid, that In 
tiimcd at rclbmiations in his dominions, wliich even PttiT tlic Cr.-at 
tlurll not attempt ; and tliat he c\cn ventured to cut off tlie beards of l\h 
clcrc;y. His memory has been liiccvvilc acciilld of ccrt.iiu domeilic inii. 
dcUties, wliich v^erc too provokin^^ for a fplrited pi iiicef-> to bear. WIiiu. 
ever there may be in tlio'e fi'ooelHons, it Is certain that an univcrf;! 
confniracy was fo;med againll liim, and that iic fcarci !y knew an intct vj 
"between the ! Is of his crown and his lil'e, of wl:i:h h-- was deprivej 
U'hilc under an ignominious confinement. 'J'hat his condu^ with 
regard to Pnii'la, was not the fole. caufc of his depr-fition, feeim 
pretty evident f.om the meafures of his fucccfTor, who was his own wifl', 
and nov/ rei^nis by the title of Catharine IIJ. Tiiat princefs, with re- 
gard to Pruflia, trod in her hufband's ileps, and now follows the plan he 
chalked out. Tiie moll remarkable domeflic occurrence of her reign 
hitherto, is the deaih of prince hvan, fon to the princefh ofMeckkn- 
■burgh, and, while he was in his cradle, emperor of RufTia. That priiuc 
loft his life in an ill-concerted confpiracy, which had been formed by 
fome private officers, to raife him to the throne. 

As the internal tranquillity of Poland is a capital ohjcft with Ruffia, 
iier prefent imperial majefty took a great concern in raiiing that king to 
the throne, and in fecuring the rights which the treaty of Oliva had 
■given to the Greek and protcllant fubjefts of the Polifh republic. Tlr. 
umbrage which her armies gave to the Roman-catholic Poles, by their 
refidence in Poland, produced firft a civil war, and then confederncits 
againft all that had been done during the late tleclion ; which rendccd 
Poland a fcene of blood and con fufion. The Ottoman court, who had 
been long waiting-for fuch an opportunity, availed itfelfof theoccafion; 
they imprifoned, againft the laws of nations, the Ruffian miniiler at Cimi- 
Hantinople, declared war againft Ruffia, and marched 500,000 troops 
to the confines of Poland and Ruffia. Hoftilities are now begun on both 
fides; but as the war is only in its infancy, wc can fay notlung ;u 
to the event. 



SCOTLAND, AND ITS adjacent ISLES. 

ISLES OF SCOTLAND. 

I Shall, according to the general plan I have laid down, treat of the 
iflands belonging to Scotland, before I proceed to the defcription of 
that antient kingdom ; and, to avoid prolixity, I fhall comprehend un- 
der one head, thofe of Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides, or 
Weftern ifles. 

Situation and extent.] The iflands of Shetland lie north-ea(* 
of the Orcadcs, between 60 and 61 degrees of north latitude; andf.rc 
part of the Jhire of Orkney. 

The Orcades, or Orkney iflands, lie north of Dungfl)y-head, betwc;cn 
59 and 60 degrees of north latitude ; divided from the continent by 
JPenthland Frith. 

The Weftern ifles are very numerous, and fome of them large; 
fituate between 55 and 59 de^r^es of north- latitude. 

Climate.] 



). 

is faiil, that h; 
L-lcr tUc Or.Mt 
L- beards of ln\ 

iloincilic inl;. 
)bcar. \\'h:\t. 
X an iiiiivcrr;! 
iK'w an iiitci v;il 
.• was ilcprived 

candu(it \At.h 
(Sii'ion, feeim 
i his own will', 
icffs, with ro- 
ws the plan lie 
! (;f her reign 
(b of IVIcckkn- 
. That prince 
■en formed by 

a with Ruffia, 
ig that king to 
• of Oliva had 
epublic. Ths 
*oles, by their 
.1 confcdcrncics 
khlch rcndcicd 
loiirt, wlio had 
)f theoccafion; 
inifter at Ci^i- 
00,000 troops 
begun on both 
ay notlung ak 



S L E S. 



n, treat of the 

defcription of 

►mprehend un- 

liebrides, or 

lie north-eafl 
tude J and .'.re 

lead, betw.'^en 
continent by 

them large; 

Cl-lMATi;.] 




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ISLES OF SCOTLAND. 



69 



IClimati''] There is veiy little cUfTcrencc in the cliinate of thofe 

tnils, the air being keen, piercing, and falul)ri'>i!s ; {o that many of 

tn.itivcs live to a great age. They fee to road at midnight in June 

Lji'Jy; and during lour of thcMummcr montiis, they have frequent 

imjnunications, botii for bufmefs and ciiriofity, with each other, and 

I;]', the ccntir.ent : all the reft of the year, however, they arc 'liitjoU 

(lib!', thropgh fogs, darknefs, and Itorrns. It is % certain fad, 

[• a Scotch iiflicrman v.ns imprifoned in May, f<.)r publilhing the ac- 

Itstof tlie prince and pnncefs of Orange being railed to tlie throne of 

Vhnd the preceding November; and, probably, would have been 

ijVeJ, had not the ncwr l^cen conlirmed by the arrival of a fliip. 

[Chief islands and tov.'ns,] The largelt of the Shetland iflands, 

lichare forty-fix in number, (though mnny of them are uninhabited) 

(Mainland, v/hicli is 60 miles in length, and 20 in breadth. Its prin- 

ip2i town is Larwick, which contains 300 families ; the whole num- 

lirof families in the ifland not exceeding 500. Skalloway is another 

iv:;, where the remains of a caftle arc ilill to be feen, and is the feat of 

Iprclbytcry. On this ifland the Dutc>ii begin to fi(h for herring at Mid- 

r.mtr, :;nd their fifliing feafon lafts fix months. 

iThclargeJl of the Orkney iJlands, which are about thirty in number, 
licf.gh fcvcral of them are unpeopled) is called Pomona. Its length 
jtwKiity-foiu- miles, and its breadth, m feme places, nine. It contains 
fcepariih churches, and four exc-ilent harbours. 

jThcifle of IVIull, in the Hebrides, is twenty-four miles long, and, in 
Ime places, almoft as broad. It contains two parilhes, and a callle, 
lied Duart, which is the chief place in the ifland. The other princi- 
liweltern iflands are, Lewis, or Harries, (for they both form, but one 
land) which belongs to the fliire of Rofs, and is 100 miles in 'angth, 
IJ13 or 14 in breadth. Sky, belonging to the fliire of Invernef, is 40 
liies long, and, in fome places, 30 broad ; fruitful, and well peopled, 
p, which is about 10 miles long, and 3 or 4 broad, is famous for 
Ictaining the cafile of Rothfay, which gave the title of duke to the 
M fons of the kings of Scotland; as it now docs to the prince of 
Ijles. Rothfay is likewife a royal burgh ; and the iflands of Bute and 
It'n, foim the fliire of Eute. The ifles of Ila and Jura, are part of 
' I. ire, but they have no tovvns worthy notice. >ior«-h Wirt con- 
jii "" f odlent harbour, called Lochmaddy, famous for hcrring-fifli- 
♦-'• ' ;h.J' omit the mention of many other of the Hebrides iflands, 
^, 1 c .. prefent of fmall importance, cither to the public or the pro- 
[ictors, .'i" .'gh, probably, they may, in future tinscs, be of great 
icfcquence to both, by the very improvcable fiflieries upon their coafts. 
lannot, however, avoid mentioning the famous ifle of lona, once the 
pt and fandlu:. of weftern learning, and the burying-place of many 
ings of Scotland, Ireland, and Norway. It is ftill famous for its re- 
fcues of fan<^imonious antiquity, as Piall be hereafter mentioned. 
pe authors have been at great. pains to defcribe the ifland of St. Kilda, 
jHirt, for no other reafon, that I can difcover, but bccaufe it is the 
^l^ioteft of all the north-weft iflands, and very difficult of accefs ; for it 
not contain above thirty-five families, all of which are proteftant, 
'^''■.. r.o / very little of the value cf money. 

Inhabitants, customs, popula- 7 It is not to be imagined, 

TiON, LANGUAGE AND RELIGION. J ^^^^ ^^^^ inhabitants of the 

bds belonging to S<;otland, can be fo minutely defcribed here, as 






• 1^ 



Ifo 



ISLES OF SCOTLAND. 



' r\; 



i. 



they have been by fome other authors ; not fo much on account of tk 
importance, as their curiofity. Thofe of Shetland and Orkney wci 
formerly fubjcfts to the crown of Denmark, who pledged them, andi 
the reign of James III. conveyed them in property to the crown of Sco 
land. The ifles of Shetland and Orkney form a ilewarty, or Ihij 
which fends a member to parliament. At prefent, the people in p-encn 
differ little from tjie Lowlanders of Scotland, only, perhaps, they 
jnore honed: and religious. Men of fortune there, have improved thl 
cflatcs wonderfully of late years; and have introduced into tlidr familj 
all the luxuries and elegancies that ai-e to be found at the tables cf thj 
KngliHi and Scotch neighbours. They build their dwelling, and oth 
lmul"es» in the moll fafliionable tafte ; and are remarkable for the fin 
jiefs of their linen. As to the common people, they live upon fifh, 
and land fowl (of which they have great plenty) particularly geefe ; 
their chief drink is whey-, which they have the art to ferment, fo as) 
give it a vinous quality. In fome of the northern iflands, the Nq 
*vegian, which is called the Norfe language, is ftill fpoken. Their vi 
*!)<-'=;T-)urfe with the Dutcli, during the filhing feafon, i"enders that ij 
^_ common in the Shetland and Orkney illands. The people t'na 

are ,. expert as the- Norwegians, already defcribed, in feizing the nq 
cf fea-fowls, who build in the moll frightful precipices and rocks. T 
people's temperance prcfcrvcs them from many difeafes I^iown 
luxury. They cuje the fc'urvy and the jaundice, to v.'hich they areful 
jeft, with the powder of fnail-lhclls and fcurvy-grafs, of \\hich thj 
have plenty. '1 heir religion is protellant, accoj-ding to the difciplii 
ef the chi:rch of Scotland ; and tlieir civil infcitutiona are much the I'aJ 
with thofe of the country to which they belong. 

Nothing certain can be nieutioned as to the population of thofe thJ 
fiivifions of illands. We have the moll undoubted evidences of hilloa 
that about 400 years ago. they were much more populous than they ; 
now; for the Ijebridc,-) thernfelvos were known often to fend 10,1 
lighting men into the field, without prejudice to their agriculture, 
prefent, their numbers arc faid nor. to exceed 48,000. The peopkl 
the Hebrides arc doathcJ, and live like the Scotch Highlanders, w| 
fhall hereafter be dcfcrlbeu. They are fimilar in perfons, conftitutio 
cuiloms, and prejudices ; but with this difference, that as the more pi 
lilhed manners of the Lowlanders are every day gaining ground in 1 
Highlands, perhaps the defcendents of the autient Caledonians, in af| 
years, will be dilccrnible o.-ily ia t'lc Hebrides. 

Thofe iflands alone retain ti\e antient ufages of the Celts, as dcfoiti 
by the oideft and bell autliors ; but with a ftrong tindlure of the feuJ 
conllitution. Their flianachics fupply the place of the antient bards,' 
famous in hiftory ; and are tlie hiltorians, or rather the gencalogills, ' 
well as poets, of the nation and family. The chief is likewife attend^ 
when he appears abroad, Vvitli his mufician, v/ho is generally a baejpipj 
and dreil in the manner, but more fumptuoufly than the Englilh mf 
ftrels of former times ■'. Notwithilanding the contempt into which 1 
jnufic is fallen, it is almoll incredible with what care and attention 
was cultivated among tliofe illanders, fmce the beginning ofthepicfJ 
century. They had regular colleges and profeflbrs, and the ftude; 
|ook degrees according to their prohcicncy. Many of the Celtic ritj 

• ;Se? Percy's ReliijiiQS of uJitient EngUni Poetry, in 3 volt. 



W'''* 



ISLES OF SCOTLAND. 



et 



of which \vc«*e too barbarous to be retained, or even mentioned, 

'now aboliflied. The inhabitants, however, Hill prcferve tiie molt 
lofound refped and nflefticn for their fevcral chiefinins, notwithftand- 

rall the pains that have been taken by the Bri':ilh legillaliire to break 
C'f; connexions, which experience has ilaewn to be fo dangerous to 
Lrnnicnt The common people arc but little better lodged than the 
Icnvegian.-; and Laplanders, already defcribed ; though they :ertainly 

J better, for they have oaimcal, chccfe, butter-milk, and whey; and, 

,jn they chufe it, plenty of mutton, beef, goat, kid, and A'cnifon. 
indulge themfelves, like their forefathers, iti a romantic poetical 
Iti' which is an enemy to induftry, and indeed to domeftic and per- 
laldeanlinefs. The agility of both fexes in the excrcifes of thr field, 
f^ in dancing to their favourite mufic, is remarkable. 
[Tlie reader would not pardon an author, who in treating of this fub- 
(liould omit that remarkable mantology, or gift of prophecy, which, 
[lin'^uiflies the inhabitants of the Hebrides under the name of the fe- 

i-fight. It would be equally abfurd to attempt to difprove the reality 
Itie inftances of this kind that have been brouglit by creditable authors, 
1 to admit all that has been faid upon the fubjeft. The adepts of the 
[ond-fight pretend that they have certain revelations, or rather prefen- 
Ions, either really or typically, which fwim before their eyes, of cer- 

I events that are to happen in the compafs of twenty-four or forty- 
Iht hours. I do not, however, from the beft information, obferve 
It any two of thofe adepts agree as to the manner and form of thofe 
lelations, or that they have any fixed method for interpreting their 
lical appearances. The truth feems to be, that thofe iilanders, by 
lulo^ing themfelves in lazy habits, acquire vifionary ideas, and over- 
It their imaginations, till they are prefented with thofe phantafms, 
tell they miltake for fatidical manifellations. They inftantly begin to 
tphecy; and it would be abfurd to fuppofe, that amidft many thoii- 
kds cf predi^Jlions, fome did not happen to be fulfilled ; and thcfe 
[ng well attefted, gave a famSlion to tiie v.'hoIe. 

Many learned men have been of opinion, that the Hebrides being 
I mod wellerly iflands where the Celts fettled, their language muft 
kain there in its greatell purity. This opinon, thcigli very plau- 
le, has failed in experience. Many Celtic words, it is true, as wcU 
[ciilloms, are there found ; but a vatl iiitcrcourfe which the Hebrides 
iwith the Danes, the Norwegians, and other northern people, whofe 
Igiiagc is mixed with the ScLivonian r;nd Teutonic, which laft lias no 
pity with the Celtic, has rendered their Kmguage a compound; fo 

it approaches in no degree to the purity of the Celtic, commonly 
y iM-fe, wliich was fpoken by their neighbours in Lochaber and the 

>fitc coitils of Scotland, the undoubted doleendents of the Celts, 
[onsjwhnni their lanpuaoe remains more unmixed. 
riie religion profcfFcd in the Hebrides, is cliiefly prefbytcrian, as 

ilifhed in the church of Scotland; but popery and ignorance Hill 
vail among many of the iflanders, whilfl: fupcrititious prafticcs and 
pim fccni to be almoft grafted in their nature. 

SOIL, MINES, AND QUARRIES.] Though it IS not iu the power of 
pal philnlbphy to account for the reafon, yet it is certain that the 

both of the northern and wellern iilnnds belonging to Scotland, has 
liv'dan amazing alteration. It is cviderit to the cye-fight, that many 
pole iflands have been the habitutionj of the Druids, whofe temples 

are 



u 



ka^ 







'11 



il 




m 



i 

Si 

il ' 



in 



62 



ISLES OF SCOTLAND. 



AirrouiKlcJ i)y 
ici^hbourliood. 



are flill vifible in mofl: of them; and thofc temples were 
groves, though little or no timber now grows in the nci;: 
The flumps of former trees, however, :ire dircernibK', as r4rc rr.ar" 
vefti^es ofgrraultur, f:\cn fince the admifTion of the Chrillian reliirion.j 
whicn prove the decreafe of the riches, power, and population, of tl-j 
inhabitants. Experience daily fliews, that if the foil of the nc>rthcrn and] 
weilern iflands till of late were barren, cold, and uncomfortable, it wjs 
owing to their waa': o^ culture ; for fuch fpots of them as are now cul. 
tivated, produce corn, vegetables, and garden-ftufF, more thiiu fullicieritj 
for the inhabitants ; and even fruit-trees are new brought to maturitv, 
Tin, lead, and filver mines; marl, flate, free-ilone, and even qiiarrieij 
of marble* have been found upon thofe iflands. They are not dellitutJ 
offincfrelh water; and lakes and rivulets that abound with excellenil 
trout. At the fame time it mull be owned, that tlie prefent face of the'j 
foil is bare, and unornamented with trees, excepting a few that are 
reared in gardens. 

Trade and MANUFACTuiiiis.] Thefe are all in their infancyini 
thofe iflands. The reader can eaiily fuppofc, that their ftaple ccmmo-j 
dity confifts of fifli, efpecially herrings, which are tlie beft in the worM,] 
and, when properly cured, are equal even to thofe of the Dutch. ThevI 
carry on likewifc a confiderable trade in down and feathers ; and thdrj 
Iheep affords them wool, which they manufacture into coarfe cloths; 
and even the linen manufadlure makes no fniall progrefs in thofe illands.l 
They carry their black cattle alive to the adjacent parts cf Scotland,] 
where they are difpofed of in falc or barter ; as are large quantities of 
their mutton, which they fait in the hide. Upon the whole, application) 
and induftry, with fome portion of public encouragement, are onlyj 
wanting to render thofe iflands at once ornamental and beneficial tiil 
their mother country, as well as to their inhabitants. 

Beasts, birds, and fishes.] Little can be faid on this head, tliat| 
Is peculiar to thofe iflands. In the countries already defcribed, mentioij 
has Leen made of moil cf the birds and fiflies that have been difcoverei 
here; only it is thought that they contain a fpecies of falcon or ha\vk,| 
of a more noble and docile nature than any that are to be found elfeT 
where. The Shetland ifles are famous for a frnall breed of horfes, whicli 
are incredibly aftive, ftrong, and hardy. The coafls of thofe iflandsj 
till within thefe twenty years, fecmed, however, to have been create! 
not for the inhabitants, but for flrangers. The latter furnifli the formel 
with wines, ftrong liquors, fpice, and luxuries of all kinds, for 
native commodities, at the gain of above 100 per cent. But it is tol 
hoped that this pernicious traffic now draws to an end. Three thoufanJ 
bufTes have been known to be employed in one year by the Dutch in thl 
herring-fifhery, befides thofe fitted out by the Hamburghcrs, Bremencrsj 
and other northern ports. 

Rarities and curiosities, 7 Thofe iflands exhibit many prcgl 
artificial and natural. 3 nant proofs, in their churches, thl 
veftiges of old forts, and other buildings both facred and civil, of whatj 
have already obferved, that they were formerly more populous than the] 
^re now. The ufe and conflrudion of fome of thofe works are not eaiilj 
accounted for at prefent. In a gloomy valley belonging to Hoy, onec 
the weftern iflands, is a kind of a hermitage, cut out of a flone called | 
dwarf-ftone, thirty-fix feet long, eighteen broad, and nine thick ; 
which is a f«juare hole, about two feet high, for an entrance, with a W 



ISLES OP SCOTLAND. 



'^ 



. their infancy in | 
eir ftaple ccmmo- 
beft in the world, 
he Dutch. Thevl 
.■athers ; and thdr j 
I to coarfe cloths;! 
fs in thofe illands.j 
jarts cf Scotland,! 
large quantities ot 
vhole, applicatinnj 
jement, are onlyl 
and beneficial tci] 



fhibit many prca 
leir churches, thj 
d civil, of what I 
)pulous than thei 
orks are not eafilj 
5 to Hoy, oiipc 
a ftone called j 
I nine thick ; 
ance, with a W 



ly fame fi7.e for a door. Within this entrance is the refeinblance of a 
i!vj with a pillow cut out of the ftone, big enough for two men to lie on : 
i; die other end is a couch, and in the middle a hcirth, with a hole cutk 
mt above for a chimney. It would be endlefs to recount the various vef- 
mes of the (Iruidical temples remaining in thofe ifi'ands, fome of which' 
avc required prodigious labour, and are ftupcnduous erections, of the 
,r.ie nature as the famous Stonehciiae near Salilbury, which 1 ihall have 

cafion to dcfcribe : others fcem to be memorials of particular perfclis, 

actions, confuting of one large Hone ftanding upright ; fome of thc;n 

Lye been fculpturcd, and others have fcrved as fepnlchres, and are com- 

ofed of ftoncs cemented togetlier. Barrows, as they are called iu-Ejlg- 

jand, are frequent in thofe iflands ; and the monuments of Danilh and 

karver^ian fortifications might employ an able antiquary to defcribc. 

flic f-ipantic bones foamd in many burial places here, give room to bc- 

;evc, that the former inhabi taints were of far larger fize than the prefcnt. 

;t is likewife probable, from fome ancient remains, particularly cata- 

onibs, .ind nine filver fibulas or clafps, found at Stennis, one of the 

rkncvs, that the Romans were well acquainted with thofe parts. 

The cathedral of Kirkwall, the capital of the Orkneys, is a fine Gothic 
uilJing, dedicated to St. Magnus, but now converted into a parilh 
:hurch. Its roof is fupported by 1 4 pillars on each fide, and its fteeple, 

which is a good ring of bells, by four large pillars. The three gates 

the church arc chccquered with red and white polilhed ftones, em- 

fTed, and elegantly flowered. 

The Hebrides are Hill more diftinguiflied than the Orkney or Shetlancl 

cs for their remains of antiquity ; and it would far exceed the bounds 
lilotted to this head, were we even to mention every noted monument- 

und upon them, dedicated to civil, religious, or warlike purpofes. 

e cannot, however, avoid taking particular notice of the celebrated ifle 
fjoua, called St. Columb-Kill. We (hall not enter into the hiltory or 
rigin of the religious eredlions upon this ifland ; it is fufiicient to fay, 
ihat it fcems to have ferved as a fauftuary for St. Columba, and other 
loly men of learning, while Ireland, England, an i Scotland were dcfo- 
atcd by barbarifm. It appears that the northern pagans often landed 

re, and paid no regard to the fandlity of the place. The church of 
^t. Mary, which is built in the form of a cathedral, is a beautiful fabric^ 
t contains the bodies of fome Scotch or Iriih kings, with fome Gv.iA'ic 
nfcriptions. The tomb of Columba, who lies buried here, is unin- 
fcribed. The fteeple is large, the cupola twenty-one feet fquare, the, 
ioors and windows are curioufly carved, and the altar is of tlie finefl 

arble. Innumerable are the infcriptions of ancient cuftoms and ccre- 

onies that are difcernible upon this idand, and give countenance to thQ 

11-known obfervation, that v/hen learning was extindl in Europe, it 
found a refuge in Scotland, or rather in thofe iflands. 

The iflands belonging to Scotland contain likewife fome natural cu- 
iofities peculiar to themfelves ; the phafeoli, or Molucca beans, have 

en found in the Orkneys, driven, as is fuppofcd, from the Weft-Indies, 
lytheweftcrly winds, wiiith often force aihore many curious ihells and 
larine productions, highly cftecmed by naturalifts. In the parifli of 

km, a large piece of ftag's-horn was found very deep in the earth, by 
he inhabitants, who were digging for marl ; and certain bituminous ef- 
uvia produce furprizing phenomena, which the natives believe to b* 
ipernatural. 

Learning, learned men, t gee Scotland. 



J 


'M 


1 


Wm 


Msta 


•■ 


mms 




mm 


mmi 


(Mi 


i 




Vi 


1 




{ti 


pi 


■ 


Lit 


t'h 


fHi 



AND HISTORY, 



iN, 1 



f 64 J 



If. I ( ! 



1 1 5^i 



i' .'.I 



r 



If 4 ' 



SCOTLAND. 



Situation and extent. 



Between 



. 54 
Between s and 

59 



J and I W. 

1" 



I-on. J I 300 miles in length, 

> Being ^ 
Lat. I I 150 miles in breadth. 



^ -. ^T^ HERE can be little doubt that the Scots were not the 
'-' A original inhabitants of this kingdom, which they 



in- 



vaded about the beginning of the fourth century, and having conquered 
the Pidls, the territories of botli were called Scotland ; and that the word 
Scot, is no other than a corruption of Scuyth, or Scythian ; bcinp- orioi- 
nally from tliat immenfe continent, called Scythia by the ancients. It 
is termed, by the Italians, Scotia ; by the Spaniards, Efcocia ; by tlie 
French, Efcoil'e ; by the Scots, Germans, and Englifli, Scotland. 

Boundaries.] Scotland, which contains an area of twenty-feven 
thoufand, feven hundred, ninety-four miles, is bounded on the fouth by 
England, and on the nortli, caft, and weft, by the Deucaledonian, Ger- 
man and Irifli feas. 

Divisions and subdivisions.] Scotland is divided Into the coun- 
ties fouth of the Frith of FortTi ; the capital of which, and of all the king- 
dom, is Edinburgh ; and thofe to the north of the fame river, where the 
chief town is Aberdeen. This was the ancient national divifion ; but 
fome modern writers, with lefs geographical accuracy, have divided it 
Into Highlands and Lowlands, on account of the diflcrent habits, man- 
ners, and culloms, of the inhabitants of each. 

Eighteen counties, or provinces, are allotted to the fouthern divifion, 
and twenty-tVv'O to the northern ; and thofc counties arc fubdivided into 
Iherifdoms, ftewarties, and bailiwicks, according to the ancient tenures 
and privileges of tlie landholders. 



Shires. 

1. Edinburgh — 

2. Haddington 

3. Berwick — 

4. Roxborough 

5. Selkirk — 
6> Peebles - 

y. Lanerk - 

9. Dumfries - 
p. Wigto.vn ~ 



{ 
I 

1 



Counties and other 
Subdiviiions. 

I'.lld-Lothian ' — — 

Eaft Lothian — — 
The Mers and Bailiary 
of Lauderdale — — - 
Tiviotdale, Lidfdale, and 
. Eflcdale — — 
F.ttnrick ForeU — — 
Tv.'eedale -^ —- 



Chief Towns. 



7 5 Edbiburgh, W.Lon.3. 



Clvdfdale 



N)t]>.njale, Annandale 
Gullowuy, Welt Part 



7 f Glaf 



N. Lat. 56. 

Dunbar and HMKl'mEtoiT. 

Berwick, Duns, and 
Lauder. 

Jedburgh, Hermitage) 
and Roxborough. 

Selkirk. 

Peebles. 

Glafgow, W. Lon. 4. 
Lat. 55-50. Ha- 
milton and Lanerk. 

Dumfries, Annand. 

Wigtown. 

10. Air 



SCOTLAND. 



ej 



i into the coun- 
of all the Idntr. 
iver, where the 

divifion ; but 
lave divided it 

habits, man- 



Shircs. 

ho. Air — -"I 

III. Dumbarton 

12. Bute and \ 
jj. Cathnefs — 7 

'14. Renfrew — 
,5. Stirling — 
16. Linlithgow — 

U Perth — — j 

[18. Kincardin — 
jip. Aberdeen 



lio. Invernefs 

111. Nairne and 
[!2. Cromartie 



4 

-i 



Vr Argyle — 



I24. Fife 



-i 



Counties and other 
Subdivifions. 

Kyle, Carrick, and Cun- 
ningham — — 

Lenox — — — 

Bute, Arran, and 
Cathnefs — ■ — 

Renfrew — — 

Stirling — — 

Weft Lothian — — 
Perth, Athol, Gowry, 
Broadalbin, Mon- 
teith, Strathern, 
Glenfliield, and Ray- 
nork — — — . 
Merns — — — 

Mar, Buchan, and 
Strathbogie — — 

Badenoch, Lochabar, 
Part of Rofs, and 
Murray — — 

Weftern Part of Mur- 
ray and Cromartie — 

Argyle, Cowal, Knap- 
dale, Kintire, and 
Lorn, with Part of 
the Weftern Ifles, 
particularly Ifla, 
Jura, Mull, Wift, 
Terif, Col, andLif- 
more — — — . 

Fife — — ^ 



({ 



\ 



Chief Towns. 

Aire, Balgenny, anij 
Irwin. 

Dumbarton. 
f Rothfav. 

■JWick.'W. Lon.-. N. 
(_ Lat. 58-4C. 

Renfrew. 

Stirling. 

Linlithgow, 

Perth, Athol, Scene* 
Blair, andDunkeld. 

Bervey. 

H01dAberdeen,WLon. 
1-45. N.Lat. 57-12. 
New Aberdeen, Fra- 
ferfburgh, Peterhead. 



H 



>< 



Invernefs, Inverlochy. 

Nairne, Cromartie, 
layne, andTarbat. 



Inverary, Dunftafnag, 
Killonmer, and 
Campbletown. 



b). Forfar — 
126. BamfF 



-1 



27. Kirkcudbright 

28. Sutherland — | 

b. Clacmanan and \ 
BO. Kinrofs — y 



Forfar, Angus , — — 
BamfF, Strathdovern, 
Boyne, Euzy, Bal- 
veny, Strathawin — 
Galloway, Eaft Part — 
Strathnaver Part and 
Dornock — — 



--1 



I. Rofs 
b. Elgin — — 



Fife Part — — 

Rofs, Iflpsof Sky, Lewis, 
Harris, Ardvofs, and 
Glenelg — 

Murray — — 



"1 f St. Andrew, Couper, 
{ J Burtit-Illand, Dum- 
f" I fermlin, Dyfart, and 
J (. Anftruther. 

Montrofe and Forfar. 

i < Bamff. 

Kirkcudbright. 

HStrathy. 
Dornock. 

< > CulrosandClacmanan» 



is. 7 C 

111 



Rcfs. 
Elgin, 



f 



Shires. 



66 



SCOT I, A N D. 



Shires. 



Counties nnd other 
Siibulvifions. 



33 



Orkney 



Chi'.'f Towns. 
Kirkv/all, \V. Lon. 

ntar t!ij 
IVicridiaii cf I.-^^ 
don, N. Lat. 6i. 

Tn all, thirty-thice flMrcs, wliich chufc thirty repreftnintlves to fit ij 
the parliament '-f tirejit-Britain ; Bute ;uul Cathncls fi afuig alteniatj 
as doNairr.c and Cromartic, :tnd Clacman.-.n and Kiniwfs. 

The royal IJoroughs vvivlch chuio icpre(cntaiives arc. 



f-jrKirkv/all, V 
incsofOrhncyandShct-IK,,^^;^!^;^;;' 
1 land — — — II 



Nairnc, 



Kdinburg-h 

Kirkwall, Wick, 1) nine 

Dingwall, .md Tavuc 
Fortrole, Invcrncf 

and Foric's — — — 
Elgin, Cullciii, Bamtr, In- 

verury, and Kintore — — 
Aberdeen, Be.vy. Montrcfc, 

Aberbir.he, and Brechin 
Forfar, Perth, Dundee, Cow- 

per, and St. Anrirews — 
Crail, Kilrcnny, Anfrrnther 

Eall and Wei!:, and Pitten- 

weem — — — 
Dyfert, Pvirkaldy, Kinghorne, 

and Burnt Illand — — 



-! 



nnarijj 
kcud- [ 



liincrkcrthin, Dnmfcrmlln, ^ 
Q^eensfcny, Cul/oh, aaJ Siirling. ( 

Gl.'igovv, lU'!-!fr::'.v, Riiilii 
glen, and DuinbarLoii 

Haddington, Duubar, Nor;h-' 
Eerwic, Lawder, and Jd- 
biirgh — 

Selkirk, PcebU;, Linlithgow, 1 
and Lanerk — — — ] 

Dumfries, Sanqut-har, Ann: 
Lochniaban, and Kirkc 
bright — 

Wigtown, New Galloway,) 
ijtranrawer, and Whiteh'>rn J 

Aire, Irwin, Rothl^iy, Canip-1 
beltown, and Inveiary — j 

Climate, soil, air, and water.] The climate .ui over Scoihn^ 
is, from the variety of its hills, valleys, rivers, and lakes, for the mo 
part, agreeable and healthy, exempted from the inconveniencies chat atj 
tend the northern countries already defcribed, and even thole of amon 
foutherly fitnation. The air is, in general, moill and temperate ; bul 
an the neighbourhood of fome high mountains, which are covticd witlf 
eternal fnow, it is keen and piercing for about nine months in the vcaJ 
Day-light, at Midfummer, lafts eighteen hours and five minutes ; and 
the day and night, in winter, are in the fame proportion. Late expeJ 
lience has proved, that indullry, and fkilful agriculture, can reudertl-i 
foil of Scotland as fruitful as that of England ; though,- perhaps, maiijf 
©f its vegetable and hortulane pi-oduftions may not come fo foon to matuJ 
jity. The inequality of the foil of Scotland is furprizing; and cannot bl 
accounted for by natural or apparent caufes ; fome of the nortlu rii proJ 
vinces being more fruitful and more early in their produdts than tlil 
fouthern : but thofe inequalities feem to be in common to all countricsj 
The water of Scotland is pure, light, and eafy to the ftomachj ani 
fome mineral waters have been difcovered. 

Mountains.] The principal mountains in Scotland arc the Gramj 
pian-hills, which run from eaft to weft, from near Aberdeen to Cowal iif 
Argyleihire, almoft the whole breadth of the kingdom. Another chai^ 
of mountains, called the Pentland Hills, runs through Lothian andjoij^ 
thofe of Tweedale. A third, called Lammer Muir, rifes near the ealter^ 
foail, aud rvms m&y^^d through the Merfe, Bciides thofe coutinueJ 

(hainsl 



SCOTLAND. 



6; 



e fo foon to matui 



jhains, among which we may reckon the Cheviot or Tevitit Hills, on 
t,iie borders -^t' England, Scotland contains many dcf.iclicd mountains, 
nhich, from their conical fijTiire, fomenmes q;o by tiic Celtic word Laws. 
'jjaiiy of them arc IhipcndouUv hii^h, and of beautiful fornu ; but too nu- 
merous to be particularized here. 

Rivers, lakes, and forests.] The larp;c{c river in Scotland 13 
the Forth, which lifes In IVIonteith near Callendar, and pafling by Stir- 
ling, after dcicribing a number of beautiful meaiuiei-s, difuharrjcs itfflf 
liiitothat arm of the fea to which it givt-s the name of Frith of Forth. 
Si'cond to the Forth is the Tay, which ill'ues out of LochTay, in Broad- 
lilbin, and, running foiith-eali, falls into the fea at Dunclcf. The Spcy, 
Uiiich is called the moft rapid river in Scotland, iffues from a lake of the 
Ifjme name in Badcnoch, and, running from fTuth-v.-cIl: to north-eaft, 
Ifallj into the German Ocean ; as do the rivers Dee and Den, which run 
Ifron well to eali, and difembogue thcmielves near A'ocidcon. The 
;|vie is a large river on the vveR ol' Scoiland, has its rife in Annandale, 
Lis north-weil through tiie valley of that name, and, afier pailing by 
Lanerk, Hamilton, the city of Glafgo;., Kenfrew, Dumbarton, anJ 
Jreenock, falls into the Frith of Clyde, oppofite to the ifle of Bute, 
[he Tweed ferves as a boundary between Scotland and England; and 
tifing on the borders of Lanerkfliire, after many be:'.wtiful f^-rpentint; 
urnings, difcharges itfelf into the fea at Berwick. Ecfidci tiiofe capital 
[ivers, Scotland contains many of an inferior fort, well provided with 
silmon, trout, and other fifties, which equally enrich and beautify the 
lountry. Several of thofe rivers go by tlie name of Eflc, v/iiich is tlie 
lid Celtic name for water. The greatell: improvement for inland navi- 
ptionthat has been attempted in Great-Britain, is now (1769) carrying on 
Eta very confiderable expence, by a fuciety of public- fpirited gentlemen, 
for joining the rivers Forth and Clyde together ; by which a communi- 
Jcation will be opened between tlie call and the weft feas, to the immcnfc 
ladvantage of the whole kingdom, as mull: be evident to every perfon vvho 
Illiall throw his eye upon the map of Scotland. 

The lakes of Scotland (there called Lochs) are too many to be particu- 

llarly defcribed. I'hofe called Locli Tay, Loch Lomond, and Loch An, 

land one or two more, prefcnt us v.'ith fuch pifturcfquc fccnes as are not 

Iniatchcd in Europe. Several of thofe lakes are beautifully fringed with 

hoods, and contain plenty of freili-v/ater fifli. Tlie Scois fometimes 

jgive the name of a loch to an arm of the fea, for example, Loch Fyn, 

Iwhich is fixty miles long and four broad, and is famous fo.- its excellent 

jiierrings : the Loch of Spinie, near F>igin, is remarkable by its n''mber 

lof Avails and cygnets, which often darken the air v.'ith their f...,hts ; 

owing, as fome think, to the plant olorina, which grows in its waters, 

ivith a ftrait ftalk and a clufter of feeds at the top. Near Lochncfs is a 

Ihill two miles perpendicular, on the top of which is a lake of cold frelli 

water, about thirty fi.thoms in length, too deep ever yet to be fathomed, 

|and never freezes ; whereas, but feventeen miles from thence, the Lake 

Lcchanwyn, or Green Lake, is covered with ice all the year round. 

The ancient province of Lochaber receives that name from being the 

nnuth of the lochs, by means of which the ancient Caledonians, the ge- 

buine defcendents of the Celts, were probably enabled to prefei-ve them- 

elves independent upon, and unmixed with, the Lowlanders. 

The face of Scotland, even where it is mort uninviting, prefcnts us 

ith the moll unqontrovcruble evidences of its having been formerly over- 

f 2 run 



m 



*jj 



€^ 



SCOTLAND. 



run with timber. The decpcfl: mofll-s, or nmrafTes, contain large logi 
of wood; and their waters being impregnated with turpentine have a 
prefervinji; quality, as appears by the human bodies which have been dif- 
covcred in thofe moHcs. The Sylva Caledonia, or Caledonian Forell, 
the remains of which are now tliought to be Etrick Wood, in the fouth 
of Scotland, famous in auticiuity for its beinir the harbour of tlic Calc- 
donian wild boars ; but fuch an animal is not now to be heard of in Scot- 
land. Several woods, however, Hill remain in that country ; and many I 
attempts have been made for reducing them into charcoal, for the ufc of) 
•furnatbs and foundcrics ; but Jying at a grep.t dillance from water-cai.[ 
riagc, though the work fucceeded perfectly in the execution, they wcrel 
found impradicable to be continued. Fir-trees grow in great perfa^icnl 
almoft all over Scotland, and form beautiful plantations. The Scotch! 
oak is excellent in the Highlands, where fomc woods reach twenty orl 
thirty miles in length, and four or five in breadth, but, through the iuconJ 
veniency already mentioned, without being of much emolument to tiiej 
proprietors. 

Metals and minerals. J Though Scotland does not at prefentj 
boaft of its gold mines, yet, it is certain, that it contains fach, or atl 
leaft that Scotland afforded a confiderable quantity of that metal foritil 
coinage. James V. and his father contrafted with certain Germans fori 
working the mines of Crawford-Moor ; and it is an undoubted h&, that! 
when James V. married the French king's daughter, a number of coveredl 
dilhes, filled with coins of Scotch gold, were prefented to the guefts byj 
way of deffert. The civil wars and troubles which follow under hii 
daughter and in the minority of his grandfon, drove thofe ncrs, tho 

chief of whom was called Cornelius, from their works, whivii, iincethall 
time, have never been recovered. Some fmall pieces of gold have beeo 
found in thofe parts waflied down by the floods. It likewife appears by 
the public records, that thofe beautiful coins ftruck by James V. cailej 
bonnet-pieces, were fabricated of gold found in Scotland, as were othei 
incJals of the fame metal. 

Several landholders in Scotland derive a large profit from their lead-j 
jnincs, which are here faid to be very rich, and to produce large quantiJ 
tic;, of filver ; but we know of no filver-mines that are worked at prefenti 
Some copper-mines have been found near Edinburgh ; and many parti 
of Scotland, in the eart, v. ell:, and northern counties, produce ex 
cellent coal of various kinds, Inrge quantities of which are exported, 
the vail emolument of the public. Limc-llone is here in great plenty, 
5s frec-ltone ; fo that the hoiifes of the better fort are conftruited ofth 
moil beautiful materials. The indolence of the inhabitants of many placd 
.- in Scotland, where no coal is found, prevented them from fupplyingthi 
ciefeft by plantations of wood ; and the peat-mofTes being in many pan 
of tiie north efpecially, almofl exhaultcd, the inhabitants are put to gred 
difficulties for fuel : the talle for plantations, however, of all kinds 
jiow prevails, will foon remedy tliatinconvcniency. 

Lapis lazuli is faid to be dug up in Lanerkfhire ; allum-mines ha^ 
been found in Bamiflhire ; chryllaf, variegated pebbles, and other tran 
parent flones, which acbnit of the iineft polilh for feals, are found in niad 

f>arts of Scotland ; as are talc, flint, fea-fliells, potters-clay, and ^ 
eri-e.irth. The Hones which the country people call elf-arrow-head 
and to which they afiign a iupernatural origin and ufc, were probably tM 
flint heads of arrows made ui: of by the Cai»;doa."aos and ancient Scots. ' 

couaq 



Vec 

DU 

JdereJ 
jprelfnt 
llhey 3f 
(of the 
iTarious 

u.;ry> 
jjicis 



■■I isi 



SCOTLAND. 



% 



entry produces greater plenty of iron-ore, both in mines and rtoncs, 
jn Scotland ; of which the proprietors now begin to tallc tlie fwceis, in' 
lljcir founderies and other metalline nianufadures. 
VEGtTADkE AND A N f M A I, piio-1 I havc nlrcadv obfcrved, that 
DUCTiONs, BY stA AND LAND, j tho foil of Scotland may be ren- 
ereJ iis fruitful as that of England. Many parts of the Low Countries at 
[relent exceed in value Englifh eftates of the fame extent, becaufe 
liicyare far lefs exhaufted antl worn out than thole in the fouthcrn parts 
jfthe ifland. Even the barren rocks of Scotland now produce grain of 
,jrious kinds ; and agriculture is perhaps as well underftood,"^both in 
,;„.;ryand praftice, among many of the Scotch landholders and farmer:;, 
jjitis in any part of Europe. I'hcir grounds produce wheat, rye, bar- 
lev, oat.", hemp, flax, hay, and palturage, and are generally well in- 
[cloicdand kept warm. In the fouthcrn counties the finell garden fruits, 
larticularly apricots, nectarines, and peaches, fall little, it at all, fliort 
ftliofe in England ; and the fame may be laid of the common fruits. 
fhe uncultivated parts of the Highlands abound in various kinds of falu- 
rious and pleafant-talled berries ; though it mull be owned, that many 
xtenfive trafts are covered with a Itn-ng heath. The fea-coaft produces 
c alga-marina, dulfe, or dulifti, a iioft wholefome nutritive weed, in 
reat quantities, and other marine plants. 
The filhcs on the coall of Scotland are much the fame with thofe of the 
(lands and counties already defcribed ; but the Scot . have improved in 
[heir filheries as much as they have 'n their manufaftiies and agriculture, 
[orfncieties have been formed, which have carried that branch of national 
/ealth to a perfection that never was before known in that country ; and 
lids fair to emulate, if not to excel, the Dutch themfelves, in curing, as 
fdl as catching, their fifh. In former times, the Scots feldom ven- 
;ured to filh at a diftancc of above a league from the land, but they now 
ly in the deep waters as boldly and fuccefsfully as any of their neigh- 
Ibours. Their falmons, which they can fend more early, when prepared, 
to the Levant and fouthern markets than the Englifli or Irifh can, are of 
jrcat fervice to the nation, as the returns are generally made in fpecie, or 
kneficial commodities. * 

This country contains few or no kinds either of wild or domeftic anl- 
nials that are not common with their neighbours. The red-deer and the 
rae-buck are found in the Highlands, but their flefh is not comparable 
to Englifli venifon. Hares, and all other animals for game, are here 
)Ientiful ; as are the groufe and heathcock, which is a moll delicious 
lird, as likcwife are the capperkaily and the tarmacan, which is of the 
phcifant kind ; but thofe birds are fcarce even in the Highlands, and 
when difcovered are very fliy. The numbers of black cattle and ihcep, 
that cover the hills of Scotland towards the Highlands, are almoft incre- 
dible, and formerly brought large fums into the country, the black cattle 
efpecially, which, when fattened on the foutliern paftures, are reckoned 
fupeiior to Englifh beef. It is to be hoped, however, that this trade is 
row on its decline, by the vail increafe of manufai^urers, whole demands 
for butchers meat iiiuft lelTen the exportation of cattle into England. 
Some are of opinion, that a fufficient Hock, by proper methods, may be 
raifed to lupply both markets, to the great emolument of the mother 
country. 

Formerly the kings fit Scotland were at infinite pains to mend the 
breed of the Scotch hcrfes, by importing a larger and more generous 

F 3 ^und 



<lti 






i|i 



7° 



SCOTLAND. 



m 



]'■ ,j , 



I ' 



!)!' 




kind from the continent ; but the truth is, notwithftnvidln^ all the cam 
til. It was taken, it was found that the climate and foil of Scotland wck; 
rnfavourabjc to that noble -Himal, for they dimininied both in fize and 
fpirit ; fo that about tJie time of the union, few horfes, nat!\cs of Scot- 
land, were of much vhlac. Great efforts have be* n made of h.te to in- 
trodace theEngliOi and f.Teifjn breeds, and much pains have been taken 
for proviaiiif^ thei.i vvlth proper foods and management, but with what 
fucccf^ time alone can dii'cover. 

Population, inhaditants, 7 The population of Scotland is 
CUSTOMS, AND MANNERS. ( o;fiv;i-;d'y lixcd at abo;it a million 
and a half of fouls. This calculation reits merely upon vague tciijecture, 
as I know of no attempt that has been made to fupp^rt even its probabi- 
lity. If we form an eilimate upon any known principle, the inhabit:uns 
cf Scotland are iar more numerous. It is to be regretted that fome pub- 
lie encouragement has not been given to bring this matter nearer to a cer- 
tainty, which might be done by the returns (;f the clergy from their (cve- 
ral parifnes. The only records at prefent tlia^ can be appealed to, are 
thofe of the army ; and, by the bell information, they nake the nanfocr 
of foldiers furniihed by Scotland in the late war, wliich began in i^jj, 
to amount to 80,000 men. We are, liowevi-, to obfcrve, that above 
60,000 c^f vhoie weie raifed in the iflands and Iligldands, which form by 
far the Icail: populous part of Scotland. It belongs, therefore, to poli- 
tical calculation to compute whether the population of Scotland does not 
exceed two millions and a half, as no country in the wo'ld, exchulve of 
the army, fends abroad more of its inhabitants. If we confult the moft 
ancient and creditable hlftories, the popukition of Scotland, in the thir- 
teenth century, mufc have been exi. ''uive, as it afforded fo many tli ' 
fands to be butchered by the f.vord;: of the Engliih, v.'thout any fenfibk 
decreafe (fo far as ^ can find) of the inhabitants. 

The common people of Scotland are generally raw-bcned ; and a k'nd 
of a charadteriiHcal feature, that of high cheek bones, reigns in their 
faces ; lean, but clean Hmbeu, and can endure incredible fatigues. 
Their adventuring fpirit was chiefly owing to their laws of fucccflion, 
which invefled the elder brother as head of the family with the inherit- 
ance, and left but a very icanty portion for the other fons. This obliged 
the Latter to feek their fortunes abroad, though no people have more af- 
feftion for their native foil than the Scots have in general. It is true, 
this difparity of fortune among the fons of one family prevails in England 
likew'.ie ; but the refources which younger brothers have in England arc- 
numerous, compared to thofe of a country fo narrow, and fo little im- 
proved, either by commerce or agriculture, as Scotland was formerly. 

An intelligent reader may eafily perceive, that the ridiculous family 
pride which is perhaps not yet entirely extinguilhed in Scotland, was 
owing to tlie feudal inlHtutions which reigned there in all their horrors of 
Mood and barbarity. Their kings, excepting fome of them who were 
endued with extraordinary virtues, were confidered in little other light 
than commanders of their army in time of war, for in time of peace their 
civil authority was fo little felt, that every clan, or family, even in the 
moft c^'ilized parts of Scotland, looke^l upon its own chieftain as the fo- 
vereign. Thofe ideas were confirmed even by the laws, which gave thofe 
petty tyrants a power of life and death upon their own ellates, and they 
generally executed in four and twenty hours after the party was apprc 
hended, The pride w^ch thofe chieftains had of out- vying each other, 

ia 



im^. 



SCOTLAND. 



71 



lj„ the numbers of their followers, created perpetual aniniofitics, which 
\iek\om or never ended without bloodlhed ; lo that the common people 
lE'.cd ill ^ ^^'^^^ of continual holUiity. 

Some Scorch gentlemen, who pique themfelves upon their family, or 
Ithe antiquity of their defccnt, are the moil c^angerous as well as dif- 
la'rrecp'jle animals upon earth ; becaufe, forf;e('i:ig all the virtues of their 
la'nccliors, they imitate them only in their carj^cious vanity and revenge. 
'Ihisfehlom happens but when pride, as is too ofter the cafe, is covmed- 
Lj with indolerice, which keeps them at home in a loathfomc llatc of in- 
a;tivity. Thoil' vvho go abroad, and endeavour by induitry to raiie the 
loivnci's of their circumitances, excel in all the fecial, civil, commercial, 
■and military duties. There is a kind of fimilariry in th','ir perlbaal cha- 
jnclers, and by feeing one Scotchman wiio acquires a fortune abroad, you 
fee the whole. They are hofpitable, open, communicative, and chari- 
table. They aflimilate to the manners, of the people with whom they 
Ijive, with more eafe and freedom than the natives of moil other countries ; 
and they have a furprizing facility in acquiring language;-, particularly 
|tk French. 

With regard to the gentlemen who live at home, upon eftatts of 300 

Ipounds a year, ;md upwards, they differ little or nothing, in their man- 

Iners and llile of living, from their Englifli neighbours of the like for- 

Itunes. The perfintry indeed have their peculiarities ; their ideas are 

Iconrined ; but no people can conform their tempers better than they do to 

[their ilations. Hence it is, that among the common people of Scotland, 

Ifew atrocions aftions happen, and few inftanees of perjury, and vices 

Icommor. to other countries, occur. They feldom enter fingly upon any 

Idaring e ^.terprize ; but when they adl in concert, the iecrecy, lagacity, 

"and refouition, with vhich they carry on any defperate undertaking, is 

"Vnot to be paralleled ; and thei: fidelity to one another, under the llrongell 

I temptations, arifing from their poverty, is itill more extraordinary. Their 

mobs are managed with all the caution of confpirac'es, witnefs that whicll 

putPortcus to death, in 1735, in open defiance of lav/ and government, 

and in the mid il: of 20,000 people ; and, though the agents were well 

known, and fome of them tried, v/ith a reward of 500 1. annexed to their 

con.'itiHon, yet no evidence could be found fuilicient to bring them to 

puniihment. The fidelity of the Highlanders, of both fexes, under 3 

llill jrreater temptation, to the young Pretender, after his defeat at Cul- 

lodcn, could fcarely be believed was it not well attefted. 

It is not however to be diffembled, that the impulfe of many of the 
[Scots, but efpccially the Highlanders, to revenge, \v; en they imagine 
they are either aftronted or wronged, is equally llrn ",g. It mull be ac- 
knowledged, that fuch crimes had but too much :.ountenanrp from the 
feudal conltitutions of their country. Their family differences fatni- 
I liarizcd them to blood and {laughter ; and the death of an enemy, how- 
I ever effefted, was always a matter of triumph,. Thefe paflions did not 
live ill the breads of the common people only, for they were authorized 
I and cherilhed by their chieftains, many of whom were men who had 
feen the world, were converfanl in the courts of Europe, mailers cf polite 
literature, and amiable in all the duties of civil and focial life. Thofe 
I peculiarities may be accounted for by their feudnl prepofTeflions that their 
importance was owing to the numbers of their followers, whofe bell qua- 
lification was a blind devotion to the v^ ill of their mailer, and the ag- 
grandizement of his name, 

F4 The 



T2 



Scotland. 




The late duke of Argyle was the firft chieftain we have lieard of, \^,u 
had the nutriotifm to attempt to reform his dependents, and to baniili 
from th'jm thofe barbarous ideas. His example has been followed h« 
others ; and there fcarce can be a doubt, that a very few years will reJ 
concile the Highlanders to all the milder habits of fociety. 

It remains perhaps a queftion, whether that lettered education, foj] 
which the Scots were noted by the neighbouring nations, was not oi 
prejudice to their country, while it was of the utmoft fervice to its naJi. 
♦ives. Their literature, however flight, rendered them acceptable andl 
agreeable among foreigners ; but at the fame time, it drained their na- 
tion of that order of men, who are the bell fitted for forming and exeJ 
cuting the great plans of commerce and agriculture for the publiol 
emolument. 

The inhabitants of thofe parts of Scotland, who live chiefly by pafture I 
have a natural vein for poetry ; and the beautiful fimplicity of the Scotcli 
tunes is relilhed by all true judges of nature. It has been ridiculouilyl 
fiippofed that Rizzio, the unhappy Italian fecretary of Mary queen of 
Scots, reformed the Scotch mufic. This is a fallhood invented byhijl 
countrymen in envy to the Scots. Their fineft tunes exifled long before! 
Rizzio's arrival, in their church mufic ; nor does it appear that RizzioJ 
who was entirely employed by his millrefs in foreign difpatches, everl 
compofed an air during the fhort time he lived in Scotland ; but, weraj 
there no other evidences to confute this report, the original charafterof 
the mufic itfelf is fufficient. 

From what has been iaid, it appears that the antient modes of living amoii"! 
the Scotch nobility and gentry are as far froi» being applicable to the pre- 1 
fent time, as the forms of a Roman fenate are to that of a conclave ; and no| 
nation, perhaps, ever underwent fo quick and fo fudden a tranfition of man, 
ners. The* danger is, that it has been rather too rapid in a contrary ex-j 
treme, before the refources of the luxuries and conveiiiencies of life havel 
laeen fully eftabliihed. The Scotch commonalty have fome cuftoms at prc-l 
•fell t that are "cculiarto thcmfclves : they affedt a fondnefs for the memcryl 
and lang'Kge of their forefathers beyond, perhaps, any people in the] 
world ; but this attachment is feldom or never carried into any thing that] 
Is indecent or difguilful, though they retain it abroad as well as at home. 
They are fond of the antient Scotch diflies, fuch as the hoggice, the! 
Iheep's-head finged, the filh in fauce, the chicken broth, and mincedl 
collops. Thefc difher, in their original drelfing, were favoury and nu.l 
triiive for keen appetites ; but the modern improvements that have been I 
made in the Scotch cookery, have rendered them agreeable to the moitj 
delicate palates. The common ufe of oatmeal, undoubtedly, gave al 
hardnefs to the fe.iturcs of the vulgar of both fexes, befides fome other! 
difagreeable confequences it was attended v.ith ; but thefe unfavourable I 
charaderiltics will wear out, by the introdutHon of wheaten bread,! 
which now abounds in Scotland. The exceflive ufe of oat- meal accounts 
for tlie common obfervation, that the faces of the lower women in Scot- 1 
land are commonly very coarfe ; but it was owned at the fame time, that j 
among the higher rank of fem.iles, beauty was found in its utmoft per-» 
fedion. Tlie reverfe has been remarked of a neighbouring nation. 

The lower people in Scotland are not fo much accuilomed as the Eng-I 
Jilh are to clubs, dinners, and other convivial entertainments ; but whenj 
|hey partake of them, for that very reafon, they feem to enjoy them morel 
fompletely, One inlHtution there is, at once foaal a{(d chi^it^ible, an4| 



SCOTLAND, 



7'r 



5t IS, the contributions raifed for cekbrating the weddings of people o^ 
r, inferior rank. Thofe felUvities partake of the antient Saturnalia; 
L though the company confifts promlfcucufly of the high and the low, 
le entertainment is as decent as it is jovial. Each gueft pays according 

J his inclination or ability, but fcldom under a Ihilling a head, for 
liliich they have a wedding dinner and dancing. When the pmties hap- 
■rfn to beVervants in refptfcablc families, the contributions are fo liberal, 
Lritthey often eftablifh the young couple in the world. 

The common people of Scotland retain the folemn decent manner of 
L'ir ancellors at burials. When a relation dies in a town, the parilh 
Jkadle is fent round with a pafling bell ; but he fiops at certain places, 
|;-J witli .1 flow melancholy tone, he announces the name of the party 
Icfcearccl, and the time of his interment, to which he invites all his fellow 
Icountrymen. At the liour appointed, if the dcccafed was beloved in th« 



C£, vail numbers attend. The proceiiion is fometimes preceded by , 
iliemagillratcs and their ctKcers, and the deceaied is carried in his coffin, 

ovcred by a velvet pall, with chair poles, to the grave, where it is in- , 
icrrcd without any far'-her ceremony than the neareft relation thanking 

c company for their attendance. I'he funerals of the nobility and gen- 
Itrv are performed in much the fame manner as in England, but without 
he burial fervice. The Jii<i;hland funerals were generally preceded by , 
cgpipes, which played certain dirges, caded coronachs, and were ac- - 
luupanied by the voices of the attendants of both fexes. 

Dancing is a favourite amuiement in this country, but little regard 
is paid to art or grr.ccfiilnefs ; the whole confifts in agility, and in keep- 
n'f time to their own tunes, which they do with great exaflncf;;. One 

f the peculiar diverfions practifed by the gentlemen, is tlio Go!T*, v/hich 
cquires an equal degree of art and itrength: it is played hy a bat and a 
yi; the letter is fmaller and harder than a cricket b.ijl ; the bat is of 
s taper conllruiSlion, till it terminates in the part t lliikes the ball, 
fthich is loaded with lead, and fac^jd with horn. • ' .c dI\erfion itielf 
rcfcmbies that of the Mall, which v.'as common in Englanu in tli. middle 
of the lait century. An expert player will fend the ball aii .imazing 
diuanc'J at one ftroke ; and eacn party follows his ball upon an pew 
kath, and he who llrikcs it in fewefl Itrokes into a hole, wins the game. 
Tiie diverfion of Curling is likewifc, 1 believe, peculiar to the Scots. 
It is performed upon ice, v/ith large fi.:t ftones, often from twenty to 
t,vO hundred pounds v.eight each, which they hurl from a common Hand, 
tTa mark at a ceilain uiitance ; and whoever is nearcll the mark is the 
vidor. Thcfe tv/o may be called the ilanding fummer and winter di-- 
vcnions of Scodand. The natives arc expert at all the ether diverfions 
common in England, the cricket excepted, of which liiey have no no- 
tion ; the gentlemen look upon it as too atnletic and mechanical. 

Religion.] The eilabliihcd religion in Scotland is prcfbyterian. 
1; was Jbrmerly of a rigid nature, and partook of all the aulleritics of cal- 
vinilii) and intoltraucc of popery, by its perfecuting fpirit. At prefent it is 
n.ldnnd gentle; and the moll ratlonil Cluiilian may accommodate himfelf 
to the doctrine and v/orlhip of tlie national church. It is to be wiflied, 
liowcver, that this moderation was not too often interrupted by the fana- 
ticifm not only of lay feccders, but of regular minillers. Thefe are in- 
duilriods to fix upon the abfuriities (ind what church is witliout them) 
of former divines and vifionaries, and ecclefiaftical ordinances an 1 difci- 
pline, which were found to be incompatible with the natuie of govcin- 
Meiit. A vafl. number of thofe ieceding congregations are to be found 

^ i in. 









Piitli 




SCOTLAND. 

in the Lowlands. They maintain their own preachers ; though fcarcelyl 
a«y two congregations agree either in principle or praftice with each! 
other. We do not, however, find that they fly into the face of the civjll 
power, or at leaft the inftances are raie and inconfiderable. I 

A different fet of diffenters in Scotland, confifts of the epifcopalians I 
a few quakers and papifts, and other feiflaries, who are denominated from I 
their preachers. Epifcopacy, from the time of the Reftoration in 1660 
to that of the Revolution in i688, was the eftablilhed church of Scotland' 
and would probably have continued fo, had not the bilhops, who were 
in general very weak men, and creatures of the duke of York, afterwards 
James VII. and II. refufed to recognize king William's title. The par- 
tizans of that unhappy prince retained the epifcopal religion ; and kin? 1 
William's government was fo unpopular in Scotland, that in queen I 
Anne's time, the epifcopalians were more numerous in fome parts than 
the prefbyterians ; and their meetings, which they held under the aft of 
Toleration, as well attended. A Scotch epifcopift thus becoming an- 
other name for a Jacobite, they received fome checks after the rebel- 
lion in 17'^; but they recovered themfelves fo well, that at the break- 
ing out of the rebellion in 1745, they became again numerous ; after 
which the government found means to invalidate the afts of their clerical 
order. Their meetings, however, ftill fubfill, but thinly; aad in a 
few years they will, probably, be reduced to nothing. In the mean 
while, the decline of the nonjurors is far from having fupprelTed epif. 
copacy in Scotland : the Englilh bifhops fupply them with clergy quali- 
fied according to law, whofe chapels are chiefly filled by the Englilh, and 
fuch Scotch hearers of that perfuafion as have places under the government. 

The defeftion of fome great families from the caufe of popery, and the 
extindlion of others, have rendered its votaries very inconfiderable in Scot- 
land. If any remain, they are confined to the northern parts, and the 
illands : but they appear to be as quiet and inoffenfive as proteflant fubjefts. 

Towards the middle of the i6th century, when learning, arts and fci- 
ences began to revive in Europe, the abfurdities of the church of Rome, 
as well as the profligate lives of her clergy in Scotland, did not efcape 
the notice of a free and enquiring people, and gave rife to the Re- 
formation ; which began in the reign of James V. made great progrefs 
under that of his daughter Mary, and was at length completed through 
the preaching of John Knox, who had adopted the doftrine of Calvin, 
and was become the apoille ot Scotland. It was natural for his brethren 
to imagine, that, upon the abolition of the Roman Catholic religion, 
they were to fucceed to rhe revenues of that clergy. The great nobility, 
who had parcelled out thefe pofTefnons for themfelves, did not at firft 
difcourage this notion ; but no fooner had Knox fucceeded in his defigns, 
which, through the fury of the mob, deftroyed fome of the fined eccle- 
fiaflical buildings in the world, than the parliament, or rather the no- 
bility, monopolized all the church livings, and moft fcandaloufly left 
the reforming clergy to live almoft in a ftate of beggary j nor could all 
their efforts produce any llruggle in their luvour. 

The nobility and great landholders, left the doftrine and difcipHne of 
the church to be modelled by the preachers, and they were confirmed by 
parliament. Succeeding times rendered the prefhyterian clergy of vaft 
importance to the ftate ; and their reveui'es have been fo much mended, 
that though no ftiptnd there exceeds 150 1. a year, few fall Ihort of 60I. 
and none of 50 1. If the prefent expenfive mode of living continues in 
Scotland, the eflabliflied clergy will have many unanfwcrablc reafons to 
uvfp why their revenues ought to be increafed. The 



SCOTLAND. 



75 



ITlic lnG;lie(l: ecclefiaftical authority in Scotland is the general afTembly, 
Ijch ',vc iViay call the ccclcriailrcal parliament of Scotland. It conflll^ 
jcomiTiiffioiicrs, fome of which are laymen, under the title of ruling 
Lr, from prelbyteries, royal burglis, and univerfities. A prefbytery, 
L'lfniKv of under twelv^e minifters, fends two ininiilers and one ruling 
h^j; iV it contains between twelve and eiglitccn niinifters, it fends 
Iref. and one ruling elder : if it contains between eip;hteen and twen- 
Llour minillcrs, it fends four minifiers and two rulinj^ elders : but if 
«prc!byicry has twenty-four miiiiiters, it fends five ixiinifrers and two 
(iipfr elcleis. Every royal burgh fends one ruling elder, and Edinburgh 
rtfwhofc election mull: be attelled by the rtfpeftivc kirk-feffions of 
jieirown burghs. Every univerfity iends one conViTiilnoner, ufua'.ly a 
:jr.iilcr cf their own body. The commilfioners are chofen yearly, fix 
tisi before the meeting of the aifernbly. The ruling elders are often 
the fi.n1: quality of the country. 

The king p^-fidcs by his commiflioner (who is always a nobleman) 
tMs affembly, which meets once a year ; but he has no voice in their 
liberations. The order of their proceedings is regular, though the 
iiiiLier of members ofteii create a confiifion ; which the moderator, who 

iifcn by them to be as it were fpeaker of the houfe, has not fufficient 
ithority to preven''. Appeals are brought from all the other eccle- 
iiiic:.! courts in Scotland to the general aiiembly; and no appeal lies 
mil', ucccrminations in religious matters. 
Provincia' fynods ?.re next in authority to the general aflembly. They 

ccmpofed of a number of the adjacent prelbyteries, over whom they 
ive a power ; and there are fifteen of them in Scotland ; but their afts 

rfverfible by the general aflembly. 

Subordinate to the fynods, are prelbyteries, fixty-nine of which are in 
:otb.nJ, each confining of a number of contiguous pariflies. The 
inifcrs of tnefe pariihes, with one ruling elder, chofen iialf-yearly out 

verv kirk-feflion, compofe a prefbytery. Thefc prelbyteries meet in 
iei:eau town of thai: uiviiion ; but have no jirifJidion beyond their own 
and?, though wiil:in tlieie they have cognizance of all ecclefialHcal 
flies and matters. A chief part of their bufinefs is tiie ordination of 
icdidatcs for living;;, in which they are regular and folemn. The pa- 
in of a living IS bound to nominate or prefent in fix months after a va* 
;aiicr, otherwife the prelbvtery fills the place y'a>v dc'volnto ; but that pri- 
egc does not hold in royal burghs. 

A kirk-felTion is the loweft ecclefialHcal judicatory in Scotland, and its 

lithoritv does not extend beyond its own parifh. The members con fill 

the minillcr, elders, and deacons. The deacons are laymen, and aift 

tty much as cliurch-wardens do in England, by having the fupcrin- 

nrlency of the poor, and taking care of other parochial aflairs. I'he 

tier, or, as he is called, the ruling elder, is a place of great parochial 

', and he is generally a lay pcrfon of quality or interelT in the pariih. 

W are fuppofcd to ad in a kind of a co-ordinancy with the minifter, 

idto be afhiting to him in many of his clerical duties, particularly in 

itcchifipg, vifiting the fick, and at the communion-table. 

The office of minifters, or preaching prelbyters, includes the offices of 

aeons and ruling-elders ; they alone can preach, adminifter the facra- 

lents, catechife, pronounce church cenfures, ordain deacons, and ruling 

ers, aflift at the impofition of hands upon otlier minifters, and mode- 

:eorprefide in all eccjefiaftical judicatories, 

I The 




76 



SCOTLAND. 



^.■liii: 



S;'.' ' 



The bounces of this work do not admit of entering at-large upon th« 
doclrinal and economical part of the church of Scotland. It is fufficient 
to fay, tliat its firft principle is )x parity of ecclefiaftical authority among 
all its preJbyters ; that it agrees in its cenfures with the reformed churches 
abroad in the chief heads of oppoiition to popery ; but that it is modelled 
principally after the Calviniftical plan eftablilhed at Geneva. This efta- 
tlifliment, at various periods, proved fo tyrannical over the laity, by 
having the power of the greater and lefler excommunication, which were 
attended by a forfeiture of ellate, and fomctimes of life, that the kirk 
feinons, and other bodies, have been abridged of all their dangerous 
powers over the laity, who are extremely jealous of their being revived. 
It is faid, that even that relic of popery, the obliging fornicators of both 
fcxcs to fit upon what they call a repcnting-ftool, in the church, and ia 
full view of the congregation, begins to wear out ; it having been found, 
that the Scotch womt-n, on account of that penance, were the greateli 
infanticides h\ the world. In fhort, the power of the Scotch clergy is 
at prefent wry moderate, or at Icall very moderately exercifed; nor are 
they accountable for the extravagancies of their predeccflbrs. They have 
been, ever fince the Revolution, firm adherents to civil liberty, and the 
houfc of Hanover i and arted with remarkable intrepidity during the 
rebellion in 1745. They drefs without clerical robes ; but fome of theiu 
appear in the pulpit in gowns, after the Geneva form, and bands. They 
make no uk of fet forms in worfhip, but are not prohibited that of the 
Lord's prayer. The rents of the bifliops, fince the abolition of epifco- 
pacy, are paid to the king, who commonly appropriates them to pious 
purpofes. A thoufund pounds a year is always fent by his majefty for 
the ufe of the protellant fchools ercfted by aft of parliament in North- 
Britain, and the Weftern liles ; and the Scotch clergy, of late, have 
planned out funds for the fupport of their widows and orphans. Th-i 
number of parifhes in Scotland are eight hundred and ninety, whereof 
thirty-one are collegiaie churches, that is, where the cure is ferved by 
more than one miniitcr. 

Scotland, during the time of epifcopacy, contained two archbiflioprics, 
St. Andrew's and Glafgow; and twelve biflioprics, which aje, Edin- 
burgh, Dunkeld, Aberdeen, Murray, Brichen, Dumbarton, Rofs, Caith- 
nel's, Orkney, Galloway, Argyle, and the Ifles. The univcrfities of 
tliis kingdom are four, viz. thofe of St. Andrew, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, 
and Glafgow. 

Learning and i,earned men.] For this article we may refer to 
tlie literary hiflory of Europe for thefe fourteen hundred years palh 
The v.ellcrn pans and iiles of Scotland produced St. Patric, the cele- 
brated apofcle of Irehmd ; and many others fince, whofe bare names 
Xvould make a long article. The writings of Adamnanus, and other 
autjiors, who lived before, and at the time of the conqueft of England, 
which arc come to our hands, are fpecimens of their learning. Charles 
tlie Great, or Charlemagne, moft unqueilionably held a correfpondence 
by letters with the kings of Scotland, with whom he formed a famous 
league; and employed Scotchmen in planning, fettling, and ruling his 
favourite univerfities, and other feminaries of learning, in France, Italy, 
»nd Germany. It is an undoubted truth, though a feeming paradoxical 
fatiy that Barbour, a Scotch poet, philofopher, and hiilorian, though 
^rior in time to Chcuccr, having flouriflied in the year 1368, wrote, 
according to the modern idi;ai, purer Englifli than that bard, and his 
ter^Uitioi lb ptrliaf .s jiiore harmoniou!,. 'Ihc dellrudlion of the Scotch 

3 niunuuicntj 



S C O T L A N a 



n 



IjonumenU of learning and antiquity, have rendered their early annalt 
Ikme, and often fabulous ; but the Latin Itile of Buchana«'s biftory in 

this day the moft claflical of all modern productions. 'I'he letters of 
lihe Scotch kings to the neighbouring princes, are incomparably the fineft 
Icompofitions of the times in which they were written, and are pure froiH- 
Ithebarbarifms of thofe fent them in anfwer. This is at le^ill a nianifcft 
[proof that claffical learning was better cultivated at the court -of Scotland, 
I than at any other in Europe. 

The famous difcovery of logarithms, was owing to Napier, the baron 
ofMarchilton ; and it would be endlefs to name the many great mathe- 
maticians which Scotland has fince produced. The fame may be faid 
of her divines, moralifts, phyficians, naturalifts, poets, hiftorians, and 
writers in every branch of literature, whofe eminent merits are coiv 
fcffed by the greateft enemies of that country. 

Commerce and manufactures.] Scotland may hitherto b« 
juftly looked upon as a non-defcribed country. All the writers, tiU 
ivithin thefe few years, who have treated of that nation, reprefent it at 
being in the very fame ftate as a century ago. In this they are not to 
blame, becaufe the alteration which the people and country have under- 
gone, has been inconceivably fudden. Without entering into tiie diC- 
puted point, how far Scotland was benefited by its union with England, 
it is certain that the expedition of the Scots to take poffeflion of Darien, 
and to carry on an Eaft and Weft-India trade, was founded upon triif 
principles of commerce, and (fo far as it went) executed with a nobl» 
Ipirit of enterprize. The mifcarriage of that fcheme, after receiving th# 
higheft and moft folemn fanftions, is a difgrace to tJie annals of that 
reign in which it happened ; as the Scots had then a free, indepen- 
dent, and unconnedled parliament. We are to account for the long 
languor of the Scottilh commerce, and many other misfortunes which 
that country fuftained, to the difguft the inhabitants conceived on that? 
account, and fome invafions of their rights, which they thought incon- 
fiilent with the articles of union. The intails and narrow fettJements of 
family eftates, and fome remains of the feudal inlUtutions, might con- 
tribute to the fame caufe. 

Mr. Pelham, when at the head of the adminiftration in England, 
after the extinftion of the rebellion in 1745, was the iirft nilnillcr v.ho dif- 
covered the true valueof Scotland, which then became a more coniiderable 
objctl of governmental enquiry than ever. All the benefits received by 
that country, for the rcl'.cf of the people from their feudal tyranny, wero 
eftcfted by that great n-'an. The bounties and encouragements granted 
to the Scots, for the bjncfit of trade and manuf;itlures, durin^j; his ad- 
miniilration, made them fcnfible of tlieir own importance; and had h» 
ken a Scotchman, muft have ruined his minillry. A fucceeuing mini- 
iter puriued Mr. Pelham's wife plan ; and jullly boafted in p.uliament, 
that he availed himlclf of the courage, good lenle, and fpirit of thcf 
Scots, in carrying on the moll cxtcnfive v\ar that Great Britain ever 
was engaged in. Let me add, to the honour of the Britllh govornment, 
that whatever indecent and mean rcfcntmcnts hiux- been expreifod by the 
refufe of the Englifla nation againll: the Scots, tlio latter have been 
ruflcred to avail themfelves of all die benefits of commerce and manu- 
failures they can claim, either in right of their former independency, 
the treaty of union, or poftcrior atls of parliamc;it. 

This is manifeft in the cxtcnfive trade they carry on with the Britifl* 
feidements in America and the Weft-Indies, Rud wiih all the nation^ to 

whick 



*) TrnJi ■ 



>ii I 



iiH 




^8 



S C O T L A N D. 



lii^)^l 






which the Englifla thcmklvcs trade; fo that the encreafc of thrir fjilp, 
ping within thefe tv,emy-fivc yc'ars pail, has been very confidcr.i'ole. 
The exports of thofe Ihips arc compofcd chiefiy of Scotch manufajtiiies 
fabricated from the produce of the foil, and the indutlry of Its iiiliabi! 
tants. In exchange for thofe, they import tobacco, rice, cotton, fuTar 
and rum, from the Britilh plantations ; and from other countries, their 
produi^s, to tha immenfe faving of their nation. 

The fifheries of Scotland are not confined to their own coafts, for they 
have a vaft concern in the whale-fiihery carried on upon the coatl: of Sp;tf. 
bergen ; and their returns are valuable, as the government allows tliem 
a bounty of forty (hillings for every ton of (hipping employed in that 
article. The late imorovenient of their fiflieries, whicii 1 have alrcr.dv 
mentioned, and whicii are daily encreafing, open inexhauii;il)ie Lnw 
of wealth; their cured fiih being by foreigners, and the Englifh plr.n- 
ters in America, preferred to thofe of Newfoundland. The bcueiits 
of thofe fiflieries are perhaps equalled by other manufactures canyino' 
on at land, particularly that of iron at Carron, in Sterlinglhiie, 
Their linen manufactory, notwithllanding a ftrong rivalfliip from Ire- 
Jand, fupported underhand by fome Engiifh, is in a flourilhing Itate. 
The thread manufacture of Scotland is equal, if not luperior, to any 
in the world ; and the lace fabricated from it, has been deemed 
worthy of royal wear and approbation. It has been faid fome years 
ago, that the exports from Scotland to England, and the Britilh 
plantations, in linen, cambrics, checks^ Olhaburgs, inkle, and the 
like commodities, amounted annually to 400,000!. cxclufive of their 
home confumption ; and there is reafori to believe that the fum is con- 
fiderably larger at prefent. The Scots are likewife making very pro- 
mifing eftbrts for eftablifliing woollen manufactures ; and their exports 
of caps, (lockings, mittens, and other articles of their own woo], begin 
to be very confiderable. The Scots, it is true, cannot pretend to 
rival the Englilh in their (iner cloths ; but they make at prefent fome 
broad cloth proper for the v/ear of people of fa(hion in an undrefs, and 
exceeding in quality and finenefs what is commonly called Yorkfhire 
cloth. Among the other late improvements of the Scots, we are not to 
forget the vail progrefs they have made in working the mines, and fmelt- 
ing the ores of their country. Their coal trade to England is well known; 
and of late they have turned even their (tones to account, by tlreir con- 
trafts for paving the (treets of London. If the great trade in cattle, which 
the Scots carried on of late with the Engiifh, is now diminiflied, it is 
owing to the belt of national caufes, that of an encreafe of home con- 
fumption. 

The trade carried on by the Scots with England, is chiefly from 
Leith, and the eaflern ports of the nation ; but Glafgow is the great em- 
porium for the American commerce. I have already mentioned the great 
project now executing for joining the Forth to the Clyde, which will 
render the benefits of trade of mutual advantage to both parts of Scodand. 
In (hort, the more that the feas, the fituation, the foil, harbours, and 
rivers of this country are known, the bette*- adapted it appears for all the 
purpofes of commerce, both foreign and domeftic. 

With regard to other manufaftures, not mentioned, fome of them are 
yet in their infancy. The town of Paidey itfelf employs an incredible 
number of hands, in fabricating a particular kind of flowered and itripcd 
lawns, which are a reafonable and elegant wear. Sugar-houfes have been 
erefted, and aie carrying on in Scotland j and jjlafs works of every kind. 

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SCOTLAND. 



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fnnrr -mills nre tretniln^; every where* Tlie 'kotcli carpetirK^ innke neat 
j,;il Jaftiii'T fiirniuti-t; ; and Ibrne ciTays luiVi' been ,'atc'Iy nude, with no 
incon.'ideiT.blc /.Icgrce ol" llicceis, to carry tl at brnnch c;f m;un:f^.c^iirc to 
ai great perfciTtion as is fou»'d in any p;irc of Europe. . After all that has 
been laid, munv years will be required before the trade and improve- 
nvr't; of Scotland can bo broiif;hc t.) maturity. In any event, they 
never can frive umbra^'e to the Euglilli, as the interdts of the two people 
ar?, or nuirht to be the faiiiC. 

Ili.ving liiid thtis nv.ich, I cannot avoid obfervinj the prodiqinus dif- 
aiva'ataf!;e under which b.-)th the coi-nmercial and landed intcrc.'i' of Scot- 
Ir.d iics, fro-.n her n'-bility and great laiidholderi having too fond an 
att-n-hmcnt for Eap;land and forci?;n couiiti-icE, where th^^y fpcnd their 
r::Ay ;r.nncy. Tliiy is one of the evils arifing to Scotland frcni thn 
nnion, which removed the {('at of her legillature to Lonlo-i ; but it is 
(greatly augmented by thfi refort cf volunteer abfentecs to that capital. 
\Vhil.: this partiality fuhiiils, the Scots mull always be didrcli: lor a 
currency of fi^ccie. How far paper can funnily that dcfeifl, depends 
upan an attention to tlie b^dance of trade ; and tlie evil mav, perhnp.% 
bsfomewhat pi'cvonijd, by money remitted ffom England ior carrvins^ 
on the vail manufachircs and works now fct on f.)ot in Scotland. The 
gendemen v/ho refide in Scotland, ]r.\xc wifely abandoned I'rcnch riarec, 
(th.jugh too much of it is itill made ull* of in the country) and brandv, 
tbr rum, and the liquors produced in the Brllirn plantations; and their 
own malt liquors are now come to as great (if n<n greater) perftfiu n as 
ihofe of England ; and it has becM fa;d, that of hue they cxoo;t loroe 
quantities of their ale even to London itfelf. 

Lanouage and dress.] I place thofe two artic!e3 under tiic flime 
head, becaufe they had formerly an intirn.ii'j reljlic n to each other, both 
loftliem being evidently Celtic. Tiie Hi'.',hlaiid phi'd is coniijolcd of a, 
woollen ftuff, fometimes very fine, called / 6: f/n;:. 'Vl.h iiuff confiiU of 
various colours, farming ib'ipes which (."-^Is each other at riglit angle;s ;' 
nnd the natives value themfelvcs upon the judicious arrangement, ar 
U.Int they call fets, of thofe flripes and colours, which where fj;ilfidly 
managed, produce a wonderfully pieaiing efleJt to the eye. Above ths 
iiiirt, the Highlanders wear a waidccit of the fume composition wiih the 
plaid, which commonly conhfts of twelve yards in width, and wiuch they 
throw over the fhoulder into \'eiy near the f^rm of a jloman toc;a, a- rc- 
prefented in antient ilatues : fomerimes it is faftcncd round tlie nuddla 
with a leather belt, fo that part of the plaid hangs down before and be- 
hind like a petticoat, and fupply the want of breeches. This they call 
being drelled in kilt, v^dnch 1 make no d"ubt is the fame word wiih Celt^ 
I Sometimes they wear a kind of petticoat of the fame variegated Huff, 
I buckled round the walle, and this they term the philibcg, which feems 
Iw be of Milefian extraftion. Their ftockings were like vviit: of tartan, 
Itied below the knee with tartan garters formed into tafi'els. They wear 
Inpon their feet, brogues made of untanned or undrcfied leather ; and on 
Itheir heads a flat cap, called a bonnet, of a particular woollen manii- 
Ifafture. In the belt of the philibcg were generally their knives, and a 
Idagger, which they called a dirk, aivl an iron piilol, fometimes of fine 
Ivorkmanlhip, and curioufly inlaid with filver. l"he introdufiion of the 
Ibroad fword of Andrea Ferrara (which was always part of the Highland 
nfs) from a famous cutler of that name, feems to be no earlier than the 
|:ei^n of James III. who invited that e.\:ceUent workmuii to Scotland. A 



111 



to 



s c o T I. A K n. 



!?'■ 



rt 



il:! 



large leathern purfe, richly adorned with filver, hanging before thenKl 
was always part of a Highland chieftain's drcfs. f 

The drefs of the Highland women confilled of a petticoat and jerkin,] 
with Itrait flceves, trimmed or not trimmed, according to the quality of 
the wearer; over this they wore a plaid, which they either held cloft] 
ujidcr their chins with the hand, or fattened with a buckle of a particu. 
lar falhion. On the head they wore a kerchief of fine linen of difFcrentl 
formb. The women's plaid has been but lately difufed in Scotlaiid by 
the ladies, who wore it in a graceful manner, the drapery falling towardjl 
the feet in large folds. A curious virtuofo may find a Urong relemblanc* 
fcetwcen the variegated and fimbriated draperies of the antients, and 
thofe. of the Tulcans, (who were unquertionably of Celtic original) as 
»key aie to be feen in the monuments of antiquity. 

'fhe attachment of the Scots to this drefs, rendered it a bond of] 
union, which often proved dangerous to the government. Many efforts 
had been made by the legiflaturc, after the rebellion in 17 15, to difarm 
them, and oblige them to conform to the Low-country dreflcs. The 
clifarming fchcme was the nioft fuccefsful, for when the rebellion in 1745 
broke out, the common people Jiad fcarcely any other arms than thole 
Which they took from the king's troops. Their overthrow at Culloden, 
rendered it no difiicult matter for the legiflature to force them into a total 
chiinge of their drefs. Its conveniency, however, for the purpofes of the 
Aelci, is fo great, thai fome of the Highland regiments Hill retain it ; 
and weil-aftecled gentlc;nen, upon application to the proper officer, are 
at liberty to ufe it. 

Tliedreils of the higher and middling ranks in the Low-Country, differ 
little or nothing- from the luigliih j but many of the peafantry Hill retail 
the bonnet, for the cheapnefs and lightnefs of the wear. 1 he drefs of 
the women of all ranks are much the fame in both kinq-doms. 

1 have already mentioned the language of the Highlanders, efpecially 
towards Lochaber and Badenoch, to he radically Celtic. The Engliili 
ipokcn by the ijcots, notwithftanding its provincial articulations, which 
are as frequent there as in the more fouthern counties, is written in the 
fame manner in both kingdoms. At prefent, the pronunciation of a 
Scotchman does not differ lo much from a Londoner, as that of a Lon- 
doner docs from an inhabitant of Somerfetfliire, and fome parts of Wor- 
cefterfliire. 

Antiquities and curiosities, 1 The Roman, and other anti- 
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL, j" quitics found in Scotl.ind, luvs 
cf themfelvcs furnillied matter for large volumes. The itations of the 
Reman legions, their callellas, their pretentures, or walls reaching acrofs 
|he iHand, have been traced with great precifion by antiquaries and 
hiftorlans ; fo that, without fome freih difcoveries, an account of them 
could aflbrd no inltrudion tc the learned, and but little amufement to 
the ignorant ; bccaufe at prefent they can be difcovered only by critical 
«yes. Some mention of the chief may, however, be proper. The courfc 
of the Roman pretenturc between the Clyde and Forth, which was firlt 
jnaiked out by Agricola, and completed by Antoninus Pius, is Hill dif- 
ceiniblc, .';i arc feveral Roman camps in the neighbourhood. Agricola's 
camp, at the bottom of the Grampian hills, is a ftriking remain of Ro- 
man aniiqiiity. It is fituated at Ardocli, in Peithlhire, and is generally 
thought to have been the camp occupied by Agricola before he fought 
the bioix'y h^ttle, ii> well recorded by Tacitus, with the CiUedonian king 

Calgacus, 



SCOTLAND. 



U 



tilgacus, who w.is defeated; Some writers « think, th.it this remain 
If antiquity at Ardoch was, on account of the numerous Roman coins 
od infcriptions found nearit> a Roman caftellum or fort. Be that as it 
1, it certainly is the moll entire and bell preferfed of any Roman an- 
Lait)' of that kind in Britain, having no Icfs than five rows of ditches 
InJ fix ramparts on the fouth fide ; and of the four gates which lead into 
[he area, three of them are very dillindl and plain, viz. the pnetoria, 
iecumana, and dextra : the prastorium, is the place where the general'* 
Itcnt llood. 

The Roman temple, or building in the form of the Pantheon at Rome> 
lorthe dome of St. Paul's at London, ftood upon the banks of the rivef 
Icarron, in Sterlingfhire, but has been lately barbaroufly demolifhed for . 
|t!ie purpofe of mending a mill-pond. Its height was twenty-two feet^ 
|ind its external circumference at the bafe was eighty-eight feet ; fo thac 
[ipon the whole, it was one of the moft compleat Roman antiquities in 
le world. It is thought to have been built by Agricola, or fome of his 
iccell'ors, as A temple to the god Terminus, as it ftood near the pre- 
aiture which bouaded the Roman empire in Britain to the north. Neai* 
•are fome artificial conical mounts of earth, which ftill retain the name 
ifDHni-pace, or Duni-pacis ; which ferve to evidence, that there was a 
iind of folemn compromife between the Romans and Caledonians, that! 
it former fhould not extend their empire farther to the northwards. 
Innumerable .tre the coins, urns, utenfils, infcriptions, and other re- 
nins of the Romans, that have been found in different parts of Scot- 
laid ; fome of them to the north of the prctenture, where, however, it 
«s not appear that they made any eftaBlilhrnent. By the infcriptions 
fiund near the pretenture, the names of the legions that built it, and 
l)w far they carried it on, may be learned. The remains of Roman' 
Itghways are frequent in the fouthem parts. 

Danilh camps and fortifications are eafily dlfcernible in feveral northern 
unties, and are known by their fquare figures and difficult fituations. 
me houfes of ftupendous fabrics remain in Rcfs-lhire, but whether they* 
:t Danilh, Pldilh, or Scotilh, does not appear. The elevations of 
of them are to be feen in Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale. I 
of opinion that they are Norwegian or Scandinavian ftruftures, and 
luilt about the fifth century, to favour the defcents of that people upoa 
lofe coafts. 

Two Piftiih monuments, as they are thought to be, of a very cxtraor- 
inary conftruftion, were lately Handing in Scotlatid, one of them at 
bernethy in Perthlhire, the other at Brechin in Angu^ : both of them 

columns, hollow in the inflde, and without a ftair-cafe ; that o^ " 
rechin is the moft entire, being covered at the top with a fpiral roof * 
"Ibne, with three or four windows above the cornifh : it confifts of 
y regular courfes of hewn free ftone, laid circularly and regularly, " 
id tapering towards the top. If thofe columns are really Piftiih, that 
pie mull have had among them archltefts that far exceeded thofe of 
ly coeval monuments to be found in Europe, as they have all the ap- 
arance of an order ; and the building is neat, and in the Roman taue 
architefturc. It is, however, difficult to affign them to any but the 
h, as they ftand in their dominions ; and wme fcnlptures upon that 
Brechin, denote it to be of Chriilian original. It is not indeed im- 
Mi that thof« fculptures are of a later date. Befides^ thofe two pi'l- 



* A 



ff 



SCOTLAND, 



not in ttislfi thcl 

|:.l<fn I 
llheir ' 
Iwhcn 
Fifclli] 
1 have 



loTSy many other PiAifa buildings are found in Scotland, but 
Came talte. 

Tlie >clli^es of crcftions by t!-.c anticnt Scois thcmfelves, an* not owW 
curious but inftru^ive, as tluy regard many inportant events of their 
hiftor)'. That people had .-.mongtl them a rude notion of fculpture, in 
which they tranrniiticJ tlie aclftions of their kings and liemes. At a placu 
called Aborlemno, near Brechin, four or five ancient obelifks arc Itill to 
be fecn, called the Danilh Hones of Abcrlemao. They weie ercfttj aj 
commemorations of the Scotch viftories over rhat people ; and are 
adornrd with bafs reliefs of men on horfeback, and r.mny emlilcmatical 
figures and hierogliphics, not intelligible at this day, but minutely de- 
fcribcd by Mr. Gordon. Many other hilbrical monuments of the Jicotj 
may be difcovered on the like occafions ; but it mull be acknowledged, 
tlia't the obfcurity of their fculptures have encoumged a field of boundkls 
and frivolous conjcftures, fo that the interpretations of many of them arc 
often fanciful. It would, however, be unpardonable if I (hould ncglcit 
to mention the ftone near the town of Forrefs or Fortrofe, in Murray^ 
which far furpafles all the others in magnificence and grandeur, " and is 
(fays Mr. Gordon) perhaps, one of the moll llately monuments of that 
kind in Europe. It rifcs about twenty-three feet in height, abovcl 
ground, and is, as I am credibly informed, no lefs than twelve or fifteen I 
feet below ; fo that the whole height is at leall thirty-five feet, and itil 
breadth near five, it is all one fingle and entire Hone ; great variety of I 
figures in relievo are carved thereon, fome of them iHU dillindl and vifi- 
ble ; but the injury of the weather has obfcured thofe towards the upper- 
part." Though this monument has generally been looked upon asp 
jbanilh, yet I have little doubt of its being Scotch, and that it was [ 
erefted in commemoration of the final expulfion of tlie Danes out of j 
Murray, where they held their lall fettleraent in Scotlard, after the de- 
feat they received from Malcolm a few years before the conquell of Eng- 
land by the Normans. 

Befides thefe remains of Roman, Piftilh, Danifli, and Scotch ami- 1 
quities, many druidical monuments and temples arc difccrnib.'e in the 
northern parts of Scotland, as well as in the ifles, where we may fuppofe 
that paganifm took its lall refuge. They are eafily perceived by their 
circular forms ; but though they are equally regular^ yet none of them 
are fo flupendous as the druidical eredbons in South-Britain. Therein 
in Perthlhire a barrowwhich feems to be a Britifh ereftion, and the moll | 
beautiful of the kind perhaps in the world ; it exadly refembles the 
figure of a fhip with the keel uppermoft. The common people call it I 
Ternay, which fome interpret to be terrtt navis, the (hip of earth. It 
Jeemfi to be of the moft remote antiq.iiity, and perhaps was erected to the^ 
jRiemory of fome Britifli prince, who a^ed as auxiliary to. the Romans ; j 
for it lies near Auchterardcr, not many miles diftant from the great rcencj 
of Agricola's operations. 

Scotland aflurds few natural curiofities bui: thofe we have already j 
jhentioned in defcribing the lakesj rivers, and mountains. Mention is i 
made of a heap of whire ilones, moll of them clear like chryftal, together^ 
with great plenty of oilier and other iea-fliell«, that are found on the top| 
of a mountain called Skorna Lappich in Rofsfhire, twenty miles diftanc 
from the fea. plains, in Aberdeenfhire, is faid to be remarkable for 
petrifying cave, called the Dropping-cave, where water oozing through 
a ip-ungy porous rock on the top, doth c^xiickly confoiidate after it drops! 



S C O T' L A N D. 



83 



(1 the bottom. Other natviral curiofitics belopoing to Scotland liave 
l.,kfn pod'cfiion of iti ilefcriptions and hiltories, but they goncrally owe 
their extraordinary qualities to the crcduli'y of the vul^>.ir, and viiniib 
»hcn they are (kilfully examined. Some cavcn.s that are to be found in 
Fifclhire, and arc probaidy natural, are ot v. vtraordinary dimcnfion;', and 
jiave been the fcenc.s of inhuman cruelties. 

CrriKS, TOWNS, ANo OTHFrt. li Di- 7 Edinburgh, thfr crjiital of 
Ficns PUBLIC AND PRiVA'i'E. J ScotJn.ai, natiir?.lly t:;!;e.s the 
lead in this divifion, which the bounds of our work oblij'« us to cnii- 
ViA. The caftle, before the uft of artillery, was deemed to be im- 
pregnable by force. It was probably built by the fnixon kincj lilcJwin, 
whole territories reached to the Firth of Forth, and who pave his name 
to Edinburgh, as it certainly did not fall into the hands of the Scots 
till the reip;n of Indulphus, who lived in the year 953. The town was 
huilt for the benefit of prott-dion from the calllc, and a more incon- 
if, 'ent fituation for a capital can fcarcily be conceived ; the high llreetj 
ivhich is on the ridge of a hill, lying ealt and wctl ; and the lanrs run- 
ning down its lidey, north and Ibuth. In former times the town was 
liirrounded by water, excepting towards the ealt ; fo lliat when th».' French 
landed i ' Scotland^ during the regency of Mary of Guife, they gave it 
ihc name of Liilebourg. This fuuation fuggelled the idea of building 
very lofty houfes divided into ftories, each of which contained a fuitc of 
X)oms, feme being la/ge and commodious for the ufe of a family ; fo that 
■k high ftreet of Edinburgh made a moll auguft appearance, efpecially 
vl.u' terminated by the rude majefly of its caitle, built upon a lefty, in- 
..,!,. lie, multiform rock. This crouded population, hov/evpr, was fo 
Ihockingly inconvenient, that the F.ng'ifh, who feldom went i.uiher intd 
ihe country, returned with the deepeti: impreflions of Scotch nalHncfs, 
^hich became proverbial. The calHe has fome good apartments, a tole- 
rable train of artillery, and has not only a large magazine of arms and 
ammunition, but contains the regalia, which were depofited here under 
the moil folemn legal inllruments of their never being removed from 
thence. All that is known at prefent of ihofe regalia, is contained in 
the inftrument which was taken at the time of their being depofited/ 
where they are fully defcribed. 

Facing the caftle, at a long mile's diftance to the eaft, ftands the ab- 
bey, or rather palace, of Holyrood-houfe. Theinncr quadrangle of this 
palace, which was begun by James V. and finilhed by Charles II. is of 
magnificent modern ai'chitefture, built according to the plan, and under 
the diredlion of Sir William Bruce, a Scotch gentleman of family, and 
undoubtedly otie of the greateft archited^ of that age. Round the qua- 
drangle runs an arcade, adorned with pilallers ; and the infide contains 
Magnificent apartments for the duke of Hamilton, who is hereditary 
keeper of the palace, and Other noblemen. Its Icnjr gallery contains 
figures, fome of which are from portraits, but all of them painted by 
HMxlern hands, of the kings of Scotland down to the time of the Revo- 
lution. James VII. when duke of York, intended to have made great 
improvements about Ihis palace ; for at prefent nothing can be more 
uncomfortable than its fituation, at the bottom of bleak unimproved 
craggs and mountains, with fcarce a fmglc tret in its neighbourhood; 
"■he chapel belonging to the palace, as it ftood when repaired and orna- 

lentcd by that prince, is thought to have been the moft elegant piece of 

othic arohitsQure in Europe. It was the conventual church of the old 

ki z abbey. 



$4 



SCOTLAND: 



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abbey. Its roof is lofty iind round ; it ran two rows of flone gallerlci 
fupported by curious pillars. Its infide was demolilhed and rifled of all 
its rich ornaments, by the fury of the mob at the Revolution, which 
even broke into the repofitories of the dead, and difcovered a vault, till 
that time unknown, which contained the bodies of James V. his firll 
qaeen, and Henry Darnley. 

The hofpital, founded by George Herriot, goldfmith to James VI. 
commonly called Herriot's work, ftands to the fouth-eaft of the caftlc, 
in a noble fitilation. It is the fincl and moft regular fpecimen which 
Inigo Jones, whom James VI. of Scotland brought over from Denmark, i 
has left us of his Gothic manner, and far exceeding any thing of that 
kind to be feen in England. One Balquhanan, a divine, whom Her- j 
riot left his executor, is faid to have prevailed upon Jones to admit fome 
barbarous ticvices into the building, particularly the windows, and to 
have infilled tl.at the ornaments of each Ihould be fomewhat difFcient 
from ihofe of the others. T: is, notwithftanding, upon the whole, a dc 
lightful fabric, and adorned with gardens, not inelegantly laid out. 
It was built for the maintenance and education of poor children belong- 
ing to the citizens and tradefmen of Edinburgh, and is under the di- 
reclion of the city magiftrates. 

Among the other public edifices of Edinburgli before the Revolution, | 

was the college, wh'ch claims the privileges of an univerfity, founded \ 

by king James \l. and by him put under the direction of the magi- j 

Urates, who have the power of chancellor and vice-chancellor. Little 

can be faid of its buildings, which were calculated for the fober literary 

manners of thofe days : they are, however, improveable, and may be 

rendered elegant. What is of far more importance, it is fupplied with 

excillent profeflbrs in the feveral branches of learning ; and its fchools 

for tvrry part of the medical art are reckoned equal to any in Europe. 

This college is provided with :. library, founded by one Clement Little, j 

which ib laid to have ocen of late greatly augmented ; and a mufeum j 

belont^ing to it was given by Sir Andrew Balfour, a phyfician. It con- j 

tains itverr.l natural, and fome literary curiofities, which one would little 1 

txpcd to find at Edinburgh. j 

The Parliament-Square, or, as it is there called, Clofe, was fomerly | 

the moft ornamf;nial part of this city : it is formed into a very noble I 

tjuadrangle, pirt of whicfi confifts of lofty buildings ; and in the middle I 

is a very fine tqueftrian ftatue of Charles II. The room built by Charles L I 

for thi.* parliiment-houfe, though not fo large, is better proportioned I 

than Weilminfler-hall ; and its roof, though executed in the fame man- I 

Jier, is by many great judges held to be fupcrior. It is now converted I 

into a court of law, where a fingic judge, called the lord ordinary, pre- I 

fides by rotation : in a room near ,l, fit the other judges; and adjoining I 

are the public offices of the law, exchequer, chancery, iherivalty, and I 

niagiitracy of Edinburgh ; and the lawyers valuable library. This I 

fcquals any thing of the like kind to be found in England, or perhaps I 

in i.ny part of Europe, being at firft entirely founded and furnilhed by I 

lawytTO. The number of printed books it contains is amazing ; and the I 

collection lu;^ been made with exquifite tafte and judgment. It contains I 

Jikewife the moft valuable manufcript remains of the Scotch hilbry, I 

chart ulnries, and other papers of antiquity, witli a feries of medals, I 

Adjoining to the library, is the room where the public records are kept; I 

%at both it, and ihat which conlains the library, though lofty in the I 

1 roof, I 



iJ 



i'Hl 






SCOTLAND. 



85 



foof, Is miferably dark and difmal. It is faid that preparations are now 
carr)'ing on, for lodging both the books and the papers in rooms far 
tetter fuited to their 'mportance and value. 

The High Churcii of Edinburgh, called tliat of St. Giles, is now di-* 
IviJed into two or three churches, and a room where the general afl'cnibly 
f;ts. It is a large Gothic building, and its fteeple is furmounied by arches 
formed into an imperial crown, which has a good effcdl to the eye. Tl\e 
jhurchcs and other edifices of the city, eietled before the Union, con- 
tain little but what is common to fuch buildings ; but the excellent 
pavement of the city, which was begun iwo centuries ago by one Merlin, 
aFrcrxhman, deferves particular attention. 

Tlie modern edifices in and near Edinburgh, fuch as the Exchange, 
its iiofpitals, bridges, and the like, demonltrate the vaft improvement 
of the tafte of the Scots in their puHilic works. Streets and fquares are 
opened in grounds to the north, where, a few years ago, fheep and 
cattle grazed. Thofe fquares and houfes, and likcwife many to the 
loi'.th-eaft and weft of the city, are laid out and built in the moft elegant 
alle, with a.l the conveniencies that render thofe of England fo delight- 
fal and cop-.modious ; but as thofe great ichemca are yet incomplete, we 
lliall not pretend to defcribe them farther. 

Edinrurgh is governed by a lord provoll, four bailiffs, a dean of guild, 

:nd a treafurer, annually chofen from the common-council. Every coni* 

jany, or incorporated trade, choufcs its own uoacon ; and here are four- 

;een ; namely, furgeons, goldfmiths, Ikinners, furriers, hammer-men, 

vriglus or carpenter"- malons, taylors, bakers, butchers, cordwainers, 

reavers, fullers, and bonnet-makers. The lord provoft is colonel of 

;he town-guard, a military imlitutinn to be found in no part of his ma- 

ielly's dominions but at Edinburgh : they ferve for the city watch, and 

jpatrole the llreets, are ufeful in fuppreifing fmall commotions, and attend 

the execution of fentences upon delinquents : they are divided into three 

companies, and wear an uniform; they are immediately commanded by 

three officers, under the name of captains. Befides this guard, Edin- 

burg''' raifes fixtoen companies of trained-bands, which ferve as militia. 

The revenues of the city confill chiefly of that tax which is now common 

in moft of the bodies corporate of Scotland, of two Scotch pennies, 

amounting in the whole to two thirds of a farthing, laid upon every 

Scotch pint of ale (containing two Englifh quarts) confumed within the 

precinds of the city. This is a moft judicious impoft, as it renders the 

pocrcft people infenfible of the burden. Its produd, however, has 

been fuflicient to defray the expence of fupplying the city with excellent 

water, brought in leaden pipes at the diftancc of four miles ; of erei!:Ung 

Ircfervoirs, enlarging the harbour of L*-:th, and compleating other public 

jworks of great expence and utility. 

Edinburgh may be confidercd, notwithftanding its caftle, and an open 
Iwall which encloles it on the fouth fide, of a very modern fabric but in 
Ithe Roman manner, as an open town ; fo that in faft, it would have 
Ibeeu imprafticable for its inhabitants to have defended it againft the 
Irebels, who took pofTefTion of it in 1745. A certain clafs of readers 
voiild perhaps think it unpardonable, ihould I omit rp'"'"''oning that 
lEdinburgh contains a playhoufe, which has now the fanclion of an a&, 
|nf parliament ; and that concerts, aflemblies, balls, mufic-meetings, 
and other prUte amufements, are as frequent and brilliant here, as m 
my part of his majcfty's dominions, London and Bath excepted. 

C 3 ^eith. 



SP 'B if Is 



86 



SCOTLAND, 



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Vi I ! 



pi'i 















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J 



Leitli, thou<i;h near two miles diftant, maybe properly called the lirir- 
bour of Edinburgh, being iiri'lcr the fame jiiii/diclion. It contains no- 
thinp; remarkable, but the rciiiains of two citadels (if they are not the 
fame) fortified, and bravely defended by the French againlt the Englifn, 
imder Mary of Guife, and afterwards repaired by Cronuvell. The 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh is ad'.>rned with noble feats, which are 
daily encreafing ; fjme of them yield to few in England : but they arc 
too numerous to be particularized here. I cannot, however, avoid men- 
tioning the duke of Cuccleugh's houfe at Dalkeith, that of the marquis 
of Lothian at Newbottle, and Hopton-houfe, fo called from the earl its 
owner. About four miles from Eiiinburgh is Rollin, noted for a (lately 
Gothic chapel, counted one of the nioft curious pieces of workmanfliip 
in Europe ; founded in the year 1440, by William St. Clair, prince ot 
Orkney ami duke of Oklenburgh. lU)flin is likewife famous for a viftory, 
or rather three viiftories in one day, which the Scots, who were no more 
than 8000 iu number, obtained over 30,000 Englifh, commanded by 
their ..bielb generals. 

Glalgow, in the fliire of Lanerk, fituated on a gentle declivity llopinp- 
towards the river Clyde, 44 miles well of Edinburgh, is for population' 
commerce, and riche?, the fecond city of Scotland, and, confidering its 
fir.c, the firll in Gvcat-Britain, and perhaps in Europe, as to elegance, re- 
gularity, and the beautiful materials of its buildings. The llreets crofseach 
t)ther at rigiit angles, and are broad, llrait, well paved, and confequently 
clean. Their houfes make a grand appearance, and are in general four 
or five fiories high, and many of them towards the center of the city are 
Supported by arcades, which form piazzas, and give the whole an air of 
jiiagnificence. Some of the modern built churches are in the iineft iHle 
of architedure, and the cathedral is a ftupendous Gothic building, 
hardly to be paralleled in that kind of architedlurc. It contains two 
churches, one above another, and is furniflied with a very fine fpire 
fpringing from a tower ; the whole being reckoned a mailerly and a 
jnatchlefs fabric. It was preferred from the fury of the Reformers by the 
refolution of the citizen?. The town-houfe is a lofty building, and 
has very noble apartments for the magirtrates. The univerfity is elleemed 
the moll fpacious and bell built of any in Scotland, and is at prefent in 4 
thriving ftate. In this city are feveral well endowed hofpitals ; and it is 
particularly well fupplied with large and convenient inns, proper for the 
accommodation of the moll illullrious llranger. They hay e lately laid 
the foundation of a new bridge crofs the riyer Clyde ; but our bounds 
flo not allow us tq particularize that, and the other public-fpirited build- 
ings and works of t|iis city llill carrying on by the inhabitants, who do 
honour to the benefits arifing from their vail commerce, both foreign and 
internal ; which they carry on with amazing fuccefs. In Glalgow are feven 
churches, and eight or ten meeting-houfes for feftanes of various deno- 
minations. I'he number pf its inhabitants have been eftimated a{ 
50,000. 

Aberdeen bids fair to be the third town in Scotland for improvement 
and population. It is the capital of a Ihire, to which it gives its name, 
and contains two towns, Ne'v and Old Aberdeen. The former h the 
ibire town, and evidently built for the purpofe of commerce. It is a 
large well built city, (ind Jias a good tjuay or tide-harbour : in it are three 
^hutches and feveral epifcopal meeting-houfes, a confiderable degree of 
foreign commerce and much ihipmng, a well fjccjuciucd ^nivcrfity, and 
■ ■ ■ ' above 



SCOTLAND. 



87 



itals : and it is 



Love 12,000 inhabitants. Old A-berdeen, near a mile dillant, tTiough 

liinioft joined to the new by means of a long village, has no dependence 

1(11 the other ; it is a moderately large market-town, but has no haven. 

each of thefe two places there is a well endowed college, both toge- 

Lier being termed the univerfity of Aberdeen, altliough quite iudepeii- 

Jcnt of each other. Perth, the capital town of Perthlhirc, lying on the 

■river Tay, trades to Norway and the BJtit: : it is finely lituated, has an 

[improving linen manufaflory, and licb in the neighbourhood of one of 

(tiis moll fertile fpotsin Great-Britain, called the carfe of Gowiy. Dun- 

I'ee, by the general computation, contains about 10,000 inhabitants : 

[it lies near the iriouth of the river 'I'ay : it is a town of confiderable 

I trade? exporting much linea, grain, herrings, and peltry, to fundrv 

[foreign parts: it has three churches. Montrofe, Aberbrothick, and 

Brechin, lie in the fame county of Angus : the firll has a great and flou- 

1 illiiog f'"«^ign trade,, and the maaufadures of the other two are upon 

;he thriving hand. 

It may be necelTary again to put the reader in mind, that I write with 

I ireat uncenainty with regard to Scotland, on account of its improving 

late. I have rather under, than over-rated the number of inhabitants 

in the towns I have mentioned. Edinburgh certainly contains more than 

! to.ooo fouls, which is the common computation, to which I all along 

Conform myfelf; but the influx of people, and the encrcafe of matrimony 

\i proportion to that of property, mull create great alterations for the 

jettcr, and few for the worfe, becaufe the inhabitants who aie difpofed 

;o indullry may always find employment. This uncej-tai«ty is the reafon 

*hy I omit a particiJar dcfcription of Dumfries, Air, Greenock, Pailley, 

Sterling, and about fifty other burghs and towns of very confiderable 

trade in Scotland. 

The antitnt Scots valued themfelves upon their trufting to their own 
[dour, and not to fortifications, for the defence of their country : this 
*as a maxim more heroical perhaps than prudent, as they have often 
experienced ; and indeed to this day theii forts would make but a forry 
figure, if regularly attacked. The caftles of Edinburgh, Sterling, and 
Dunbarton, formerly places of great ilrength, couid not hold out eiglit 
and forty hours, if befieged by 6000 regular troops, with proper artil- 
lery. Fort William^ which lies in the weft Highlands, is fufiicient to 
bridle the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, as are Fort George and 
Fort Augulhis, in the north and north-well; but none of them can be 
ccnfidered as defences againfl: a foreign enemy. 

1 fliall not pretend to enter upon a defcriptlon of the noble edifice.t 
that have, within the courfe of this and the lall century, been ereded by 
private perfons in Scotland, becaufe they are Co numerous, that to par- 
ticularize them exceeds the bounds of my plan. It is fufiicient to fay, 
that many of them are equal to the moll uiperb buildings in England 
and foreign countries : and the reader's furprize af ithis will ceafe, when 
he is informed, that the genius of no people in the world is more devoted 
I to architefture than that of the nobility and gentry of Scotland ; and 
that there is no country in Europe, on account of the clieapnefs of niate- 
I rials, where it can be gratified at fo moderate an cxpence. 

Coins.] In the reign of Edward II. of England, the value and deno- 
I mi nations of coins were the fame in Scotland as in England. Towards 
I the reign of J^mes U. a Scotch ihilUng anfwered to about an EngliiU 
jfupence ; and aibout the reign of queen Mary of Scotland, it wa$ not 

C 4. ©ore 






ti 



SCOTLAND. 



J M' ill " Hi \ 



\ m 



^uA-- V': 



more than an Fn^Iilh groat. It continued diminifliing in this marncrj 
till iifter the Union of tlie two crowns, under her fon ; when the vaiH 
refort of the Scotch nobility and gentry to the Englilh court, occifionedj 
fuch a drain of fpecie from Scotland, that by degrees a Scotch (liillino | 
fell to the value of one twelfth of an Englifli Shilling, and their pennies ' 
in proportion. A Scotch penny is now very rarely to be found ; and 
they were fticceedcd by bodies, which was double the value of a Scotch 
penny, and are Hill current, but are daily wea/ing out. A Scotch half. 
penny was called a babie • fome fay, becaufe it was firft ftamped with 
the head of James III. when he was a babe or baby ; but perhaps it is i 
only the corruption of two French words, ias piece, fignifying a low 
piece of money. The fame obfervation we have made of the Scotch 
Ihilling, holds of their pounds and marks ; which are not coins, butde- 
jaominations of fun^s. In all other refpefts, the currency of money in 
Scotland and England is the fame ; as very few people now r^'ckon by 
the Scotch computation. 

Revenues.] See England, 

Punishments.] Thefe are pretty much the fame in Scotland as in 
England, only that of beheading is performed by an inftrument called 
the Maiden : the model of which, it is well known, was brought from 
Hallifax in England to Scotland, by the regent earl of Morton, and it 
was hanfelled by his own execution. 

Laws and constitution.] No government in Europe was better 
fitted for the enjoyment of liberty, than that of Scotland was by its ori-, 
FJnal conlliti'f'on ; and if it was rcprehenfible in any refped, it was that 
It left more freedom to the fubjcdt than is confillent with civil fubordina- 
tion. 

The ancient kings of Scotland, at their coronation, took the follow, 
jng oath, containing tjirce promiics, viz. 

" In the name of Chrilt, I promife thefe three things to the Chriftian 
people my fubjefts : Firll, that I fiiall give order, and employ my force 
and afiillancc, that the church of God, and the Chriftian people, may 
enjoy true peace during our time, under our govcrnmeL''. Secondly, I 
fliall prohibit and hinder all pcrf;ns, of whatever degree, from violence 
ixrA injullice. Thirdly, In all judgments I (hall follow tlvi prefcriptions 
of juliice and mercy, to the end tha; our clement and mcrcitul God may 
Ihew mercy to nie, and to you." 

The parliament of Scotland anciently confiiied of all who held any 
portion of land, however iinall, of the crown, by military fervice. This 
parliament appointed the times of its own meeting and adjournment, 
and committees to fuperintend the adminiftration during the intervals of 
parliament ; it had a cinnmanding power in all matters of government ; 
It appropriated the public money, ordered the keeping of it, and called 
for the accounts ; it armed the people, and appointed commanders ; it 
jiamed and commiffioned ambaifadors ; it granted and limited pardons ; 
it appointed judges and courts of judicature ; it named ofiicers of ftate 
and privy-counlellors ; it annexed and alienated the revenues of the 
trown, and retrained grants by the king. The king of Scotland had 
no negative voice in parliament ; nor could he declare war, make peace, 
or conclude any other public bufinefs of importance, without the advice 
and approbation of parliament. The prerogative of the king was fo 
bounded, that he was not even entrufted with the executive part of the 
governinent, And fo Jute as the minority of James IV. who was co- 

. - temporary 



lffmpf>''a 
Ifointedl 

Iky the 

Ideal thai 

Ichieftal/ 

Ifidcrablc 

|adJ:-cf:i t| 

Ible the 

cf Scotlj 

event W.I 

witiiiianti 

we:iKen 

whoferc^ 

diepopCi 

I lone by 

\ifthe artl 

Indburgf 

heers eic 

bi.^hts 

Jiofe v.'cn 

Icentofth 

Their t 

Irought ii 

I swtive. 



Icnntttng 



SCOTLAND. 



«? 



Ittmpwary with and fon-in- law to Henry VII. of England, the parliament 
Ipointed out to him his duty, as the firft fcrvant of his people ; as appears 
Iw the ai^s ftill extont. In ftiort, the conlHtution was rather ariltocra- 
Itical than monarchical. The abxife of thefe ariftocratical powers, by tlie 
jchieftalns and great landholders, gave the king, however, a very con- 
Ifidcnible intcrcft among the lower ranks ; and a prince who had fenfe and 
ladJrcfa to retain the ai^i-'edlions of his people, was generally able to hum- 
jble the moll overgrown of his <ubjeds : when, on the other hand, a king 
[of Scotland, like James III. Ihewed a difrefpeft to his parliament, tke 
event was commonly fatal to the crown. The kings of Scotland, not- 
ivithuanding this paramount power in the parliament, found means to 
weaken and elude its force ; and in this they were aiTiiled by their clergy, 
Lhoi'e revenues were immenfe, and who had very little dependence upon 
the pope, and were always jealous of the powerful nobility. This was 
Jonc by eftabliiliing a feleit body of members, who were called the lords 
\ if the articles. Thefe were chofen out of the clergy, nobility, knight^', 
md burgefTes. The bilhops, for inft:\nce, chofe eight peers, and the 
I jeers eight bifhops ; and thofe fixteen jointly chofe eight barons (or 
bights of the Ihire) and eiglit commiffioners for burghs; and to all 
Jiole v/ere added eight great officers of Hate, the chancellor being prefi- 
I cent of the whole. 
Their bufmef:; was to prepare all queftions and bills, and other matters 
bought into parliament ; fo that in faft, though the king could give no 
|.vgp.tivc, yet being by his clergy, and the places he had to beltow, 
ivvays fure of the lords of articles, nothing could come into parliament 
I iat could call for his negative. It muil be acknowledged, that this 
iftitution feems to have prevailed by Health; nor was it ever brought 
ito any regular fyl^em : even its modes varied ; and the greateft lawyers 
:i-e ignorant v.hen it took place. The Scots, however, never loft light 
Iff their original principles : and though Charles I. wanted to form thefe 
llordsof the articles into regular machines for his own defpotic purpofes, 
Ike found it impiaclicable ; and the melancholy confequenccs are well 
llcnown. At the Revolution, the Scots gave a frefh inltance how much 
|te;ter they underftood the principles of liberty than the Englilh did, by 
Icniitting all pedantic debates about abdication, and the like terms, and 
Jvoting king James at once to have forfeited his crown ; which they gave 
lio the prince and princefs of Orange. 

This fpirit of refjft;;nce was the more remarkable, as the people had 

Ipaned under the moll infupportable minifterial tyranny ever fince the 

U'HoMtion. It is allced, Why did they fubmitto that tyranny ? The cn- 

jfocr is, In order to preferve that independency upon England, which 

ICromwell and his parliament endeavoured to deftroy, by uniting them 

Ivith England : they therefore chofe to fubmit to a temporal evil ; but 

Ihey took the fi-ll opportunity to get rid of their opprelTors. 

Scotland, w len it was a feparate kingdom, cannot be fiid to have had 

ny peers, 'i the Englifh fenfe of the word. The nobility, who were 

lukes, man Tes, earls, and lords, were by the king made heieditarv 

larons of pari; . nent ; but they formed no diftinft houfe, for they fat in 

lie fame room w'th the commons, who had tlie fame deliberative and 

lecifive vote with them in all public matters. A baron, though not a 

|ai3n of parliament, might fit upon a lord's aflize in matters of life and 

ath ; nor was it neceflary for the aflizers, or jury, to be unanimous 

their verdiiS, The feudal cuiloms, even at the timg of Cie Reiloration, 

vvfre 



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ll 


w 


ii 




ii 


f 


>v^l 


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90 



SCOTLAND. 




{'-,-i\ 



were fo prevalent, that the refcue of a great criminal was commonly fo 
much apprehended, that fcldom above two days palled between the fen- 
tcnce and the execution. 

Great uncertainty oc-ciirs in the Scotcli hiilory, by confounding parlia- 
ments with conventions ; the difference was, that a parliament could 
enaft laws as well as lay on taxes : a convention, or meeting of the ftates 
only met for the purpofes of taxation, liefore the Union, the i<ings of' 
Scotland had four great and four lefler ofiicers of Hate ; the great, were 
the lord high chancellor, high treafurer, privy-feal, ami fecrctary : the 
four lefler were, the lords regifter, advocate, treafurer-deputt*, and 
^uftice-clerk. Since the Union none of thefe continue, excepting the 
lords privy-feal, regifter, advocate, and jultice-clerk ; a third fecrctary 
of ftate has occafionally been nominated by the king for Scottifli aft'airy, 
but under the fame denomination as the other two fecretaries. The above 
ofiicers of Hate (at in the Scotch parliament by virtue of their offices. 

The officers of the crown were, the high-chamberlain, conftahle, ad- 
miral, and marfhal. The offices of conltable and marflial were heredi- 
tary. A nobleman has ftill a penfion as admiral ; and tlie office of mar- 
flial is exeicifed by a knight marftial. 

The office of chancellor of Scotland differed little from the fame in 
England. The fame may be Aiid of the lords treafurer, privy-feal, and 
fecretary. The lord-regitler was head clerk to the parliament, conven- 
tion, treafury, exchequer, and feffion, and keeper of all public records. 
Though his office was only during the king's pleafure, yet it was very 
lucrative, by difpofing of his deputation, which lallcd during life. He 
adled as teller to the parliament ; and it was dangerous for any member 
to difpute his report of the numbers upon a divifion. The lord-advo- 
<;ate's office refembles that of the attorney-general in England, only hii 
powers are far more extenfive ; becaufe, by the Scotch laws, he is the 
p^-ofecutor of all capital crimes before the jufticiary, and likewife concurs 
jn all purfuits before fovereign courts for breaches of the peace ; and alfr> 
in all matters civil, wherein the king, or his donator, has intereft. Two 
foUicitors are named by his majeft), by way of affiftants to the lord-advo- 
cate. The office of juftice-clerk, entitles the poflefl.br to prefide in the 
criminal court of juftice, while the juftice-general, an office I ffiall de- 
fcribe hereafter, is abfent. 

The ancient conftitution of Scotland admitted of many other offices 
botji of the crown and ftate ; but they are either now extinft or too in- 
cpnfiderable to be defcribed here. That of Lyon king at arms, or the 
rex fajcialium, or grand herald of Scotland, is ttill in being, antl it was 
formerly an offi.ce of great fplendour and importance, infomuch that the 
fcicncc of heraldry was prcferved there in greater purity than in any 
other country in Europe. He was even crowned folemnly in parliament 
• with a golden circle ; and his authority, which is not the cafe in England, 
in all armorial affairs might be carried into execution by the civil law. 

The privy-council of Scotland before the revolution, had, or affumed, 
inquifitorial powers, even that of torture ; but it is now funk in the par- 
liament a^ privy-council of Great-Britain, and the civil and criminal 
caufes there are chiefly cognizable 6y two courts of judicature. 

The firfl is that of the college of juftice, which was inftitutcd by : 
James V. after the model of the French parliament, to fupply an ambu- ; 
latory committee of parliament, who took to themfelves the names of the 
Jords of council and feffion, which the prefent members of the college of I 

juftice 



SCOTLAND, 



W 



ylce ftlll retain. This court confifts of a prcfident and fourteen ordina- 

JV members, bcfidcs extraordinary ones named by the king, who may fit 

Ijad vote, but have no falarips, and are not bound to attendance. I'his 

Itourt may be called a ftahding jury in all matters of property that lie be» 

Ifore them. Their forms of proceeding do not lie within my plan, nei- 

Ihcr does any enquiry how far fuch an inlliti'^on, in fo narrow a country 

I, Scotland, js compatible with the fccurity of private property. The 

Icivil law \i tlicir diieflory in all matfiers that come not within the muni- 

liipal lawi of the kingdom. It h.is been often matter of furpri/e, that 

tw Scots were fo tenacious of the forms of their courts and the cflence 

oftljeir laws, as to referve them by the articles of ihe union. This, how- 

(Vtr, can be eafily accounted for, becaufe thofe laws and forms were ef- 

fciitial to the pofTeflion of eltates and lands, which in Scotland are often 

lidd by modes incompatible with the laws of England. I (hall jurt add, 

iliat the lords of council and felfion aft likewife as a court of equity ; but 

I heir decrees are fometimes (fortunately perhaps for the fubjeft) revcrfible 

iiv the Ijritifh parliament, to which an appeal lies. 

The julHce court is the highe/l criminal tribunal In Scotland; but in 

i prefent form it was inlHtuted fo late as the year 1672, wheji a lord 

iiilUce general, removeable at the king's pleafure, was appointed. I'his 

[lucrative office ttill exills in the perfon of one of the chief nobility ; but 

•jie ordinary members of the court, are thp juftice-clerk and five other 

I iidges, who are always nominated from the lords of feffion. In this court 

'ae verdid of a jury condemns or acquits, but, as I have already hinted, 

dthout any neccflity of their being unanimous. 

Bcfides thofe two great courts of law, the Scots, by the articles of the 
I'Jnion, have acourt of exchequer. This court has the fame power, aur 
iiority, privilege, and jurifdiclion, over the revenue of Scotland, as the 
hourt of exchequer in England has over the revenues there ; and all matr 
hers and things competent to the court of exchequer of England relating 
Ithereto, are likewife competent to thp exchequer of Scotland. The judges 
lof the exchequer in Scotland exercife certain powers which formerly be- 
longed to the treafury, and are llijl veiled in that of England. 

The court of admiralty in Scotland, was, in the reign of Charles 11, 
by aft of parliament, declared to be a fupreme court, in all caufes com- 
petent to its own jurifdiftion ; and the lord high admiral is declared to be 
the king's lieutenant and jullice-general upon the feas, and in all ports, 
harbours, and creeks of the fame ; and upon frefh v.'aters and navigable 
rivers, below the firft bridge, or within flood-mark; fo that nothing 
competent to his jurifdiftion can be meddled with, in the firfl inftance, 
but by the lord high admiral and the judges of his court. Sentences 
palled in all inferior courts of admiralty, may be brought again before his 
court ; but no advocation lies from it to the lords of the lelFion, or any 
other judicatory, unlefs in cafes not maritime. Caufes are tried in thij 
Icourt by the civil law, which, in fuch cafes, is likewife the common law 
lof Scotland, as well as by the laws of Oleron, Wilby, and the I Ian fc- 
Itowns, and other maritime praftices and decifions common upon the con- 
liinent. The place of Jord admiral of Scotland is little more than nomi- 
Inal, but the falary annexed to it is reckoned worth joool. a year ; and 
pe judge of the admiralty is commonly a lawyer of dilliuclicn, with con- 
Ifidcrable perquifites pertaining to his office. 

The college or faculty of advocates, which an Avers to the Engl ifh inns 
"court, may be called the feminary of Scotch lawyers. They arc vvith- 



,1 ' ' 



1 I 






i'M 



\t 



A *4. 



^ 



SCOTLAND. 



in themfi'Ives an orderly court, and their forms require great precjijol 
and examination to qualify its candidates for admiflion. Subordinate u 
them is a body of inferior lawyers, or, as they may be called, attornevl 
who call themfclves writers to the fignet, bccaufe they alone can fubfcribJ 
the writs thit pafs the fip;net ; they likewi/e have a bye government foj 
tJicIr own regulation, b'uch are the different law-courts that are held J 
the capital of Scotland ; we fliall pafs to thofc that are inferior. 

The government of the counties in Scotland was formerly verted iJ 
fherilFr. and ftewards, courts of regality, baron courts, commiflarlesl 
jufticcs of the peace, and coroners. 1 

Formerly raerifl'doms were generally, though moll abfurdly, hcrcdij 
tabic ; but, by a late aft of parliament, they are now all veiled in tlJ 
crown ; it bein^ there enafted. That all high-fl^.eriffs, or Rewards, {liailJ 
I'cr t!ic future, te nominated and appointed annually by his majcfty, m 
heirs, and fucccflbrs. In regard to the fheriff-deputcs, and ilewart-de^ 
pi'tci., it is enafted. That there fliall only be one in each count)', or 
ftewartry, who mull be an advocate, of three years Handing at lealt.l 
For the fpace of fevcn years, thcfe deputies arc to be nominated by thel 
king, with fuch continuance as his majclly fliall think fit ; after whicHJ 
they are to enjoy their officer Aii vitam aut culpam^ that is, for life, un- 
lefs guilty of fome cf!"ence. Some other regulations have been likcwife| 
introduced, highly for the credit of the ftieriffs courts. 

Stewartries were formerly part of the ancient royal domain ; and thcl 
ftewarts had much the fame power in them, as the flieriff had in hisj 
county. ^ I 

Courts of regality of old, were held by virtue of a royal jurifdiftionl 
vefted in the lord, with particular immunities and privileges ; but tkfej 
were fo dangerous, and {^i extravagant, that all the Scotch regalities are 
now diffolved by an aft of pitrliament. 

Baron courts belong to every perfon who holds a barony of the kintf. 
In civil matters, they extend to caulcs not exceeding forty fliillings ller- 
ling; and in criminal cafes, to petty aftions of aflault and battery; but 
the punifiiment is not to exceed twenty fliillings llerling, or fetting tlie 
delinquent in the flocks for three hours, in the day time. Thcfe courts, 
JlOv>ever petty, were, in farmer days, inveftcd with the power of life and | 
idf-ath, which they have now loft. 

The courts of the comn.ifTaries in Scotland, anfwcr thofe of the Eng- 
lilh dinccfan chancellors, the highcfl of which is kept at Edinburgh; 
wherein, before four judges, aftions are pleaded concerning matters re 
Tating to wilU and teftamcnts ; the right of patronage to ecclefiarticnl 
benefices, tithe?, divorces, and caufes of that nature ; but in almoil all 
other parts of tlie kingdom, there fits but one judge on thcfe caufcs. 

According to the prefent inllitution, julliccs of the peace in Scotland 
fr^crcife pretty much the fam.e powers as thofe in England. In former 
t:mes, their office, though of very old ftanding, was infignificant, bcirij 
crp.Mped by the powers of the great feudal tyrants, who obtained an ad 
of parliamient, that they were not to take cognizance of riots till titteen 
days after the faft. 

The inftitution of coroners is as old as the reign of Malcolm 11. the 
great legiflator of Scotland, who lived before the Norman conqueft of 
Enghnd. They took cognizance of all breaches of the king's peace ; snd^ 
iJieywere required to have clerks to'regiflcr depofttions and matters of 



SCOTLAND. 

as well as verdiAs of jurors: the office, however, 1$ at prefcnt 
[jch (lifuicd in Scotland. 

(from the above ihort view of the Scotch laws and inftitutlons, it is 

jjin that they were radically the fame with thofe of the Englifli. Tiic 

Iter pretend indeed, that the Scots borrowed the contents of their Re' 

Lr Majfjlatemy their oldell law-book, from the work of Glanville, 

l!io was a judge under Henry II. of England. The Scots, on the other 

[•iiJ, with much better reafon, and far greater appearance of truth, fay, 

liiat Glanville's work was copied from their Regiam Majeflatem, even 

^titk the peculiarities of the latter, which do not now, and uevcr did, 

|t,ill ill the laws of England. 

The royal burghs in Scotland form, as It were, a commercial parlia- 

uent, which meets once a year at Edinburgh, confifting of a reprefen- 

[ative from each burgh, to confult upon the common good of the whdic. 

fkir powers are pretty extenfivc, and before the Union they made laws 

lilating to fliipping, to mailers and owners of Ihips, to mariners and 

[lerckants, by whom they were freighted ; to manufafturers, fuch as 

jiaiding, linen, and yarn ; to the curing and packing of fifh, falmoai, 

|jd herrings ; to "the importing and exporting feveral commodities : the 

Iflde between Scotland and the Netherlands is fubjeft to their regulation : 

[,ey fix the ftaple-port, which was formerly at Dort, and is now at 

jiamphere. Their confervator is indeed nominated by the crown, but 

lEn their convention regulates his power, approves his deputies, and 

Ispoints his falary : fo that, in truth, the whole ftaple trade is fubjefted 

[t their management. Upon the whole, tliis is a very fmgular inlHtu- 

Jun, and fufficicntly proves the vafl: attention which the government of 

(fodand formerly paid to trade. It took its prefent form in the reiga of 

limes III. 1487, and had excellent confequences for the beneht of 

lammerce. 

Such are the laws and conftitution of Scotland, as they exift at prefent, 

lij their general view ; but our bounds do not permit us to defcend to far- 

Ikr particulars, which are various and complicated. The conformity 

iet',vcen the pra<ftice of the civil law of Scotland, and that in England, 

|! remarkable. The Englilh law reports are of the fame nature with th« 

totch praticks ; and their afts of federunt, anfwer to the Englifh rules 

If court ; the Scottifli wadfets and reverfions, to the Englilh mortgages 

Ind defeazances : their ponding of woods, after letters of horning, is 

nuch the fame as the Engliih executions upon outlawries : and an appeal 

bainftdie king's pardon, in cafes of murder, by the next of kin to th^ 

Eeceafed, is admitted in Scotland as well as in England, Many other 

lifages are the fame in both kingdoms. I cannot, however, difiiiifs this 

lead without one obfervation, which proves the fimilarity between the 

Englifh and Scotch conftitutions, which I believe has been mentioned by" 

to author. In old times, all the freeholders in Scotland met together 

iprefence of the king, who was feated on the top of a hillock, which, 

the old Scotch conftitutions, is called the Moot, or Mute-hill ; all 

lational affairs were here tranfafted ; judgments given, and diflerences 

jided. This Moot;-hill I apprehend to be of the lame nature as the 

lixon Folc-mote, and to fignify no more than the hill of meeting. 

History.] Though the writers of ancient Scotch hidoiy are too 

[ud of fyilem and fable, yet it is eafy to colle£l, from the Roman au- 

lofs, and other evidences, that Scotland was formerlv inhabited by 

BCfeut people. I'Jie Caledonians were, probably, the /Iborlginci ; 'the 

pias 




rL '-m. 



m-. 




;*-..! 



^t ' 



if. 



94 



SCOTLAND, 



Pifts, umloiihredly, were tlie Britons, who were forced nortlnvards by 
the Belgic Gauls, about four-fcore years bc*i>rc the dcfcetit of luliu-- 
Ca-'far ; and wlio, fettling in Scotland, wen: joined by great numbers of 
their countrymen, who were driven northwards by the Romans. Tlio 
Scots, moll probably, were a nation of adventurers from the ancient 
Scythia, who had ferved in the armies on the continent ; and, as has ! 
be ^n already hinted, after conquering the other inhabitants, gave thdr I 
own name to the country. The tiatt by Ibutii of the Forth appears to 
have been inhabited by the Saxons, and by the Britons, who formed (in 
kingdom of Alcuith, the capital of which wa.sl")umbarton : but all thd'c 
people, in proccfs of time, were fubdued by the Scots. 

Having premifed thus much, it is unnecelTary for me to invcftigate the 
conftitution of Scotland from its fabulous, or even its early ages. It jj 
fufficient to add to what I have already faid upon that head, that they 
feem to have been as forward as any of their fouthern neighbours in the 
arts of war and government. 

It does not appear that the Caledonians, the ancient Celtic inhabl- 
tnnts of Scotland, were attacked by any of the Roman gen rals before 
Agricola. The name of the prince he fought with was Galdus, by 
Tacitus named Galgacus ; and the hillory of that war is not only tranf- 
mitted with great precifion, but cormbor.itcd by the remains of the Ro- 
man encampments and forts, raif(.'(' y Agricola in his march towards 
Dunkeld, the capital of the Calediaiians. The brave Hand made by | 
Galdus againft that great general, does honour to the valour of both I 
people J and the fentiments of the Caledonian, concerning the freedom 
and independency of his country, appear to have warmed the noble 
hiftorian with the fame generous paffion. It is plain, however, that! 
Tacitus thought it for the honour of Agricola to conceal fome part of 
this war ; for though he makes his countrymen victorious, yet they cer- 
tainly returned fouthward, to the province of the Horeili, which was the 
county of Fife, without improving their advantage. 

Galdus, otlierwife called Corbred, was, according to the Scotch 
hiilorians, the twenty-firft in a lineal defcent from Fergus I. the founder j 
of their monarchy ; and though this genealogy has of late been dif- 
puted, yet nothing can be more certam, from the Roman hiftories/j 
than that the Caledonians, or Scots, were governed by a fucceflion oP| 
brave and wife princes, during the abode of the Romans in Britain.' 
Their valiant refiftance obliged Agricola himfelf, and after him the em- 
perors Adrian and Severus, to build the two famous pretentures or walls, 
which will be defcribed in our account of England, to defend the Ro- 
mans from the Caledonians and Scots ; and that the independence of the j 
latter was never fubdued. 

Chriftianity was introduced into Scotland about the year 201 of the Chri- 
ftian aera, by Donald I. The Pidls, who, as before mentioned, were thedef- 
cendents of the ancient Britons, who had been forced northwards by theRo-j 
mans, had at this time gained a footing in Scotland ; and being often de- 
feated by the ancient inhabitants, chey joined with the Romans againft the| 
Scots and Caledonians, who were of the fame original, and confidered 
themfelves as one people ; fo that their monarchy fuffered a Ihort edipfe i^ 
but;^ it broke out with more luftre than ever under Fergus II. who reco-j 
vered his crown ; and his fucceffors gave many fevere overthrows to thd 
Romans and Bri(;fns, 

Whej 



o inveftifratc the 

arly ages. It is 

head, that they 

ighboura in the 



was Galclus, by 

not only tranf- 

lains of the Ro- 

march towards 

Hand made by 

: valour of both 

ling the freedom 

rmed the noble 

1, however, that 

:eal fome part of 

jus, yet they cer- 

which was the 



SCOTLAND. 9<- 

When the Rommis left Britain in 448, the Scots, ^ appears by Gil- 

il-.,, a J]ritilh Ivalorian, were a p(nvc;t'i!l nation, and, in conjiindlioit 

»ith the Piftt^, invaded the Britoim ; and having torced the Roman pie- 

sntures, drove them to the very fea; fo that the Uiit'-ns app;it;d to the 

komans for relief; and in the famous letter, which they culled their 

jeroans, they ti.ll tliem, that they had no choice left, hiit tliat of beini^ 

Ifvallowed up by the fea, or pcrifhing l.y the fwords of the barbarians; 

Ifcr lo nil nations were called who were not Roman or under the Roman 

protL'ition, 

Dongard was then king of Scotland ; and it appears from the oldeil 
liiilories, and thofe that are leall favourable to monarchy, that the fuc- 
cefion to the crown of Scotland llill continued in the family of Fergus, 
but generally defcended coliaterally ; till the inconveniencies of that 
I mode of fucceflion were fo much felt, that by degrees it fell into difufe, 
mJ it was at lall fettled in the right line. 

About the year yg6, the Scots were governed by Achains, a prince 

() much refpedled, that his friendlhip was courted by Charlcma(rr./»^ 

[iml a league was concluded between them, which continued inviolate 

Lhile the monarchy of Scotland had an exiilence. No fatt of equal an- 

ilqiiity is better attelled than this league, together with the great fervice 

pibrmed by the learned men of ScotJand, in civilizing the vaft domi- 

j lions of that great conqueror, as has been already obicrved under the 

rticle of learnisg. The Pith ftill remained in Scotland as a feparate 

ation, and were powerful enough to m:ike war upon the Scots ; who, 

DOiit the year 843, when Kenneth Mac Alpin was king of Sec 'land, 

inally fubdued them, but not in the favage manner mentioned by fome 

sillorians, by extermination. For he obliged them to incorporate them- 

lielves with their conquerors, by taking their name and adopting their 

haws. The fucceflbrs of Kenneth Mac Alpin maintained almoll perpe- 

lual wars with the Saxons on the fuuthward, and the Danes and other 

barbarous nations towai-ds the north ; who being mailers of the lea, har- 

Irall'ed the Scots by powerful invafions. The latter, however, were move • 

fortunate than the En' ifli, for while the Danes were ereding a jjio-^ 

Inarchy in England, they were every where overthrown in Scotland by 

bloody battles, and at lail driven out of the kingtlom. The Saxon ami, 

iDaiilh monarchs were not more fuccefsful againll the Scots ; wlio main- 

mined their freedom and independency, not only againll foreigners, but 

lagainll their own kings, when tl>ey thought them endfingei:ed. The^ 

Ifeudal law was introduced among them by Malcolm U^ 

Malcolm Ilf. commonly called Malcolm Canraore, from two GaelHc 

[words which fignify a large head, but mofl: probabJy his great capacity, 

Iwas the eighty-fixth king of Scotland, frorn Fergus I. the fuppofcd 

Ifounder of the monarchy ; the forty-feventh from its rellorer, Fergus It. 

land the twenty-fecond fiom Kenneth III. who conquered the kingdom 

pfthe Pifts. Every reader who is acquainted with the tragedy of iVIac- 

Ibcth, as written by the inimitable Shakcfpcar, wlw keeps clofe to the 

Vafts delivered by hiftorians, can be no flranger to the fate of Malcolm's 

Kither, and his own hillory previous to his mounting the throne in the 

f'ear 1057. Fie was a wife and magnanimous prince, and in no rcfpe6^ 

Inferior to his contemporary the Norman cc-nqueror, with whom he was. 

|ften at war. He married Margaret, daughter to Edward, fur-named 

he Outlaw, fon to Edward Ironfme, king of England. By the death of 

er brother, Edgar Etheling, the Saxon right to tlie crown of England 

devolved 







f r, 



] V; ;H 



m 






SCOTLAND; 

devolved upon the portcrtty of that princcfs, who was one of the wlft^l 
and woilhicd women of tiic ago ; and her daugliter^ Maud, was accord. J 
ingly married to Henry I. of England. Malcolm, after a glorious reign, ' 
vas killed, with his fon, treacnerouily, as it is faid, at the fiege of 
AInvcick, by the bcfieged. 

Malcolm III. was fuccecded by his brother, Donald VII. aird he was 
dethroned by Duncan II. whofe legitimacy was difputcd. They wtre 
fuccecded by Edgar, the fon of Malcolm III. who was a wife and va- 
liant prince ; and upon his death, David I. mounted the throne. 

Notwithllanding the endeavours of fome hiltorians to conceal what! 
they cannot deny, I mean the glories of this reign, yet David was,] 
perhaps, the greatell prince of his age, whether wc regard him as a man, 
a warrior, or a Icgiilator. The noble adlions he performed in the icr. 
vice of his niece, the cmprefs Maud, in her competition with king Ste- 
j)hen for the Englifh crown, give us the highell idea of his virtues, as 
they could be the refult only, of duty and principle. To him Henry II, 
the mightieft prince of his age, owed his crown j and his pofielTions in 
England, joined to the kingdom of Scotland, placed David's power on | 
an equality with that of England, when confined to this ifland. His] 
aclions and adventures, and the refources he always found in his own [ 
courage, prove him to have been a hero of the firll rank. If he ap» 
peared to be too lavifh to churchmen, and in his religious endowments, [ 
we are to confider, thefe were the only means by which he could then 
civilize his kingdom : and the code of laws I have already mentioned 
to have been drawn up by him, do his memory immortal honour. They 
are faid to have been compiled under his infpeftion by learned men, 
whom he affembled from all parts of Europe in his magnificent abbey 
of Melrofs. He was fuccecded by his grandfon, Malcolm IV. and he, 
by William, fur-named, from his valour, the Lyon. William's fon, 
Alexander II. was fuccecded, in 1249, by Alexander III. who was a I 
good king. He married, firft, Margaret, daughter to Henry III. of j 
England, by whom he had Alexander, the prince, who married the earlf 
of Flanders's daughter ; David, and Margaret, who married Hangowan,! 
or, as fome call him, Eric, fon to Magnus IV. king of Norway, who! 
bare to him a daughter, named Margaret, commonly called the Maideal 
cf Norway ; in whom king William's whole pollerity failed, and the j 
crown of Scotland returned to the defcendants of David, earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, brother to king Malcolm IV. and king William. 

I have been the more particular in this detail, becaufe it was pro-J 
dudtive of great events. Upon the death of Alexander III. John Balioi,! 
who was great-grandfon to David earl of Huntingdon, by his clderl 
daughter, Margaret, and Robert Bruce (grandfather to the great king! 
Robert Bruce) grandfon to the fame carl cf Huntingdon, by his younger 
slaughter Ifabel, became competitors for the crown of Scotland. The 
laws cf fucceflion, which were not then fo well ellabliflied in Europe as 
they are at prefent, rendered the cafe very difficult. Both parties werei 
almoll equally matched in intereft ; but after a confufed interregnum of] 
fome yeai's, the great nobility agreed in referring the decifion to Ed4 
ward I. of England, the moft politic, ambitious prince of his age. He 
accepted the office of arbiter j but having long had an eye to the crown 
of Scotland, he revived fome obfolcte abfurd claims of its dependency 
upon that of England ; and finding that Balioi was difpofed to hold iti 
hy tliat difgraceiul tenujre, Edward awarded it to liim j but afterwardi 

detluonea 



SCOTLAND. 



n 



Itlironcd him, and treated him as a flave, without Bailors refcnt- 



l" It. 

1^ 



After this, Edward ufed many bloody ciuleavours, by killing and 
arJcrin^ above 100,000 of the Scots, to annex their crown to his own ) 
,t tiioagh they were often defeated, the indejicndcnt Scots never were 
nqiierpd. They were indeed but few, compared to thofe in the in- 
relc of Eilward and Baliol, which was the iame; and for fomc timt 
:rc obliged to temporir.e. Edward availed himfelf of their weaknefa 
ndhis own power. He accepted of a formal fiirrender of the crown 
Ifrom Baliol, to v.hom he allowed a penfion, but detained him in Eng- 
land; and fen t every nobleman in Scotland, whom he in the leaft fuf- 
Ipcftcd, to different prifons in or near London. He then forced the Scot$ 
Bfign inftruments of their fiibjcftion to him ; and moft barbaroufly car- 
ieJoff, or deilroyed, all the monuments of their hiftory, and the evi« 
t'nces of their independency ; and particularly the famous fatidical ilone^ 
(iiich is ftill to be feen in Wellminiler-Abbey. 

Thofe inhuman proceedings, while they rendered the Scots fenfible 

i their flavery, revived in them the idea^ of their freedom; and 

liwaiil, finding their fpirits were not to be fubdued, endeavoured to 

bfs them, and affcfted to treat them on the footing of an equality with 

h own rubje(!ts, by projefting an union, the chief articles of which have 

ke taken place, between the two kino;doms. The Scotch patriots 

[••ited this projedl with difdain ; and united under the brave William 

fillacc, the truell hero of his age, to expel the Englilh. Wal- 

be performed aftions that entitle him to eternal renown, in executing 

[cs {chemc. Being, however, no more than a private gentleman, ana 

i popuLirity daily increafing, the Scotch nobility, among whom waa 

belt Bruce, the fon of the firft competitor, began to fulpeft that he 

1 an eye upon the crown, cfpecially after he had defeated the earl of 

iiiry, Edward's vicJeroy of Scotland, in the battle of Stirling, and had 

uceil the garrifons of Berwick and Roxburgh, and was declared by 

ic Ihtes of Scotland their proteftor. Their jealoufy operated fo far, 

t they formed violent cabals againft the brave Wallace. Edward, 

ipon this, once more invaded Scotland, at the head of the moll nume- 

r.nd beft difciplined army England had ever feen, for it confifted of 
licco foot, 3000 horfemen completely armed, and 4000 light armed ; 

was attended by a fleet to fupply it with provifions. Thefe, 

|;fides the troops who joined him in Scotland, formed an irrefiftible 

liKly ; fo that Edward was obliged to divide it, rcferving the command 

f^o.ooo of his bcft troops to himfelf. With thefe he attacked the Scotch 

l-my under Wallace at Falkirk, while their difputes ran fo high, that 

le brave regent was deferted by Gumming, the moll powerful nobleman 

1 Scotland, and at the head of the beft divifion of his countrymen. 

f'allace, whofe troops did not exceed 30,000, being thus betrayed, was 

pated with vaft lofs, but made an orderly retreat ; during which he 

[and means to have a conference with Bruce, and to convince him of 

terror in joining with Edward. Wallace iHll continued in arms, and 

irformcd many gallant actions againft the Englifli ; but was betrayed 

p the hands of Edward, who moil ungeneroufiy put him to death at 

pndon as a traitor ; but he died himfelf, as he was preparing to renew 

inivafion of Scotland wi'h iViU more defolating fpirit of ambition. 

jBrace died foon after the battle of Falhirk ; but not before he had in- 

jred hi> fun, yvho was a pjifoner at large about the Engliili court, 

M ■ \ vviti 




'■[ 4 




aS::l 



SCOT h A N n. 



with the gloiious rcfohition of vindicating his own rights, and his coirn 
try's independency. He cfcaped from London, and with his own h;iii 
killed Cumming, for hL attachment to Edward ; and after co!lcdin[rl 
few patriots, among whom were his own fwiir brothers, he afTumcd tl{ 
crown; but was defeated by the Englifli (who had a great army in Sco| 
land) at the battle at Methveii. After this defeat, he fled, with one i 
two friends, to the Wellern Ifles, and parts of Scotland, where his fatiguJ 
and fufterings were as inexprelfible, as the courage with which he anl 
his few friends (the lord Douglas efpecially) bore them was iiicrediblj 
Though his wife and daughter were lent prifoners to England, whep 
the heft of his friends, and two of his brothers, were unmercifully hufl 
chcred, yet, fuch was his perfevering fpirit, that he recovered all Scod 
land, exceptin*/ the caftle of Sterling, and improved every advantaj 
that was given hiin by the diftipated conduft of Edward II. who raifed aj 
army more numerous and better appointed iHll than that of his fathen 
to make a total conqueft of Scotland. It is faid that it confilled 
300,000, but this mull be underftood as including the foreigners attend 
ing the camp, which in thofe days were very numerous ; but it is ad 
niitted on all hands, that it did not confift of fo few as 100,000 fighting 
men, while that of Bruce did not exceed 30,000 ; but all of them hcioej 
who had been bred up in a deteftation of tyranny. 

Edward, w' "» was not deficient in point of courage, led this nii^ht 
hoft towards Sterling, then befieged by Bruce ; who had chofen, \vit| 
the greateft judgment, a camp near Bannock-burn. The chief cilicer 
under Edward were, the earls of Gloucefter, Hereford, Pembrok,;, and 
Sir Giles Argenton. Thofe under Bruce were, his own brotlier Sir EdJ 
ward, who, next to himfelf, was reckoned to be the beft knight in Scot] 
land ; his nephew, Randolf, earl of Murray,, and the young lord Vv'all 
ter, high-fteward of Scotland. Edward's attack of the Scotch army wo! 
furious beyond difpute, and required all the courage and firmnefs ol 
Bruce and his friends to refift it, which they did fo efFeftually, th.Tt the)} 
gained one of the moft complete viftories that is rxorded in hiftory. Tlid 
great lofs of the Englilh fell upon the braveft part of their troops, whq 
were lee on by Edward in pcrfon againil Bruce himfelf. The ScotcH 
writers make the lofs of the Knvliih to amount to 50,000 men. Be thai 
as it will, there certainly never was a more total defea:, though the conj 
querors loft aooo. The flower of the Engliih nobility were either killed 
or taken priloners. Their camp, which was immenfely rich, and calJ 
culated for the purpofe rather of a triumph than a campaign, fell iiitq 
the hands of the Scotch ; and Edward himfelf, with a few followcrsJ 
favoured by the goodnefs of their horfes, were purfued by Douglas tq 
the gates of Berwick, from whence he efcaped in a 'iOiing-boat, ThiJ 

J ;reat and decifive battle happened in the year ^314; and Edward waij 
p certain of conqueft, that he canied with him, as part of his camp 
equipage, chains and fetters for the inhabitants of Scotland *. 



* Ho\5i' well the barda uf thofe days were acquainted with the Mufcs^i maj; be fscnfroU 
ikt tuUuwing lines, made on this memorable viftory, 

JVlrtyJBns 0/ England fore may ya mourn» 

For /our sommont «ou, havuloft at Bannockburn. 
' With a hcve a lo v ! 

Wlut lio ' wi'^nM the \iu\f,of England^ 

• tf\\kk a rumby, Iow> I 



}A^ 



LJIli 



SCOTLAND. 



99 



fi'.d rem linder of Robert's reign was a feries of the mpfl glorious 

tellies ; and fo well did liis nobility underfland the principles of civil 

rtv, and fo unfettered they were by religions coniidcrations, tl\at in a 

,'r dicy fent to the pope, they acknowledged that they had {<:t afide 

lid), for debafiJig the crown by holding it of England; and that they 

uld do the fame by Robert if he (hould make tlie like attempt. Ro- 

rt having thus delivered Scotland, font his brother Edward to Ireland, 

the head of an army, with which he conquered the greatcfi: part of 

It kingdom, and was pioclaimed its king; but by expofing himfclf 

3 much, he was killed. Robert, before his death, which happened in 

<:8, made an advantageous peace with England ; and when he died, 

wan acknowledged to be indifputably the greateil hero of his age. 

The glory of the Scots may be faid to have been in its zenith under 

obcrt I. v/hn was fuccccded by his fon, David II. He was a virtuous 

Irincc, but his abilities, both in war and peace, were eclipfed by his 

■other-in-law, and entniy, Edward III. of England, whofe filter he 

rricd. Edward, who was as keen as any of his prcdeceffors upon 

le conqueft of Scotland, efpoufed the caufe of Baliol, fon to Baliol, the 

iginal competitor. His progrefs was at firll amazingly rapid ; and he 

id Edward defeated the royal party in many bloody battles ; but Baliol 

sat laft driven out of his ufurped kingdom by the Scotch patriots. 

lavid had the misfortune to be taken prifoner by the Englifti at the 

little of Durham ; and after continuing above eleven years in captivity, 

I paid 100,000 marks, a fum which no prince in Europe but himfellf 

[raid have coirmanded at that time, for his ranfom ; and died in peace, 

lithout iflue, ii the year 1 37 1 . 

The crown of j^cotland then devolved upon the family of Stuart, by 

head having been married to the daughter of Robert I. The firll 

mg '^f that name was Robert II. a wife and brave prince. He was 

ccecded by his fen, Robert HI. whole age and infirmities difqualified 

from reigring ; fo that he was forced to truft the government to his 

rthlefs relatioiis. Robert, upon this, attempted to fend his fecond 

to France, but he was mort ungeneroufly intercepted by Henry IV. 

If England ; and after fuffering a long captivity, he was obliged to pay 

exorbitant ranfom. During the imprifonment of James in England, 

e military glf -y of the Scots was carried to its greateil height in France, 

here they fupported that tottering monarchy, and obtained the firll title 

if the kingdom. 

James, the firll of that name, upon his return to Scotland, difcovcioj 

at talents for government ; but was barbaroufly murdered in his bed 

ly fome of his relations, in 1487. A long minority fucc.^edcd ; but 

imcs II. would probably liave equalled the greateil of his aiceftois both 

In warlike and civil virtues, had he not been fuddenly killed by the ac- 

licenial burlting of a cannon, in the thirtieth year of his age, as he was 

fif-'ging the callle of Roxburgh, which was defended by the ^.nglilh. 

he turbulent reign of James III. was clofed by a rebellion ot' his fub- 

ds, in which he was bafely murdered in 1488, aged thirty-ax. His 

n, James IV. was the moll accomplilhed and magnificent prince of the 

e: he encouraged and protefted the commerce of his fubjeils, fo that 

ey rivalled the EngUfh in riches ; and the court of James, at the time 

hiH marriage with Henry \ II's daughter, was the moll fplcndid of 

ly in Europe. Even this alliance could not cure him of his family 

itempcr, a pr^dilet^ion (or the French, in whofc cstufe he rafhly cn- 

11 z tered 









I m 



tf 



'W # 



im 




100 



S C O T I. A N D. 



tercd, and was killed by the Englifh in the battle of F'oddcn, i:i ti^ 
fortieth year of his age. The minority of his fon, James V. was jona 
and ti:i-bulcnt : and when he grew up, he married two French ladies*. 
the nril being daughter to the king of France, and the latter of the houfei 
ofGiiife. lie proved a haughty, bloody-minded king; and, had hel 
lived, probably would have rumcd the liberties of his fubjecls, by fcizinffl 
upon all the church revenues; but he died in the thirty-firll year ofhisj 
age, of grief for an affront which his arms had fullained in an ill-judgtdj 
expedition againft the Englifh. 

His dauglitcr and Aicccflbr, Mary, was but a few hours old at thel 
time of her father's death. Her beauty, and the hifiory of her misfcr.; 
tunes, are alike famous in hiilory. It is fullicicnt here to fay, that dur- 
ing her minority, and while Ihc was wife to Francis II. of France, ths 
reformation began in Scotland : that being tailed to the throne of herl 
anceilors while a widow, flic married her ov.-n r.oufin-german, tlic Icrdj 
Darnley, whom her rebellious fubjofts put to death; i^nd not only laid 
the faft upon her, but in a manner obliged h^r to mi'-ry the chief agent 
in the murder. The conf.'quence was a rebellion, by which fhe was 
driven into Eiigland, where (he v/as bakdv detained a prifcner for eighteen I 
years, and afterwards barbaroufly murdered by queen Elizabeth in ' 
1586-7. 

Mary's fon, James VI. of Scotland, fucceeded in right of his blood' 
from Henry VII. upon the death of queen Elizabeth, to the Englifh 
crown, after fliewing great ?bilitiej in the- government of Scodand. 
This union of the two crowns, in fadl deflroyed the independency, as it 
impoveriflied the people of Scotland ; for the feat of government being 
removed to England, their trade was checked, their agiiculture neglefted, 
and their gentry obliged to f^ek for bread in othe;- cv)untries. Jame^, 
«fter a fplendid, but troublefome reign over his three kingdoms, left 
them, in 1625, to his fon, the unfortunate Charles I. It is well known, 
that the defpotic principles of that prince received tlie f.rd check from 
the Scots ; and that, had it not been for them, he would eafdy have 
fubdued his Englifli rebels, who implored the alhltance of the icots; 
"but afterward;;, againll all the ties of lionour and humanity, brought 
him to the block in 1648. 

The Scots favv their error when it was too late ; and made fevcral 
lloody, but unfortunate attempts, to fave the father, and to rcitore his 
fon, Charles II. Thai: prince was finally defeated by Cromwell, at the 
battle of Worceller ; after which, to the time of his rclloration, the Eng- 
lifh gave law to Scotland. I have in another place touched uponth'^^ moil 
material parts of that prince's reign, and that of his deluded brother, 
James VII. of Scotland, and II. of England, as well as of king Wilham, 
who was fo far from being a friend to Scotland, that, relying, on hij 
joy il word to her parliament Hie wrs brought to the brink of ruin. 

^'heilateof parties in England, at thcacccfrionofqucen Anne, wasfach, 
that the Whig;,, once more, had recourfe to the Scots, and offered them 
their own terms, if they v.'ould agree to the incorporate Union as it now 
■ft^nds. It was long before the majc^rity of the Scotch parliament would 
lilten to the propofiil ; but at lalt, pi>rtly fr-jm cojuidion, and partly 
thro' the force cf money dillributed among the needy nobility, 't was 
agreed to; fince which event, the hiilory of Scotland becomes' the lam« 
y^'ith tliac of England. 



f 



ENGLAND. 



'il 



' d 






mM' 



|i| 



*t 



It- 



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V 



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A N D. 



t. * 



D,<;\ H'f,>f /roni ^J J,o/iif<>ft . 



0^ 



I Ai'rt 









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AKP 






I li T S IT 






A? ^ ^ 








J! ' t.i 





""* 7^*"*%*^ 




'V 



y A'//.Vi//i Sr.^//' 



Betwee; 



Jetweei 



Clima 

BOUNI 

the fouthe 

the ifland 

welt, by S 

ncl, wliicl 

This fit 

liable to a 

da. coalls i 

prevents tfi 

lame dep;re 

Id the Ions 

en ;i dry i'( 

petu;il ven 

world, occ 

thp Tea. 

Name 

ANCIEf 

fome deriv'f 
prefer the 
mentioned, 
fiirriiiljed 
illund. In 

I of Bri/ama' 
painted or 
their bodies 
The wclteri 
by the rivei 
becaufe in^h 

[Koninns, aj 
When th 

[they dividec 

1. Britani 

2. Britan 
Wfiles, 

3. IVfaxir 
nrrd a: 
aa r.ir a 

To thefe 
Ipofe to conti 



[ lOI ] 



ENGLAND. 



Situation and Extent. 



2 o ET 
Between < and S- E. Lon. 

16 20 W} 

C 50 o 5 
Between < and S- N. Lat. 

i 56 o i 



Being 



^60 miles in Icnpth. 
300 miles in breadth. 



Climate and 7 ' | ^HE longeft day in the northern parts, contains 

BOUNDARIES, J X ^7 hoiirs 30 minutes; and the (horteft, in 
the fouthcrn, near 8 hours. It is bounded on the north, by that part of 
the ifland calleJ Scotland ; on the eaft, by the German Ocean ; on the 
weft, by St. George's Channel ; and on the fouth, by the Englifh Chan- 
nel, which parts it from France. 

This fituation, by the fea wafliing it on three fides, renders England 
liable to a great uncertainty of weather, fo that the inhabitants on the 
fea coalls are often vifited by agues and fevers. On the other hand, it 
prevents the extremes of heat and cold, to which other places, lying in the 
;;ime depress of latitude, are fubjeft ; and it is, on that account, friendly 
tj the longevity of the inhabitants in general, efpccially thofe who liv» 
en a dry foil. I'o this fituation likewife, we are to afcribe that per- 
petual verdure for which England is admired and envied all over the 
worlJ, occafioned by the relreihing fhowers and the warm vapours of 
th? iea. 

Name and divisions, 7 Antiquaries are divided with regard to 

ANCIENT AND modern. ) tlic etymology of 'h;' word England ^ 
fome derive it from a Celtic word, fignifying a level country ; but I 
prefer the common etymology, of its being derived, as I have already 
mentioned, from a province now fubjeft to his Danifh majefty, which 
furniilied a great part of th.e original Saxon adventurers into this 
illunJ. In the time of the Romans, the whole ifland went by the name 
d Eritamiia. 'i'he word Brit, according to Mr. Camden, fignified 
painted or itained ; the ancient inhabitants being famous for painting' 
their bodies : other antiquaries, however, do not agree in this etymology. 
The weltcrn trail of Enr;!;ind, which is almoft leparated from the reft 
by the rivr^rs Severn and Dee, is called Wales, or the land of llrangers, 
kcaufc iii'Libited by the Eelgic Gauls, who wevkj driven thither by the 
Romans, and were itrangers to the old native:. 

When the Romans provinciated England (for they never did Scotland) 
they divided it into, 

j. Britanaia Prima, which contained the fouthern parts of the kingdom. 

2. Britannia Secunda, containing the wellern parts, comprehending 
Wales, and, 

3. IVlaxima L'^farienfis, which reached from the Trent as far north- 
v,r rd as their prct -.uure, or to the wall of Severus, and Ibmetimcs 
rt^ r.ir as th;U of A'Irian in Scotland. 

To indc diviiions fome add, the Flavia Ctefarienlis, which they fup- 
Ipofc to contain the midland counties. 

ii 3 When 







1;^' 



a- 



iJ 



';;« 



i*r til J ' 

'■■' i M i 



■.mi 



VI 



l! 



IH 



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^ViPl 




wP 


i.M 


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vfl 


;; ;l? ; ^'; 




i'i 



'I- 11 



102 



ENGLAND. 



When the Saxen invafion took place in the year 445, and when they 
were ellabliihcd in the year 582, their chief leaders appropriated to them. 
felves, after the manner of the other northern conquerors, the countries 
v.hich each had been the moll inftrumental in conqiierinj> ; and the whole 
formed a heptarchy, or political republic, confilHng of feven kint^doms; 
but in time of war, a chief was chofen out of the fcven kinjr? ; for which 
reafon I call it a political republic, its conftitutiun greatly relembliiig that 
of ancient Greece. 



2. 



Kingdoms erected by the Saxons, ufually IWed the 

Kingdoms. Counties. 

Kent, founded by C 
Hengifl in 475, and s Kent 
ended in 823. t 

South-Saxons, f 
founded by Ella in ) Siu&x 
491, and ended in J Suiry 
600, (_ 

Eaft- Angles, f Norfolk 

founded by Uffa in J Suifolk 
575, and ended in | Cambndjre 



793^ 

, Weft-Saxons, 
founded by Cerdic 
in 1512, and ended 
in 1060, 



s. 

- H 

of Ely J [ 



Northumberland, 
founded by Ida. in 
574, and ended in 
792 



Eafl-Saxon9, 

founded by Erche- • .,., ,, /• , 

■' ,^ Midc.lefex, and 

win in ;27, and I c is Jc j 
ended in ;46. (. ^^ Hertford 

fGloucefter 



t With the llle 

r Cornwall 

I Devon — 

Dorfct — 

'I Somerfet 

Wilts — 

I Hants — 

L Berks -> 

Lancaflcr — 
r York — 

J Durham — 

J Cumberland — 
< Weftmoreland — 

Northumberland, and 
Scotland to the Fryth 
^ of Edinburgh 

Eflex — 

pait 



>< 



V 



>< 






Mercia, founded by 
Cridda in 582, and-< 
ended in 874. 



Hereford 

Worccfter 

Warwick 

Leiceller 

Rutland 

Northampton 

Lincoln 

Huntingdon — 

Bedford — 

Buckingham — 



= r 



Saxon Heptarchy. 
Chief Towns, 

Canterbury. 



Chichefler 

South'.vark. 

Norwich 

Bury St. Fdmoritii 

Cambridi'c 

Elv. 

Laiinceftoa 

Exeter 

Dorchefler 

Bath 

Saliniury 

Winchfllf-r 

Abingdon. • 

Lancallcr. 

York 

Durham 

Carlifle 

Appleby 

Nevvcallle. 



Lcndcn, 

Gloticefler 

He rcford 

Vv'orcefler "' 

WanvicI: 

Leiceiler 

Oakham 

Northampton 

Lincoln 

Huntingdon 

Bedford 

Alelburv 



7. Merda, 



■H 



ENGLAND. 



103 



Kingdoms. 



-. Mercia 



Counties. 
Oxford 
Staftbrd 
Derby 
Salop 

Nottingham 
Chcftei- 

And the other part , of 
^ Hertford 



I 1 '■ 



Chief To. vns. 
Oxford 

Stafford 

Derby 

Shrewlbury 



Nottingham 
Lhclk-r 



Hertford. 



I have been the more follioitous to prefervc thofe divifions, as they nc- 
count !br different local culloms, and many very cflcntial modes of inhc- 
rkancc, which, to this day, prevail in PJngland, and which took their 
rife from difi-erent inllitutions under the Srfxons. Since the Norman con- 
fuell, BnglanJ has been divided into countie.% a ccrtiiiu number of which, 
excepting Middlefex and Chefhire, are comprehended in fix circuits, or 
annual progrefles of the judges for adminiftering jullicc to ihc fubjeds 
(/ho arc at a ^illance from the capital. Thefc .circuits are ; 



Circuits. 



I. Home Ciicuit. ^ 



Counties. 
■EfTex — 

Hertford — 
Kent — 



>< 



Surry 



SufTex 



Chief Towns. 

"Chelmsford, Cokhefter, and 
Harwich. 

Hertford, St. Albnn's, Roy- 
Uon, Ware, Hitchen, and 
Baldocjc. 

Maidftone, Canterbury, Cha- 
tham, Rochelier, Green- 
wich, Woolwich, Dover, 
Deal, and Deptford. 

Southwark, Kingfton, Guild- 
ford, Croydon, Epfom, and 
Richmond. 



Chichefter, Lewe?, Rye, Eaft- 
grimllead, and Hailings. 

"Bucks — 1 TAfefliury, Buckingham, 
j Much-Wickham, and 
Marlow 



2. Norfolk Circuit. < 



Bedford — 

Huntingdon 
Cambridge. 



Bedford, Ampthlll, Woburn, 
Donftable, Luton, and 
J Bigglefwadc. 

Huntingdon, St. Ives, and 
Kimbolton. 



H4 



Cambridge, Ely, Newmarket, 
and Royfton. 

2. Norfolk 



^ 



ik 



.")f 



I IJl I 



104 



ENGLAND. 







Circuits. 



5. Norfolk Circuit. ^ 



Counties. 
Suffolk — 



Norfolk — 



rOxon •— 



'$. Oxford Circuit. 



Berks — 



^ 



Gloucefter 



1 



\ Worcefter 
Monmouth 
Hereford — 
Salop — 

Stafford — 
'"Warwick — 

Leicefter — 

Derby — 
4. Midland Circuit. ^ Nottingham 

Lincoln — 

Rutland — 

Northampton 



Chief Towns. 
Bury, Ipfwich, Sudhuryf 
Lcoftoff, and part of 
Newmarket. 

I Norwich, Thctford, Lynn; 
l_ and Yarmouth. 

'Oxford, Banhury, Chipplniv. 
norton, Henley, Biirfurd, 
Whitney, Dorcliolkr, and 
Woodllock. 

Abingdon,Windf )r, Reading 
Wallingford, Newbury, 
Hungerford, and Maiden^ 
head. 



>< 



Gloucefter,Tevvkfbury,Circn. 
celler, and part of Briilol. 

Wcrcefter, Evelham, and 

Droitwich. 
Monmouth and Chcpllow. 

Hereford and Lcmfler. 

Shrewfbury, Ludlow, Brldo-- 
north and Wenlock. 

Stafford, Litchfield, and 
^ Newcaflle under Line. 

"Warwick, Coventry, Bir- 
mingham, and Stratford 
upon Avon. 

Leicefter, Mclton-Mowbray, 
and Aftiby de la Zouch. ' 

Derby and Chellerfield, 



i^-^ Nottingham, Southwell, and 
Newark. 

Lincoln, Stamford, BoHon, 
and Grantham. 

Oakham and Uppingham. 

Northampton, Peterfborough, 
and Daventry. 



Circuits. 



ENGLAND. 



105 



Circuits. 



Counties. 
Hants — 



Wilu — 



Dorfct -~ 



r Weflern Circuit.^ 



Somerfet 



Devon 



Cornwall 



T York — 



I.Northcrn Circuit. 



Chief Towns. 
'Winchellcr, Southampton, 
Portfinouth, Andovcr, L»a- 
fingllolcc, Chrillchuich, 
and Newport in the Ille of 
Wight. 

Salifbury, Devizes, Marl- 
borough, Malnilbury, Wil- 
ton, and Chippenham. 



_ r 



Durham «— 
Northumberland 

Lanpafler — 

Wcftruorcland 
Cumberland 



Dorchefter, Lyme, Shcrbom, 
Shafibury, Pool, Bland- 
ford, and Bridport. 

Bath, Wells, Briftol in part, 
Taunton, Bridgwater, and 
Ilcheller. 

Exeter, Plymouth, Barnfta- 
ple, Biddeford, Tiverton, 
Dartmouth,Taviftock,Top- 
Iham, and Oakhampton. 

Launcefton, Falmouth, Truro, 
Saltafh, Bodmyn, St. Ives, 
^ Padftow, and Trcgony. 

f York, Leeds, Wakefield, Ha- 
lifax, Rippon, Pontefraft, 
Hull, Richmond, Scarbo- 
rough, Boroughbridge, 
Malton, Shefiield, Doncaf- 
ter, Whitby, Beverly, 
Northallerton, and Bur# 
lington or Bridlington. 

Durham, Stockton, Sunder- 
land, Stanhope, Barnard- 
Caftie, and Avvkland. 



>< 



Newcaftle, Berwick, Tin- 
mouth, Shields, and Hex- 
ham, 

Lancafter, Mancheftcr, Pref- 
ton, Liverpoolc, and Wig- 
gan. 

Appleby, Kendal, and Lonf- 
dale. 

Carlifle, Penrith, Cocker- 
mouth, and Whitehaven, 
Midcllc- 



f 






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ENGLAND. 



Middlcfex is not comprehended ; and Cheflure is left out of theff cir- 
cuits, becaufe, being a county palatine, it enjoys municipal laws and 
privilct^es. 7"lic fame may bu iaid of Wales, which is divided into four 



circuits. 



Counties. 
fMiddlcfcx — 



Counties cxclufvc 
of the Circu-ts. 



Chcfter — 



X 



Chief Towns. 

London, firrt meridian, 
N; L:it. ^51-30. Well- 
minfter, U.xbridge, Brent- 
ford, Barnet, HjahgateJ 
Hampfteud, KcnfuigtonJ 
Hackney, and Hamptor,, 
Court. 

Cheller, Nantwich, Mac. 
cIc^^ficKl, and Malpa.:. 



Circuits of WALES. 



rFlint — 



JIorth-Eafl Circuit.^ 



Denbigh 



1 



"Flint, St. Afaph, and Holy- 
well, 



]^^ Denbigh, Wrexham, and 
Ruthyn. 



Anglcfcy — 
North- WellGircuit.-^ Carnrrvon — 



^Montgomery J l^Monfgnmcry and Llanvylin. 

ricknicac!, 



South- Eaft C 



"i 



Merioneth — ^ 
f Radnor — 



IfBcaumari.s Lbsni 
J and He] y head. 

^-^ Banpor, Conway, and ['u!-. 
■ ■ lA'ly. 

Delgelhcu, Bala, and Htrlcy 
Radnor and Preftean. 



South- Weft Circuit. 



Brecon — 

Glamorgan 
Pembroke 




Brecknock. 

J (_LIandaff"and Cardiff. 

'St. David's, HaverfordwclfJ 
Pembroke, Denbigh, iiiil 
Milfordhaven. 



Cardigr-n 
Caermarthen 



>< 



Cardigan, and -Aberiftwith. 
^Caermarthen, and Kidwelly. 



In ENGL A N D. 

40 Counties, wluch fend up to parliament 80 knights. 
25 Cities (Ely ncnc, London four) — 50 Citizens. 
167 Boroughs, two each — — 354 Burgeffes. 

5 Boroughs, (Abingdon, Banbury, Bewd- 1 
^ ley, Highham Ferrars, and Monmouth) > 5 Burgeffes. 
one eiicTi — — — j 



3 Univei 



ENGLAND. 



107 



t Univerfities, — — — 4 rcprerentatives, 

8 Ci-ini.c ports (Ha(linp;s, Dover, San(Vvich»"| 

j^.omney, Hythe, and their three depen- I ^ . 

dents, Rye, Winchellba, and Seatbrd) t:yo f • < . 

each, T— — — J 

WALES. 

[1: Counties, — —r- — 12 knights. 

1: Boroui.';hs (Pembrnke two, Merioneth nons) 7 , „. 



one each 



m)l 



SCOTLAND. 

vShires -— — > — — - 10 kni'rlit*. 



Ijuiough 



lis 



1 ; biir^ciiei. 



Total 



55'^ 



Sou., AIR, SEASONS, 7 The foil of England and Walo'? difler in 

AND WATER. J cach coiinty, not Jo much from thf nature 

Itthc ground, though that mull be admitted to occafion a very coali- 

Ijrablc alteration, as from the progrefs whith the inh.ihitant • of each 

lnunty has made in the cultivation of laud and garden, the draining of 

Iiarflies, and many other local improvements, which are here carried to 

limiich greater degree of pcrfediou tJiau they are perhaps in any other 

Ijrt of the world, if we except China. To cuter upon particular fpeci- 

liens and proofs of thofe .mprovemcnts, would require a larj;c volume 

jutfelf". All that can be faid thcretbre is in general, that if 110 un- 

indly fcafons huppen, England produces corn not only fufficient to 

aintain her own inhabitants, but to bring immenfe fumsof ivaJy rao- 

(ey for her exports. The benefit, however, from thofc exports hare 

fcmetiraes tempted the inhabitants to carr)' out of the kingnlom m<ve 

train than could be conveniently fparcd, and have la»d tlie poor under 

lillrefs; for which reaibn »"xportations have been fometimcs checke-A by 

lovernment. No nation iu the world exceeds l'',no!and in the produc- 

tons of the garden, which have come to fuch perfcdron, that the rarcft 

)f foreign fruits have been cultivated there, and that with fuccefs. If 

By farther proof of this (hould be required, let it be rememl)cred, that 

ondon audits neighbomhood, though peopled by about 1,000,000 in- 

flbitants, is plentifully lUpplicd with all kinds of roots, fruitb, and 

[itchen-lluff from grounds within twelve miles dillance. 

The foil of England feems to be particularly adapted for rearing tim- 
Jcr, and the plantations of trees round the houfcs of uoblcmen andgcn- 
Icmen, and even of pcafants, are delightful and afto.iilhing at the fame 
ne. Some have obferved a decay of that oak timber which anciently 
Irmed the vatt fleets that England put to fea ; but as no public com- 
laints of that kind have been heard, it may he fuppofed that ji;reat fton s 
dill in refervQ ; uulefs it may be thought that our Ihip yards are 
irtly fupplied from America or the Baltic. 

I As to air, I can add but little to what 1 have already faid conccmino^ 

: climate. In many places it is certainly loaded with vapours wsiftm 

m the Atlantic Qcean by wefteily winds, but tl\ey are ventilated bv 

win<{s 



K)$ 



E N G L A N E>; 



M 



winds and ftorms, (n that in this rcfpcft England is tc foreigners, anc! 
people of delicate conlHtutions, more difagreeable than unfalubrious. (t 
cannot, however, be denied, that in England the weather is fo excefilvc- 
ly capricious, and unfavourable to certain conflitutions, that many of I 
the inJiubitants are obliged to fly to foreign countries, for a renovation] 
of their health. Many, efpccially foreigners, have attributed that re- 
markabic felf-diiratisfadion of the Englifh, which too often precedes toaftj j 
of fuicivle, to their air and climate ; but however thefe may operate, the! 
evil probably lies in the people's manner of living, which is more grofjj 
and Uixiirioi's, than tliat of any other nation. I 

After what we have obfervcd in the Englidi air, the reader may form 
fome idea of its feafons, which arc fo uncertain, that they admit of noj 
defcrlpaon. Spring, fammer, nutumn, and winter, fucceed each other, 
but in what mjiiia their diflercnt appearances take place, is very unde- 
termined, 'i'hc fpring begins fonietimes in February, and fomctimeil 
in April. In May the face of the country is as often covered with hoary 
froll as with blollbius. The beginning of June is often as cold as the 
middle of December, yet fometimes the thermometer rifes in that nontU 
as high as it docs in Italy. Even Aiigull has its vicilhtudes of heat and] 
cold, and upon an average September, and next to it Oclobcr, bid very 
fair to be the two niofl agreeable months in the year. The natives fome- 
times experience all the four feafons within the compafs of one day, cold J 
temperat", hot, and mild weather. After faying thus much, it wouldl 
be in vain to attempt any farther dcftription of the Engiilh feafons.l 
I'hcir inconllancy, however, are not attended with the effeds that mayj 
be naturally appreiiendcd, A fortnight, very feldom three weeks, gene-l 
rally make up the difference \\i:h regard lo the maturity of the fruits ofj 
the earth ; and it is generally obfervcd, ihat the inhabitants feldom fuf-J 
fcr Ly a JiOt fiimnier. Evcu t;,e greateil irregularity, and the moll unfa-j 
vour.'.blc appearances cf tlic feafon.^-, is not as in other countries, at- 
tended with famine, and very feldom w 1th fcarcity. Perhaps this, irtl 
a great mcaiure, may be owinp^ to the vail improvements of agricuitiireJ 
fcir when icarcitv iticlf has been co.i;plained of, it penerallv, if notal-l 
ways, proceeded from the exxcluve exportations of grain, on account ofj 
the drawback, and tlie pr('nt of the returns. 

in fpcaking of water, I do not intend to include rivers, brooks, or'j 
lakes, fori mean waters fcr the common convenlencics of life, and thofol 
that liave mineral qualities. The champain parts of England are generally 
fupplicd with excellent fprings and fountains, though a difccrning pa^* 
late in:iy perceive, that they commonly contain fome mineral iinprcgiu-' 
tion. In many high lying parts of the country, the inhabitants arflf 
d;f ivit fur water, and fupply thenifelves by trenches, or digJ 
p wi.dls. The conlHtutions of the Englifli, and the various dil- 
eafes to v/nicii they are liable, have rendered them extremely inquifitive' 
after fa.Iubrious waters, for the recovery and prefervation of their healthj 
fo that England tf ntains as many mineral wells, of known efficacy, a^ 
perhaps any coi'.ntiy in the v/orld. The moft celebrated are the hofl 
paths of lja;h and liriftol, in Sonterfetlhire, and of Buxton, in Derb)-J 
(liirc; the mineral w.iters of Tunbridge, Epfom, Dulwich, Afton, flar- 
rowgate, ami Sen borough. Sea water is iifed as commonly as any other 
for medicinal purpoles, and fo delicate are the tones of the Engiilh fibres, 
that the patients can perceive both in drinking and bathing, h difference 
I^tween tiic ki, water of one coall, and that of another. 



gr.^at!y 
ging deep w 



■Wl^ 



£ N G L A N m 



rot) 



JTace or THE couNTRT ? Thc Induftry of the EnHIlh is, and ha» 
AND MOUNTAINS. 5 bccn fuch as to fupply the abfence ct'thofe 
hvours which nature has folavilhly beilowed upon ibme foreign climates,and 
jiimany refpeds even to exceed them. No nation in the world can equal 
ht cultivated parts of England in beautiful fcenes. The variety of high- 
lands and low-lands, the former gently fwclli.ig, and both of them form- 
jff profpefts equal to the moll luxuriant imagination, the corn and mca- 
iw ground, the intermixtures of cnclofures and plantations, the noble 
■feats, comfortable houfes, chearful villages, and wcll-llocked farms, 
Ififten rifing in the neighbourhood of populous towns and cities, deco- 
Irated with the moft vivid colours of nature, are inexprelfible. The moll 
Ibarren fpots arc not without th ir verdure, but nothing can give us 
higher idea of the Englilh induftry, than by obferving that 
|S?me of the moft beautiful counties in the kingdom, are naturally the 
jofl barren, but rendered fruitful by labour. Upon the whole, it may 
le fafely aifirmed, that no country in Europe equals England in the 
itaaty of its profpcfts, or the opulence of its inhabitants. 
Though England is full of delightful rifing grouads, and the mott 
lochanting flopes, yet it contains few mountains. The moft noted are 
jiie Peak in Derbyfhire, the Endle in Lancaftiire, the Wolds in York- 
tire, the Cheviot-hills on the borders of Scotland, the Chiltem in 
hacks, Malvern in Worcefterlhire, Cotfwold in Glouccftcrlliire, the Wre- 
hn in Shropihire; with thofe of Plinlimmon and Snowden in Wales. la 
pieral, however, Wales, and the northern parts, may be termed moun- 
Icnous. 

Rivers and lakes.] The rivers in England add greatly to itsbeau- 
|i;, as well as its opulence; the Thames, the nobleft perhaps in the 
liorld, rifes on the confluence of Gloucefterfture, and after receiving the 
luny tributary ftreams of other rivers, it paffes to Oxibrd, then by Wal- 
lliigford, Reading, Marlow and Windfor. From thence to Kingfton, 
liherc formerly it met tiie tide, which, fmce the building of Weftminfter 
liridge, is faid to flow no higher tlian Richmond ; from whence it flows 
) London, and after dividing the counties of Kent and Eflcx, it widens 
lits progrefs, till it falls into the fua at the Nore, from whence it is na- 
[igable in large ftiips to London bridge ; but for a more particular dc- 
Icripdon the reader muft confult tlic map. It was formerly a matter of 
kpioach to I igland, among foreigners, that fo capital a river fliould 
ViC fo few bridges ; thofe of London and Kingfton (which is of v/ood) 
leing the only two it had from the Nore, to the laft mentioned place, for 
jiany .ap;es. This inconveniency was in fome me;'.fure owing to the deai- 
lels of materials for building ftone bridges; but perhaps more to the 
pndaefs which the Englifli, in flirmcr days, had for watt:r ca "iage, and 
encouragement Oi*^ navigation. TJie vaft increafe of riches, com- 
terce, and inland trade, ari^ now multiplying bridges, and fome think the 
rrld cannot -oarallel for commodioulheis, architefturc, and workman- 
lip, that lately ereded at Welf-ninfter, and, when finiflied, that of 
Jhck Friars, Putney, Kcvv, and Hainpton-cnurt, have mw bridges like- 
life over the I'aames, and others are projciLling by public fpiriced pror 
etcrs of" the grounds on both fides. 
iTh'j river Medway, wliich rifes near Tunbridge, falls into the mouth 
' the Thames, and is naviirable for the largcfi ihips as Cut as Chatham, 
here the nu-n of war are laid up. The Severn, reckoned the fecond 
p for importance in England, .ind the lirft for rapidity, nl'a at Plin- 

liuimon- 



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no 



ENGLAND; 



limmon-hni in Wales ; becomes nav!c;able a^ Welch-Pool ; runs eaft tol 
Shre\vfl>ury ; thmi turning louth, v\iits Bridgenorth, Worccllcr, anjl 
Tcwkcfbury, \vher:r it receives the Upper Avon; after having paflciil 
Glouceller, it takes a (ijuth-weft direiJlion ; is near its moijth incrcafed byl 
the Wye and Uilrc, and difcharges itfelf Into the Briftol-channel, ncarl 
King-road ; and there the great Ihips, wliich cannot get up to BriiloL 
lie. The Trent riles in the Moorlands of Staflbrdfliire, and riinnii% 
fouth-eaft by Nevvcaille-under-line, divides that countv in two parts^ 
then turning nortli-eaft on the confines of Derbyfhire, vifits NottinghamJ 
running the whole length of that county to Lincolnihire, and being jojnl 
ed by the Oufe, and feveral other rivers towards the mouth, obtains the; 
name of the Humber, falling into the fea fouth-cart of Hall. : 

The other principal rivers in England, are the Oufe (which is a G?eJ 
lie word fignifying water in general) which falls into the Humber, afterl 
receiving tKe v.ater vi' mnny other rivers. Another Oufe rifes in Bucks J 
an'i falls into the fea near i^ynn in Norfolk. The Tine runs from weft to 
call through Northumberland 4 and falls into the German fea at Tin- 
mouth below Nevvcaille. The Teci runs from weft to eail, dividing Dur- 
ham from Yorkfliirc, and falls into the German fea below Stockton. The 
Tweed runs from well to call on the borders of Scotland, and falls into 
the German fea at Berwick. The Eden runs from fouth to north throiigi 
Weftmoreland and Cumberland, and palling by Carlifle, falls into Sohva) 
Frith below that city. The Lower Avon runs well through Wiltdiire ta 
Bath, and then dividing Somerfetlhire from Gloucelterlhire, runs to 
Brillol, falling into the mouth of the Severn below that city. The Der^ 
went, which runs from call to well through Cumberland, and palling b« 
Cockermouth, falls into the Irifh fea a little belowv The Ribble, whici 
runs from eaft to well through Lancalhire, and paffing by Prcllon, dif 
charges itfelf into the Irilh fea. The Mcrfey, which runs from thefouthJ 
eail to the north-well through Chefliire, and then dividing Chefliire fron 
Lancaihire, pafies by Liverpool, and falls into the hiih lea a little btlo« 
that town ; and the Dee rifes in Wales, and divides Flintlhire fron 
Chefliire, falling into the Irifli channel below Chcftcr. 

The lakes of England are but few, though it is plain from hiftory an^ 
antiquity, and indeed, in fome places from the face of the country, thai 
meres and fens have been very frequent in England, till drained and coni 
verted into arable land by induftry. The chief lakes now remaining 
are Soham mere, Wittlefea mere, and Ramfey mere, in the ifle of Ely 
in Cambridgefliire. All thefe meres in a rainy feafon are overflowed, and 
form a lake of forty or fifty miles in circumference. Winander mere lie 
in Weftmoreland, and fome fmall lakes in Lancafliire, go by the name 1 
Derv^cnt waters. 

Forests.] The firft Norman kings of England, partly for politid 
purpofes, that they might the more effeftually enflave their new fubjeftJ 
and partly from the wantonnefs of power, converted immenfe trafts 

f round into forefts, for the benefit of hunting, and thefe were governe 
y laws peculiar to themfelves, fo that it was neceflary about the time « 
pafling the Magna Charta> to form them into a fort of a code, called th 
forcft-laws, and juftices in Eyre, fo ciUcd from their fitting in the op 
air, were appointed to fee them obferved. By degrees thofe vaft trafl 
were disforened, and the chief forefts, properly fo called, remaining oJ 
of no fewer tlum fixtv-nine, are thofe of Windfor, New Foreft, tH 
f orcft 9f Dean, ai^d Sherwood Foreit. 1'lioft; forefts produced former! 



£ N G I. A N D. 



IH 



«t 



qiinni'tios of excellent oak, e'ni, afh and beech, befules wnliuit- 
rifS poplar, m;ipl'', and other kin. Is of wood. In amient timvs liny- 
l;pj coiii.iincd lar<.;e wooJs, if ivn forefts, of chcfnut- trees, which e.\- 
teJcd all other k'nds of timber, for the piirpofe.s of buildinj';^ at ap- 
;jro from many great houfci iVill llanding, in which the chefnut beams 
roof^ remain flil' frelh, and undecayed, thougli fome of them 
Jbcvc fix hundred years old. 
Mftals and minerals.] ^imong the minerals, the tin mines of 
Cornwall defervedly take the lead. They were known to the Greeks .ind 
Iphcnicians, the latter efpecially, fome ages before that of the Chriftian 
lira, and fince the Englilh have found the method of manufiifturing 
Ithcir tin into plates, and white iron, they are of immenfe benefit to the 
Ijjtion. An ore called Mundic is found in the beds of tin, which was 
jterv little regarded, till about fixty years ago, Sir Gilbert Clark difco- 
|i;red the art of manufacturing it, and it is faid now to bring in 150,000!. 
Iivear, and to equal in goodnefs the bell Spanifli copper, yieldinr^ sb 
lioportionable quantity of lapis calaminaris for making brafs. Thofe 
I'la-woiks are under peculiar regulations, by what are called the ftannary 
liws, and the miners have parliaments and privileges of their own, which 
Ire in force at this time. The number of Cornifh miners alone are faid 
Ij amount to 100,000. Some gold hais likewife been difcovered in Corn- 
hll, and the Englilh lead is impregnated with filver. The Englifh coin- 
It filver is particularly known by rofes, and that of Wales by that prince's 
|[ip of feathers. Devonfhire, and other counties of England, produces 
Itirble, but the bell kind, which refembles Egyptian granite^ is excef- 
llrelv hard to work. Quarries of freeftone are found in many places^ 
ISarthumberland and Cheihire yields allum and fait pits. The Englifh 
lillers earth is of fuch infinite confequence to the cloathing trade, that 
\i exportation is prohibited under the feverell: penalties. Pit and fea- 
'jai 15 found in many counties of England, but the city of London, 
encourage the nurfery of feamcn, is fupplLcd only from the pits of 
[iwhumberland, Cumberland, Wellmorcland, and the bilhopric of Dur- 
m. The cargoes are (hipped at Newcaftle and Shields, and the expor- 
ttion of coals to other countries, is a valuable article. * 

Vegetable and animal pro- I This is fo copious an article, 
DUCTiONS BY s li A AND LAND. J and fuch improvements have been 
fide in gardening and agriculture, ever fince the bell printed accounts 
leliave had of both, that much mull be left to the reader's own obfervaticn 
liiJ experience. I have already touched in treating on the foil, upoa 
k corn trade of England, but nothing can be faid with any certainty 
CTCsrrning the quantities of wheat, barley, rye, peas, beans, vetches, 
n'^, und other horfo grain growing in the kingdcnn. Excellent inftitutions 
the improvement of agriculture, are now common in England, and 
iioir members are fo public fpirited as to print periodical accounts of 
Ihcir difcovcrics and experiments, which ferve to fhew that both agricultur* 
Ind gardening can admit to be carried to a much higher Hate of perfec- 
lon, tJian they are in at prcfcnt. Iloncy and fafirc re natives of Eng- 
pJ. It is almoit needlcfs to mention to the moll uninformed reader, in 
pat plenty the moll excellent fruits, apples, pears, plums, cherries, 
iclie% apricots, neftarincs, cunants, goofeberries, ralberries, and other 
brtulane produftions, grow here, and what vaft quantities of cy- 
pr, perry, metheglin, and the like liquors, are made in fome coun- 
ti, The cyder when kept, and made of proper apples, and in a par- 
ticular 



I-;:, 



9 i I 



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112 



E N G L A N D. 



ticular manner, is often preferred, by judicious palates, to Frenc!i wMU 
wine. It is not enouch to mention thofe improvements, did we not ohfenji 
that the natives of England have made the different fruits of all the 
world their own, fomctimes by fimple culture, but often by hot bed? 
and other means of forcing nature. The Englifh pine apples arc ddill 
cious, and now plentiful. The fame may be faid of other natives ofl 
the Eall and Welt Indies, Penla and Turkey. The Englifh grapes are! 
pleafing to the tafte, but their flavour is not exalte.l enough for mailing of 
wine, and indeed wet weather injures the flavour of all the other fine fruitil 
raifed here. Our kitchen gardens abound with Jill forts of grcpns, roots I 
and fallads, in perfeiflion, fuch as artichokes, afparagus, cauliflowcis I 
cabbage, coleworts, broccoli, peas, beans, kidney beans, fpinage, beets I 
lettuce, cellary, endive, turnips, carrots, potatoes, muflirooms, leaks,! 
onions and fhallots. I 

Woad for dying is cultivated in Bucks and Bedfordfhirc, as hemp and! 
flax is in other counties. In nothing, however, have the Englifh been] 
more fuccefsful, than in the cultivation of clover, cinquefoil, trefoil, 
faintfoin, lucern, and other meliorating grafles for the {oW. It belongij 
to a botanift to recount the various kinds of ufcful and falutary herbs, [ 
fluubs and roots, that grow in different parts of England. The foil ofl 
Kent, Efl'ex, Surry, and Hampfhire, is moil favourable to the difncuitf 
and tender culture of hops, which is now become a very cbhfiderabl«i 
article of trade. 

With regard to animal produftions, I Ihall begin with the quadrupeds.) 
The Engliih oxen are large and fat, but fome prefer for tlie table thel 
fmaller breed of the Scotch, and the Welch cattle, after grazing in I 
Englifh pailurcs. The Englifh horfes, upon the whole, are the bell] 
of any in the world, whether we regard their fpirit, ftrength, fwiftncfs, 
.or docility. Incredible have been the pains taken by all ranks, from tlvjl 
monarch down to the pcafant, for improving the breed of this favouritej 
and noble animal, and the fuccefshas been anfwerable, for they now unite! 
all the qualities, mvA beauties of Indian, Perfian, Arabian, Spanifh, and 
other foreign horfes. It is no uncommon thing for an Englifh horfe, marc, i 
or gilding, though not of the race kind, to run above twenty miles with- 
in the hour, and they have been known to do it in a carriage. The irrc- 
filliblc fpirit and weight of the Englifli cavalry, renders them the belt in 
the world in war: and an Englifli hunter will perform incredible thinjsj 
"in a fox or flag chace. Thofe v/hich draw equipages on the flreets of] 
London, are particularly beautiful, and a fet often cofls loool. a ftrongcr'r 
and a hea\ ier breed is employed for other draughts. I mufl not omit that] 
the exportation of horfes to France, and other countries, where they fell] 
for large prices, has of late become a conliderable article of commrrccj 
It is hard to fay how far tjiis traulc with our natural enemies is allowable,] 
but there is certainly Icfs danger attending it, as the animals are common-| 
ly gelded. The breed of afies and mules begin likewife to be improvedl 
and encouraged in England. 

The Englifh flicep are of two kinds, thofe that are valuable for their 
fleec'?, and thofe that are proper for tlie table The former are very 
large, and their f'.:'cccs conf'dtuto the original f.aj le commodity of En^-| 
Ir.nd. I have been creaildy informed, that in foi ie counties the inliabi- 
t.mts are as curious in tlicirlrccd of rams, as in ihufe of thjir horfes atid| 
dr>g5, and that in Linc'lmTire, par'acularly, it is no uncommon thin^ 
ter one of UiOlc aainiuli) to fell for ^ul. It jnull, however, be owned, th:it 



ENGLAND; 



. iia 



lioi'e I'lrgR fat flieep arc very rank eating. It is tiiought that in England 

lie millions of fleeces arc Ihorn annually, which, at a nicdium of 

a fleece, makes i,200,oool. It is fuppofed, however, that by the 

! of the value of the fleeces, a fourth part of thir. fum ought to be 

IcJurteil at prefent. The other kind of Ihecp, which are fed upon the 

httns, fuch as thofc of Banftcad, Bagfhot-licath, and Dcvonfhire, 

there they have, what the farmers call, a Ihort bite, is little, if at all, 

jifenor in flavour and fvveetnefs, to venifon. 

The Englirti mallifFs and bulldogs, are the ftrongcft and fierceft of the 
linine fpCcies in the world, but either from the change of foil, or feed- 
m, they degenerate in foreign climates. James L of England, by way of 
Ltperimcnt, turned out two Englilh bulldogs, upon one of his moll ter- 
Inble lions in the Tower, and they laid him on his back. The maftiff", 
Iloftwer, is the preferable creature, having all the courage of the bull- 
g, without its fcrocity> and he is particularly dillinguifllcd for his fide- 
|ljy and docility. All the different fpecies of dogs, which abound irt 
per countries (and arc necdlcfs to be enumerated here) for the field, as 
liell as domelUc ufcs, are to be found in England. 

What I have obferved of the degeneracy of the Englifh dogs in forcigii 

[ountries, is applicable to the Englilh game cocks, which afford much 

hirbarous diverfion ta our fportfmen. The courage arid ferocity of thofe 

li'ds, is ^onifhing, and one of the true breed never leaves the pit alive 

Bthout viftory. The proprietors and feeders of this generous animal, arc 

liiewife extrelnely curious as to his blood and pedigree. 

Tame fowls are pretty much the fame in England, as in other coun- 

Ibks; turkics, peacocks, common poultry, fuch as cocks, pullets, and 

(ipons, geefe, fwans, ducks, and tame pidgeons. The wild fort are 

UUrJs, wild geefe, wild ducks, teal, wigeon, plover, pheafants, par- 

tidges, woodcocks, in the feafon, growfe, quail, landrail, fnipe, wood- 

figeons, hawks of different kinds, kites, owls, herons, crows, rooks, 

Isvens, magpies, jackdaws and jays, blackbirds, thruflier, nightingales, 

jjold-finches, linnets, larks, and a great variety of fmall birds, particu- 

llirly canary-birds, which breed in England. The wheat-ear is by many 

]jireferred to the ortolan, for the delicacy of its flefh and flavour, and is 

leculiar to England. 

No country is better fupplied than England is with river and fea-fi(h; 

Jer rivers and ponds contain plenty of faimon, trout, eels, pike, perch, 

nelts, carp, tench, barbie, gudgeons, roach, dace, mullet, bream, 

lUice, flounders, and craw-flfli, befides a delicate lake fifli, called char« 

jfhich is found in fome freih water lakes o*" Wales and Cumberland, and 

fome fay no where elfe. The fea-flfli are cod, mackarel, haddock^ 

[hiting, herrings, pilchards, fltaitc, foles. The John Dory, found to- 

rards the weftern coall, is reckoned a great delicacy^ as is the red mul- 

Kt. Several other fi(h are found on tlie fame coafls. As to flic-fifli, 

pev are chiefly oyfters, the propagation of which, upon their proper 

anks, requires a peculiar culture. Lobllers, crabs, and fhrimps, and 

Ifcallops, one of the moll delicious of fliell fiflies, cockles, wilks, or 

piwinkles, and mufcles, with many other fmall {hell-fifli, abound iil 

[e Englilh feas. The whales chiefly vifit the corthern coaft; but great 

umbers of porpuflTes artd leals appear in the channel. After all, the 

nglilh have been, perhaps, with great juftice, accufed of not paying 

oper attention to their flflieries, which are cohfined to a few inconfi- 

Irable towns in the weA of England. The beil fifli that comes to the 

I tablfs 




III 






U4- 



ENGLAND. 



tables of the great in Lomlon, arc fold by the Dutch to Englifli ho.its, anil 
that iiidulhious people even take them upon the Englidi coalh Great at-l 
tenlion, it is true, has Ijeen paid within thefe thirty years paft, by the Knn-I 
lilh, to this importantconccrn. Many public fpirited noblemen, a; d tjontlt- 
inen, formed thcmfelves into a company for currying on a liritilh nfliiry.! 
Large fums were fubfcribed, and paid with unbounded generofity, Uufl^ jl 
and other veflels were built, and the motl pleafing profpedls of fucccfjl 
prefented themfelves to the public. They were, however, unaccounta 
bly difappointed, though it is hard to fay from what caufe, unlcfs ii w-^^ I 
that the price of Enghlh labour was too dear for bringing the commodiJ 
ty to the market, upon the fame terms as the Dutch, whole herrinfrrf 
were aftually furpaffed in the curing by the Britifh. 

With regard to reptiles, fuch as aciders, vipers, fnakes, and wormsJ 
and infctts, fuch as ants, gnats, wafps, ami flics, England is prcttyj 
much upon a par with the reft of Europe, and the diftercnce, if anvj 
becomes more proper for natural hillory, than geography. ' P 

Population, inhabitants, man-} The exemption of the EngJ 
NERS, customs, AND Di VERSIONS. } lilh cottftitution, from the 
defpotic powers e;/crcifed in foreign nations, not excepting republicsJ 
is one great rcafoa why it is very difficult to afcertain the number of in, 
habitants in England, and yet it is certain that this might occaficnallj 
be done, by parliamer»t, without any violation of public liberty. With 
regard to political calculations, they mull: be very fallible, when, applicj 
to England. The prodigious influx of foreigners, who fettle in the nal 
tion, the evacuations of inhabitants to America, their return from thcnceJ 
thr vaft numbers of hands employed in (hipping, and the late dernanj 
fif men for the Eaft Indies, and for fettling our new conquefts, are 
of them matters that render any calculation extremely precarious. UpJ 
fin the whole, I am apt to think that England is more populous, than 
the eflimators of her inhabitants are willing to atlow.^ The late warJ 
which broke out with France and Spain, annually employed abovj 
200,000 Englilhmen, exclufive of Scotch and Irilh, by fea and hndJ 
and in its progrefs carried off, by various means, very near that num^ 
ber. The decay of population was indeed fenfibly felt, but not in conii 
parifon to what it was during the wars in queen Anne's nigH, iiwuoi 
not half of the numbers were then employed in the fea and land fervicq 
Great-Britain indeed was obliged to furnilh large contingents of mei 
to the confederate army, yet not above half of them were her own llih 
jcfts. I mention thole conjedlurcs, partly on the ftrength of the publS 
accounts, and partly from undifputed fadls, which fome now alive ir.aj 
remember, as the nobility, and even minillers of ftate oftv-n had tliej 
fervantp prcft from behind their coaches, to fupply the fea and laiid 
fervice, an expedient to which we were not reduced in the late war. 

At the fame time I am not of opinion, that England is at prefentna 
turally more populous, than it was in the reign of Charks I. though :1i 
is accidentally lo. The Englifli, of former ages, were ftrangers to tJi 
fcxceiTive ufc of fpirituous liquors, and other modes of living, tha: 
dclhudlive of propagation. On the other hand, the vaft quantities 
cultivated l.inds in England, fince thofe times, undoubtedly 'null ha 
been favourable to mankind, though upon an average, perhaps, a luaii 
fied couple has not fuch a numerous progeny now, as formerly. I vvi| 
lake the liberty to make another obf^;rvation, which (.ills within the coj 
Ai'Mnce of aimoll every aun, and that is the incredible cucreafe 

Ibreio 



ENGLAND. 



115 



b.Tigi names upon our parilh books, and public lifts, compared to what 
LfvVerc even in the reign of George I. 

After what has been premifed, it would be prcfumptuous to pretend 
Ijafceiwin the number of inhabitants in England and Wales, but in wy 
Ln private opinion, there cannot be fewer than feven millions, and 
Ijiat tliey are daily encreafing. The fallibility of political calculations, 
Ippears in a very ftriking light in thofe of the population of London, 
L-aufc it is impofTible to fix it upon any of the known rules or propor- 
Lis of births and burials. Calculators have been not only miftaken 
[r, Applying thofe rules to London, and, as they are called, the bills of 
ifflortality, but even in topical matters, becaufe about 100,000 inhabi- 
Lnts, at the very gates of London, do not lie within the bills of mor- 

|olity. 

Kngliflimen, in their perfons, are generally well-fized, regularly fea- 

lijcd, commonly fair, rather than otherwife, and florid in their complec- 

\mi- l'i*» however, to be prefumed, that the vaft numbers of foreign- 

£5 that arc intermingled and intermarried with the natives, have civea 

jcaft to tlieir perfons and completions, different from thofe of their an- 

hrtors, a hundred and fifty years ago. The women of England are faid 

cbethe moA beautiful of any in Europe. In the drefs of both fexes, . 

liforc the prefent reign of George IIL they followed the French ; but 

I Bit of the military officers, partook of the German, in compliment ta> 

t late majclly. The Englilh, at prefent, bid fair, to be the dictators 

1 0! drefs to the French therafelves, at leaft with regard to elegance, neat- 

and richncfs of attire. People of quality and fortune, of both 

I to, appear on high occafions, in cloth of gold and filver, the richeft 

Itodes, fattins, filks and velvets^ both flowered and plain, and it is 

[the honour of the court, that thr foreign manufaftures of all thofe 

Irdifcouraged. Some of thofe rich llufi^s are faid to be brought to as 

jpat pcrfet^ion in England, as they are in France, or any other nation. 

Irfic full drefs of a clergyman confifts of his gown, caflbck, fcarf, bea- 

Itr-hat and rofe, all of black ; his undrefs is a dark grey frock, and 

Isain linen. The phyficians, the formality of whofe drefs, in large tie 

irukei and fwords, was formerly remarkable, if not ridiculous, begin 

Jo,v to drefs like other gentlemen, and men of bufinefs, that is, to wear 

jplain fuit of fuperfine cloth, excellent linen and wigs, thatfuit their 

Implections, and the form of their faces. Few Englimmen, tradefmen^ 

lerciiants and lawyers, as well as men of landed property, are without 

p« paffion for the fports of the field, on which occafions they drefk 

luh remarkable propriety, in a light frock, narrow brimmed hat, x 

lort bob wig, jockey boots, and buckflcin, or ihag breeches. The peo^ 

le of England love rather to be neat tlian fine in their apparel : but; 

Jce the acceliion of his prefent majelly, the dreflts at court, on folemn 

Icafions, are fuperb beyond defcription. Few even of the lowell tradef- 

l:n, on Sundays, carry about them Itfs than lol. in cloathing, com- 

jciiending hat, wig, ftockings, flioes and linen, and even many beg- 

p in the llrcet, appear decent in their drefs. In fhort, nonr but the 

pll abandoned of both fexcs arc otherwife ; and the appearance of a 

li) in holiday times, is commonly an indication of his indullry and 

Jorals. Of all people in the world the Englifli keep themfelves the mott 

lanly. Their nerves are fo delicate, that people of both fexes are fome- 

l«t'5 forcibly, nay mortally affected by imagination, infomuch, that be- 

h Che pracUee of isocuiation for the ^all-pox took place, it was 

I z thought 










ii6 



K N G L A N D. 



U 



r,u 



It 'K 



I. 



\!^'\ 



I'll 



thouj;ht impropf r to mention th.Ji loathfomc difenfc, by iti true name, '^ 
any polite a>nij5.<riy. 

Tnii over knlibilily is one of the fourccs of thofu oiKHtjco, ^^i,;, , 
fo rtronjijlv charnftirizc the I'nglilh nation. An apprehcnfion of d^ji,,, 
beggar, often kills them in thtr midll of plenty and profpcrity. '[jL 
magnify the ilighlcll appcaranc;.'s into rcaluies, and britg ihc moil dif 
tant dangers immediately home to thcmfelvcs ; and yet when it.iI dnnieg 
•pproathcs, no people face it with gitratcr refohition, or contlniu) 
mind. A grnumilcfs paragraph, in a news-paper, has been known 
afftft the lUek;;, and confequently public credit, to a confidcnibjc dej 
grec, and their credulity goes ii) far, that Rnglantl may be termed t/i 
paradifc of quacks and empirics, in all arts and profeflions. In flionj 
the Englifh feel, as if it really exirted, every evil in mind, h\\y, an 
cdate, which they form in their iir.agination. At particular inuiva! 
they are fenfible of this abfurdity, and run into a contrary cxticmitiJ 
driving to banifh it by diflipation, riot, intemperance, ard divcrf.ons] 
They are fond, for the lame reafon, of clubs, and convivial aflocia-l 
tions, and when thefe are kept within the bounds of lempenince arj 
moderation, they prove the bell cures for thofe mental evils, which ;i: 
fo peculiar to the EngliJh, that foreigners hav- pronounced them to 
national. 

The fame obfcrvations hold with regard to the higher orders of Hff J 
which mull be acknowledged to have undergone a rcm;u-kable change fmce 
the acceffion of the houfe of Hanover, cfpecially of late years, 'fh 
Englilh nobility and gentry, of gr:iat fortunes, now afllmilale their man^ 
tiers to thofe of foreigners, with whom they cultivate a more frcquentl 
intercourfe than their forefathers did. They do not now travel only aJ 
pupils, to bring home the vices of the countries thev vifit, under the! 
tuition, perhaps, of a defpicablc pedant, or family dependant. The 
travel for the purpofes of fociety, and at the more advanced ages c 
life, while their judgments are mature, and their pafllons regulated.! 
This has enlarged fociety in England, which foreigners now vifit as com-l 
monly as Englilhmen vifited them, and the efFeAs of the intercourfcl 
become daily more viiible, efpecially as it is not now, as formerly, con- 
fined to one fex. 

Such of the Englilh noblemen and gentlemen, as do not (Irike inta| 
thofe high walks oflife, affeft rather what we call a fnug, than a fplen- 
did, way of living. 'I'hey (ludy and underfland better than any peopiie| 
in the world, conveniency in their houfes, gardens, equipages andcftates,! 
and they fpare no coH to purchafe it. It has, however, been obferved,! 
that this turn renders them lefs communicative than they ought to be,! 
but, on the other hand, the few connections they form, are fincere, chear- 
ful, and indiflbluble. The like habits defcend pretty far into the lowerj 
ranks, and are often difcernible among tradcfmen. This love of fnug- 
nefs and conveniency, may be called the ruling pafGon of the Englilh | 
people, and is tlie ultimate end of all their application, labours andfa- 
tigues, which are incredible. A good oeconomifl, with a brilk run of 
trade, is generally, when turned of fifty, in a condition to retire froml 
bufinefs, that is, either to purchafe an ellate, or to fettle his money iai 
the funds. He then commonly refides in a comfortable houfe in thcl 
country, often his native county, buys a good gelding, wears a laced har,| 
and expeds to be treated on the footing of a eentleman ; his ftile of liv< 
ingt however, bcii)£al>v»ys judiciouUy fuiteato his circumilanccs. 



E N G L A N D. 



M7 



ulrt people in the wnrM know l)«*t(cr than tr.Klcfnien, nnJ men of bu- 
Lffls in Kngland, hnw to pa/ their court to their curtotncr., and ctn- 
Lrvers, n-iy even bv fawning ii|K>n, ;nm (onictinK'^ biibinj',, thrtr fcr- 
Lnti. 'I hofe arts tney confiOcr only as the means nf acquiring that in- 
Lpendcnce, the pride of wliiih too comrnotily ir.Tds them into a con- 
J jir/ extreme, even that of th-i^kini^ thcnif^rlvcs under no obi ieation firm 
Ije rules of decency, duty and ful>ordin uion. This carric. them to that 
Ltulancc, which is fo ofFenfive to ftranpcr.';, and though encouraged 
lihrough the want of education, ha; iis root in the nobleft of principles, 
lyiy underllood, I mean that ri^ht which the law., of England give to 
Lver/ man over his own proncrt) . 'I'lic fame laws, at the fame time, 
Itike no cognizance of the abnfe of libcry, if not carried into an ac- 
lual breach of the peace, fo that cxcry I'jv^lifhman has a copious range 
Ifr unpunilhed ill-manners, and unprov.-iked infolenci?. This liccn- 
wufnefs or abufe of freedom, is carrird in Knghmd to an aftonifhing 
Viglu, and fcems to be epidemical. It is the only public evil, that in- 
I (ifld "f lofmg, gathers (Irength, and what is to be lamented, its violence 
iialways in proportion to the niildncf. of the govcrnmenf, a\id its cau- 
oous execution of the laws, fo that it may be properly coiifidercd as a 
uode of that riotous dilTtpation I have already mentioned. 
The over fenfihility of the Knglilh, is difcdvered in nothing more than 
ijthc vail fubfcriptions for public charities, raifed by all degret-i of both 
fcKS. An Englilhman feels lU the pains which a fellow axrature fuf- 
|er«, and jwor and mifcrabU ' b.etfvs are relieved in England with a lib-- 
nlity that fome time or other may prove injurious to indullry, becaufe it 
tikes from the lev .^r ranks the ufual motives of labour, that tliey 
inv fave fomewhat for themfelves and families, againft the days of paia 
cfiickncfs. The very people who contribute to thofe coUeftions, are af- 
ftlTcd in proportion to their property for their parochial poor, who have 
jli;|);al demand for a maintenance, infomuch that there can be no beggar 
H Kngland but through choice or indolence ; and upwards of three m'.l- 
lons llerling is faid to be collertcd yearly in this country for charitable 
Ipurpofes. The inilitutions however of ext»-aparochiaI infirmaries, hofpitals, 
lind the like, arc in fome cafes reprehenfible. The vaft fums bellowed in 
liuiidingthem, the contratls made by their g"vernors, and even theelec- 
iMn of phyficians, who thereby acquire credit, which is the fame as pro- 
lit, very often beget heats and cabals, which are ver)' different from the 
Ifurpofes of difmterefled charity, owing to the violent attachments and 
Iprepoireffions of friends, and too often even to party confiderations. 
I Notwithllanding thofe noble provifions which would banilh poverty 
jHom any other country, the ftrcets of London, and the highways of 
lEngland, abound with objcdls of dillrefs, who beg in defiance of the 
hwb which render the pradicc feverely punifluiblc. This is owing to 
Ik manner in which the common people live, who confider the food to 
lie uneatable which in other countries would be thought luxurious. 
I The Enelifh, though irafcible, are the moft placable people in the 
Itorld, and will often facrifioe part of their intereft rather than proceed 
h extremity. They are eafily pi-evailed upon to forgive by fubmilTion, 
ad diey carry this lenity too far, by accepting of profeflions of forrow 
pbliihed in advertifements by thofe who offend them, and who feldoiii 
liefmcere; nay, often laugh at the eafinefs of their profecutors, for 
ifmiflir.g them fo gently. The unfufpeding nature of the Englifh, and 
I kir honelt open manners, efpecially of tliofe in the mercantile way, 

I 3 rcndej: 



iT 



ti8 



E N G L A N D. 



yender them dupes in fcvcral refpefts. They attend to projeftors, and na 
fcheme is fo ridiculous that will not find abettors in England. They 
liften to the voice of misfortunes in trade, whether real or pretended 
deferved or accidep?:al, and generoufly contribute to the relief of the par- 
ties even by replacing them, often in a more creditable condition thaa 
ever. The loweft bred of the Englifli, are capable of thole and the like 
generous adlions, but they often make an oftentatious difplay of their 
own merits, which diminiflies their value. There is among the Englifl) 
of all ranks, a moll unpardonable preference given to wealth, over all 
other confiderations. Riches, both in public and private, compenfate for 
the abfence of every good quality. This offenfive failing arifes partly 
from the democratical part of their conftitution, which makes the pofil-f. 
fion of property a qualification for the Icj^iflature, and almoft every other 
fpecies of magiftracy, government, honours, and diftinftions. 

The fame attention to property operates in many other ihapes among the 
lower dalles, who think it gives them a right to be rude and difrcgardful 
of all about them, nor are the higher orders exempt from the fame fail- 
ina. The fame principle often influences their exterior appearances. 
Koblemen of the iirll rank have been often feen laying bets with butchers 
and coblers at horfc-races, and boxing-matches. Gentlemen and mer- 
chants of vaft property are not to be diftinguiflied either by their drefsor 
converfation from the meancil of their fervants, and a wager offered to 
te ftaked ip ready money againft a pennylefs antagonilt, is generally a 
decifive argument in public company. 

An Englifnman of thorough education and reading, is the mcfl .iccom- 
plilhed gentleman in the world, and underftands arts and fciences the 
beft. He is however fhy and retentive in his communications even ta 
difguft, and a man may be in company with him for months without dif- 
covcring that he knows any thing beyond the verge of a farm yard, or 
above the capacity of a horfc jockey. This unamiable coldnefs is fo far 
from being affeded, that it is a part of their natural conftitution. Liv- 
ing learning and genius meets with very little regard, even from thelirll 
rate of Enghihmeu -. and it is not unufual for them to throw afide the beil 
produdlionsof literature, if they are not acquainted with the author. While 
the ftate diiUndion of Whig and Tory fubfitted, the heads of each party 
affedled to patronize men of literary abilities, but tlic pecuniary encoii- 
Tagements given them were but verj' moderate, apd the very fe-.v who 
met with preferment in the Hate, might have earned them by a con^petent 
kn(nvledge of bufinefs, and that pliability which the dependents in office 
generally polTefs. We fcarce have an inftance even in the munificent 
xeign of queen Anne, or of her predeceflbrs, who owed fo much to the 
preis, of a man of genius, being, as fuch, made eafy iu his circumftances. 
Mr. Addifon had about 300 1. a year of the public money to afiiil him in 
his travels, and Mr. Pope though a Roman catholic was offered, but did 
not accept of, the like penfion from Mr. Craggs, the whig fccretary of 
flate, when it was remarlced that his tory friend and companion the carl 
of Oxford, when fole minifter, did nothing for him, but bewail his 
misfortune in being a papift. This reproach upon governmental munifi- 
cence is now wearing oft' under the patronage of his njajefty and his 
minillers. 

The unevennefs of the Englifh in their converfation is very remarkable: 
fometimes it is delicate, fprightiy, and replete with true wit ; fometimes it 
lifolid, ingenious and argumentative ; fometimes it is cold and phlegmatic, 
" ■ - " " - .-.-■, ^ ^^^ 



ENGLAND. 



119 



d. They 
pretended, 



■ri borders upon difguft, and all in the fame pt 
I ji meetings they are renerally ncify, and their 
jhilc the loudeft arc the mod applauded. 



erfon. In thcli convivi- 
r wit is often ofl'enfive, ' 
Courag? is a quality that 
(ijns to be cogcnial to the Englidi nature. Boys, before they can ipeak, 
■ilcover that they know the proper guards in boxing with their fills, a 
iiiality that perhaps is pecuHar to the En^liih, and is feconded by a 
jrengthof arm that ft-w odicr people cim exert. This gives tlie Englilh 
iblJiers an infinite fnpciioiity in all battles that are to be decided by the 
bnyonet fere wed upon the mull]U'?t. Tlie Englifh courage has likewifc 
tjie property, under able commanders, of being equally paffive as aftivc. 
Their foldiers will keep up their fij-e in the mouth of danger, but when 
(hi-y deliver it, it has a moiMreadful effedl upon their enemies ; and in na- 
v;il engagements tlioy aie unequalled. The Englifh are not remarkable for 
invention, though they are for their improvements upon the inventions of 
ctlitTs, and in the mechanical arts, they excell all nations in the world. The 
iiunfe application wliich an Engliihman gives to a favourite ftudy is incre* 
cbk, and, as it were, abforbs all his other ideas. This creates the nume- 
fjui inllances of mcntivl abrcnces that arc to be found in the nation. 
Alll have faid concerning tlie Englifli, is to be underftood of them in 
feneral as they are at prefcnt, for it is not to bedifiembled that every day 
jroJuces ilrong indications of great alterations in their manners. The 
i;iU'ortunes made during the late and the proceeding wars, the immenfc 
::;jiiifitions of territory by peace, and above all the amazing encreafe of 
critorird as well as commercial "loperty in the Eaft Indies, have intro- 
CuCcd a ipccies of people among the Englifh, who have become rich 
«::hout inJuilrv, and by diminilhing the value of gold and filver have 
ccatcd a new iyllcm of finances in the nation. Time alone can (hew the 
cent : Hitherto the confequcnces feem to have been unfavourable, as it 
ki introduced among the commercial ranks a fpirit of luxury and ga- 
ning that is attended with the moll fatal efFefts, and an emulatioa 
mong merchants and traders of all kinds, to equal, or furpafs the no- 
bility and the courtiers. The plain frugal manners of men of buiincfs 
which prevailed fo lately as the acceffion of the prefent family to the 
[crown, are now difregarded for tallelefs extravagance in drefs and equi- 
page, and the mollexpenfive amufements and diveriions, not only in the 
capital but all over the trading towns of the kingdom. 

Even the cultoms of the Englirti have, fince the beginning of this cen- 
jturv, undergone an almoft total alteration. Their antient hofpitality 
Ifubfiils but in few places in the country, or is revived only upon ele"" n- 
eering occafions. Many of their favourite diverfions are now diiufed. 
JThofe remaining are operas, dramatic exhibitions, ridottos, and fome- 
himesmafquerades in or near London, but concerts of mufic, and card and 
[dancing afiemblies are commor all over the kingdom. I have already men- 
tioned ftagand fox hunting and horfe races, of which the Englilh of all deno- 
|minations;ire fond, even to infatuation. Somewhat however may be offered 
Ibywayof apology for thofe diverfions : The intenfe application which 
Itlie Englijli give to bufuiefs, tlicir fei'cntary lives, and luxurious diet re- 
quire exercile, and fome think that their excellent breed of horfes is en- 
creafed and improved by thofe amufements. The Englifh are remark- 
ably cool, both in lofmg and winning at play, but the former is often 
a tended with afts of fuicide. An Englilhman will rather murder him- 
lelf than bring a (harper, who he knows has fleeced him, to condign 
bunilhmcnt, even though warranted by law. Next to horfc-racing, and 
jjujiting, cock-fighting, to the reproach of the nation, is a favourite di- 

1 4. verlion, 



': 






I 



V'i 



: f 
1 



1 20 



ENGLAND. 



verfion, r.inrng; the great, as well as the vulgar. Multitudes of both aftl 
fcmhie roi^nd tlic pit, at one cf thofe matches and enjoy the psnps aniM 
oeath of the gcncroir- aniiral, every fpcftator being concerned in a herl 
fonietimes of high funs. The athletic diverilon of cricket is flill ktpil 
up in the fouthern and weflcrn parts of England, and is fometimes prac-l 
tifcd by people of t^ic highelt rank. It is performed by a perfon whtfl 
with a clumfy wooden bat, defends a wicket raifcd of two flcnder flicks f 
with one acrofs, which is attacked by another perfon, who endeavour* 
to beat it down, with a hard leather ball, from a certain ftand. The 
farther the diftance is to which the ball is driven, the oftcner the de- 
fender is able to run between the wicket and the ftand. This is call.! 
ed gaining fo many notches, and he who gets the moft is the viftor. MaJ 
ny other paflimcs are common in England, feme of them of a very ro- 
buft nature, fuch as cudgelling, v.reltling, bowls, Ikittles, quoits, and 
prifon-bars ; not to mention duck-hunting, foot, and afs-races, dancinp 
puppet-ftiews. May garlands, and above all, ringing of bells, a Ipt'cics 
of mufic, which the Englifh boaft they have brought into an art. The 
barbarous diverfions of boxing and prize-fighting, which were as fre- 
quent in England, and equally inhuman, as the fliews of gladiators in 
Rome, are now prohibited, and all places of public diverfions, except- 
ing the royal theatres, are under regulations by aft of parliament. Other 
diverfions, Which arc common to other countries, fuch as tennis, fives 
billiards, cards, fwimming, angling, fowling, couifing, and the like, 
are familiar to the Englilh. Two kinds, and thofe highly laudable 
are perhaps peculiar to them, and thefe are rowing and failing. The 
latter, if not introduced, was patronized and encouraged, by his prefent 
majelly's father, the late prince of Wales, and may be confidered as a 
national improvement. The Englifh are exceflively fond of fltaiting, 
5n which, however, they are not very expert, but they are adventurous 
in it often to the danger and lofs of their lives. The game afts have taken 
from the common eoplc a great fund of diverfion, though without an- 
ivvering the purpofes of the rich, for the farmers, and the country peo- 
ple deiiroy the game in their nets, which they dare not kill with the gun. 
This monopoly of game, among fo free a people as the Engliflij has been 
confidered in various lights. 

Religion.] The eitablifhed religion in England, is reformed from 
the errors of popery, and approaches nearer to the primitive chrilliani- 
ty, being equally removed from fuperftition, and indelicacy in its wor- 
Jliip, and as void of bigotry, as of licentioufnefs, in its praftice. The 
conftitution of the church is epifcopal, and its government by bifhops, 
whofe benefices were converted, by ihe Norman conqueror, into temporal 
baronies, in right of which, every bifhop has a feat, and vote in the 
houfe of peers. The benefices of the inferior clergy, are now freehold, 
but in many places, their tithes are impropriated in favour of the laity. 
The oeconomy of the church of Englantl, has been accufed for the ine- 
quality of its livings; fome of them, efpecially in Wales, being too 
fmall to maintain a clergyman, efpecially if he has a family, with any 
tolerable decency ; but this, perhaps, is unavoidable, and very probably 
never can be entirely remedied, though the crown, as well as private 
perfons, has done great things towards the augmentation of poor livings. 
The dignitaries of the church of England, fuch as deans, prebends, 
and the like, have generally large incomes ; fome of them exceeding in 
raluc thofe of biftiopric, for which rtafon the revenues of a rich deancr}-, 

■ or 



ENGLAND. 



121 



lif other IK'ing, is often annexed to a poor biftiopric. At prefcnt, the 
Ijtry of the church of England, as to temporal matters, are in a mof^ 
Ijouiilhing fuiiation, hecaufe the value of their tithes encreafes, with the 
Ijiprovements of lands, which of late has been amazing in England. The 
|jvtreigns of England, ever fince the reign of Henry VIII. have been 
lalled m public writs, the fupreme heads of ihe church ; buttliis title con- 
leys no fpiritii.il mcaningi as it only denotes the regal power, to prevent 
Wecclefiallical difrerences, or in other words, to fubllitute the king in 
place of tlie pope, before the reformation, with regard to temporalities, 
Ld the internal a-conomy of the church. The kings of England never 
lintcrmcddle in ecclefiallical difputes, and are contented to give a fanftion 
Ito the legal rights of the clergy. 

The church cf England, under this defcriptlon, of the monarchical 

I power over it, is governed by two arriibifliops, and twenty-four biihops, 

Uefides the bifhop of Sodor and Man, who not being poflefled of an 

{ngliJh barony, dt)es not fit in the houfc of peers. The two archbi- 

ms, are thofe of Canterbury and York, who are both dignified with 

L,e addrefs of * your grace.' The former is the firft peer of the realm, 

V well as metropolitan of the Englilh church. He takes precedence next 

3 the royal family, of all dukes and officers of ftatg. He is enabled to 

itld ecclefiallical courts upon all affairs that were formerly cognizable 

the court of Rome, when not repugnant to the law of God, or the 

I ling's prerogative. He has the privilege confequently of granting, in 

I ttrtain cafes, licenfes and difpenfaticns, toge*,her with the probate of 

I sills, when the party dying is worth upwards of five pounds. Befides 

j lis own diocefe, he has under him the biftiops of London, Wincheller, 

hj, Lincoln, Rochefter, Litchfield and Coventry, Hereford, Worcef- 

»r, Bath and Wells, Salilbury, Exeter, Chichefter, Norwich, Gloucef- 

(r, Oxford, Peterborough, Briftol j and, in Wales, St, David's, Lan-* 

I jiff, St. Afaph and Bangor. 

The archbilhop of Canterbury has, by the conftitution and laws of 
I England, fuch extenfive powers, that ever fince the death of archbilhop 
liaud (whofe charafter will be hereafter given) the government of Eng- 
jland has thought proper to raife to that dignity, none but men of very 
Imcderate principles, and of very inoffenfive abilities. This practice 
las been attended with excellent effefts, with regard to the public tran- 
louillity of the church, and conlequcntly of the ilate. 

The archbilhop of York takes place of all dukes, not of the blood 
loyal, and cf all officers of ftate, the lord chancellor excepted. He has 
In hii province, befides his own diocefe, the bifhoprics of Durham, Car- 
pile, Cheiler, and Sodor and Man. In Northumberland, he has the 
over of a palatine, and jurifdiftion in all criminal proceedings. 
The biffiops are addrelTed Your lordlhips, ftiled Right reverend fathers 
|n God, and precede as barons on all public occafions. They have all 
jic privileges Of peers, and the bifhoprics of London, Wincheller, Dur- 
lam, Salilbury, Ely and Lincoln, require no additional revenues to 
jjpport their prelates in the rank of noblemen. Englilh bifliops arc tc), 
jsamine and ordain priells and deacons, to confecrate churches and bu- 
Iving-placcs, and to adminifter the rite of confccration. Their jurif- 
ladion relates to the probation of wills ; to grant adminillration o^- 
Loods, to fuch as die intefiate ; to take care of perilhablc goods, wheti 
\D one will adminiAer, to collate to benefices ; to grant iniUtutions t(^ 



i, W 






*r;i 






'm0 



;»■: 



,ll'J 






o 






I- 

j.i) 



fi 



S-? 



:; • 






II?' 






;^f 



12"2 



ENGLAND. 



livings ; to defend the liberties of the church ; and to viiit their own i 
dioceies once in three years. 

Deans and prebends of cathedrals, have been already mentioned, but 1 
it would pi'rhaps be diiiicult to aflign their utility in the church, fartliLT 
than to add to the pomp of worfnip, and to make provifion for cler'/y- 
men of eminence and merit. England contains about fixty archdeacon.^, 
whofe office is to vifu the churches twice or thrice every year, but their 
offices are lefs lucrative than they arc honourable. Subordinate to them 
are the rural deans, formerly lliled arch prclbyters, who fignify the hi- 
Ihop's pleafure to bis clergy, the lower clafs of which conlilvs uf priclb 
:uicl deacons. 

The ccclefiaflical government of England is, properly fpeaking, lodg- 1 
fd in the convocation, which is a national reprefeutative or fynod, and 
anfwers pretty near tO tlie ideas we have of a parliament. They are 
convoked at the fame time with every parliament, and their bufinefs is 
to confidcr of the Hate of the church, and to call thofe to an account 
who have .'idvanced new opinions, inconfiftent with the dodrines of the 
church of England. Seme high flying clergymen, during the reign of 
queen Anne, and in tlie beginning of that of George I. raifed tlie pow- 
ers of the convocation to a height that was inconfiftent with the prmci- 
ples of religioi s tolerrncy, and indeed of civil liberty; fo that the crown 
was obliged to exert its prerogative of calling the members together, and 
cf diifolving tliem, and ever fince tliey have not been permitted to fit 
for any time, in whi^h they could do bufinefs. 

The court of arches is the moft ancient confiftory of the province of 
Canterbury, and all appeals in church matters, fiom the judgment of j 
the inferior courts, arc dirci^'' to this. The procciies run in t!io name 
of the judge, who is called dean of the arches ; and the advocates, who 
plead in tins court, mull be doctors of the civil law. The court of au- 
dience has the fan'.c authority with this, to which the archbiihop's chan- 
eery war. formerly joined. The prerogative court is that wherein wills 
are prove.', and adminillrations tdken out. The court of peculiars, re- 
lating to certain parilhc;., have a jurifdi£lion among themielves, for the 
probate of wills, ar.d are therefore exempt from the biffiop's courts. 
The k;e of Caniirhury has no lefs than fifteen of theie peculiars. The 
court of delegates receives its name from its confilling of commiffioners 
delegated or appointed by the royal commiliion ; but it is -lo Ihnding 
court. E\e;y bUhop has alfo a court of his own, called the confiftory 
court. Every archdeacon has likewife his court, as well as the dean and 
chapter of every cathedral. 

'l he church of England is, beyond any other church, tolerant in its 
principles. Pvloderation is its governing character, and it excludes no 
ic£i of Chrillir.RS from the exercife of their refpedive religious wor- 
ships. Without entering upon the motives of its reformation under 
Henry VIII. it is certain, that epifcopal government, excepting under 
the times of ulurpation, has ever fince prevailed in Engl^md. The wif- 
dom of acknov.'ledging the king the head of thp church, is confpicuoiis 
in difcniiraging all religcus perfecution and intolerancy, and if religi- 
ous fec^aries have multiplied in England, it is fjom the fame principle 
that civil liccncicufnefs has prevailed ; 1 mean a tendprnefs in matters 
that can afieft «'ither confcience or liberty. The bias which the clergy 
had towards popery, in the reign of Kenry VIII. and his fon, and 
pven fo late u: that of Elizabeth, occafioned an interpofttion of the civil 

power, 



l>eas, in treat 



ENGLAND. 



I2J 



Ijowcr, for :t farther reformation. Thence arofe the puritans, fo called 
Ifrcm their afFedling a Angular purity of life and manners. Many of 
Ijjiem were worthy pious men, and fome of them good patriots. Their 
lici'cendants are the modern preibyterians, who retain the fame charac- 
Lr, and have true principles of civil and religious liberty, only wit*i 
Lne differences as to church difcipline, and the modes of worfhip. Their 
loctrine, like the church of Scotland, was originally derived from the 
Geneva plan, inftituted by Calvin, and tcndea to an abolition of epif- 
Icopacy, and to veiling the government of the church in a parity of pref- 
Ibyters. The preibyterians, however, are now confidered as being diflen- 
jtcrs. The baptifts form another ftft of diffenters. Thefe do not bc- 
I'lieve that infants are proper objefts of baptifm, and in the baptifm of 
Ldults, they praftife immerfion into water. Blended with thefe are the 
independents, but it is hard to fay what are the particular tenets of thofe 
jecis, fo much have they deviated from their original principles, and fo 
jreatly do their profeffors differ from each other. The moderate clergy 
of the church of England, treat the preibyterians with affeftion and 
Hendlhip ; and though the hierarchy of their church, and the charader 
Idbilhops, are capital points in their religion, they confider their dif- 
iiences with the preibyterians, and even with the baptifts, as not being 
I tery material to falvation, nor indeed do many of the eflabliihed church 
iink that they are ftrittly and confcientioufly bound to believe the doftrinal 
nrta of the thirty-nine articles, which they are obliged to fubfcribe be- 
liire they can enter into holy orders. Some of them have of late con- 
ended iu writings, that all fubfcriptions to religious fyllems are repug- 
I jint to the fpirit of Chriftianity, and to reformation. 

The methodifts are a feft of a late inftitution, and their founder is 
I jnerally looked upon to be Mr. George Whitefield, a divine of the 
uurcli of England, but it is difficult to defcribe the tenets of this nu- 
jerous feft. All we know is, that tliey pretend to great fervour and 
kvotion, that their founder, who is ftill alive, thinks that the form of 
(cclefiaitical worftiip, and prayers, whether taken from a common 
hrayer book, or poured forth extempore, is a matterof indifference, and 
Ise accordingly makes ufe of both forms. His followers are rigid ob- 
lervers of the thirty-nine articles, and many of them profefs themfelves 
lo be calvinifts. But even this feci is fplit among themfelves, fome of 
[hem acknowledging Mr. Whitefield, and others Mr. Wefley, for their 
leader ; not to mention a variety of fubordinate feels (fome of whom are 
[ram Scotland) who have their feparate followers, both at London, and 
In the country of E-^'-'nd. I am to obferve, that there feems at pre- 
l^nt to be among thoie feftaries, and diflenters, a vaft relaxation of ec- 
pfiaQicai difcipline, which is chiefly owing to difunion among them- 
felves, and in fome meafure to the principle of free-thinking, the pro- 
lefrors of which are preibyterians or independents, and confider all iyf- 
ems of religious government, and tells of faith, as fo many fetters upoa 
leafon and confcience. 
The quakers form a numerous fcdl of diffenters in England, and pcr- 
laps if the r profell principles were to undergo a very ftridl examination, 
Ik)' would appear to be founded in free-thinking, though they pretend 
I» be guided by internal revelation, didated by the fpirit of God. That 
Itvelation, and that Ipint, however, arc jull what they pleafe to make 
|»em, and if they mean any thing, it is an abftraclion from all fenfual 
lieas^ in treating of the Cluillian religion, and its niyfteries, for they 

^ attempt 




mm 



124 



ENGLAND. 



aiM,irf' <■- 



I 



attempt fo allejorize all the fads in thre gofpcl. This ha-s fubjef^e^i 
them to a charge of their clenyinp- all the fundamCTitab of Chrillianitv. 
Thoujrh Ibme of them have difclaimed this charce, yet they utterly de- 
ny, that the outward ptrfon, who fuffered his Dody to be crucified h/ 
the jews, without the gates of jemfalcm, is properly the fon of God. 
They diiclaim all religious creeds made ufe of by other Chriltians, and 
all the rnode^ of worlhip pradifed in other churches. They difiegarcl 
die authority of the clergy, and rcfufe to pay tithes unlcl's they are com- 
pelled by law. They neither ufe bnptifm, nor partake of the facva- 
ment. They affefl a peculiar plainnefs of drefs, both as to the form and 
tlw? colour:, of their cloaths, and they publickly declaim againll rcfiftauce, 
aixl the lerraliiy of going to war oa any account. With regard to tl)e 
refurreiticn of the body, and the doftrines of rewards and punilhmcnu 
hereafter, and many other capital points of Chrillianity, they have not 
yet explained themfclvcs authentically. 

Were all the other peculiarities of this icft to be defcribed, 3 rea- 
der, not acquainted with it, would be apt to thirjk it impoflible, t!i,it 
it Ihould alibciate with other ChriiUans. Nothing however is more 
certain, than that the quakers are moft excellent members of tlic com- 
jnunity. The llridtnefs of their morality makes amends for the oddities 
of their principles, and the funplicity of their living^, for the wildntG, 
of their opinions. '^Iheir oeconomy is admirable, fur though none of 
them pretend to any coercive power, yet their cenfurcs are fubmitced to 
as implicitly, as if they were RomilTi bigots under an innuifition. The 
highell punilhmont is a kind of excommunication, which I fliaU not 
pretend to dcfcribe, but which is taken off upon repentance and amend- 
ment, and the party is readmitted into all the privileges of tlieir body. 
Their goveniment is truly republican, and admirably well adapted to 
their principles. They have an annual meeting, which is generally in 
Nlay, at London, and this is reforted to by deputies from all parts of 
Great-Britain, Ireland, Holland, Germany, and the British planta- 
tions. In this meeting is examined the proceedings of their other meet- 
ings, which are monthly and quarterly. Indecencies of every kind are 
cenfurcd, contributions are received, accounts are examined, and dif- 
courfes, exhortations, and fermons are delivered fuitable to the exigency 
of tlie times, and their prevailing vices and immoralities. The good 
fcnfc for which this feft is remarkable, renders their leaders mo^e refpec- 
table, tha.i thofe which royalty or power appoint over other communi- 
ties. This, with the mildnefs of their behaviQur» fobriety, and great 
induflry, have raifed them .high in the efleem of the legiflature, which 
has even indulged them by admitting pf their aiErmationy inllcad of an 
oath in the courts of juftice. I ihall not here enter itxo sir political 
hillory, or in what manner on'; of their number, William Penn, formed 
that admirable eftabiiihment of their order, which ftill fubfiUs in Pen- 
fylvania. It is fuificicQt to obferve> that it was fonnd by experience, 
during the two laft wars with France, that their principles were incompa- 
tible, with either civil or military government ; and confequently, that, 
wplefs their enemies had been quakers likewife, they mull have been maf- 
ters of their country. This created great trouble with the mother coun- 
try, and it unfortunately happened, '^hat the quakers were as tenacious 
pf their property, as of their principles. Neceffity and danger, how- 
ever, at laft compelled them to contribute for their own defence, by their 
purfes, tho' we do not iind ;hat they did it m tteii" perfons -, ftom all 
' wnich 



r. N G L A N n. 



1^5 



^ivTi it appears that it \%'oulil be imprav^icablc to form quaj^ers into « 
jtnii government of any kind. 

The igfjoranceof Fox, and the firft leaders of this fcc^, !cd thequa- 

Kcis i'lto a thoufaiid extravagancies, by agitations and convuliions of 

I the body, which they termed the workings of the fpirk. Barclay, Kiith, 

land fomc other metnphyfical heads, defeaded the doftriiK, though they 

Idropt the fingularities of the profeiTion. This fbftened the ridicule of the 

I public, and iBarclay's fucceHbrs have omitted in their behaviour and a{K 

pearance many of thofr unmeaning fingularities. The ijuakcrs, it is 

tfue, in gener;H, ftilJ retain the appellation of Friend, inftea^i of Sir, and 

roafic ufe of TJiou and Tliee in diicourfe ; neither are they very ready t» 

pull off the' r liats, by way of civility or refpedl. They know, however, 

hniv to accommodate themfelves to the common ufages of life, npon 

particular emergencies, and the fjnBularities of a quaker of addre s ane 

fiow but juil dilcerniblc, and can give no offence to politencls, uuieli 

it is affeded. 

It is impofliblc to fay any thing with certainty concerning the number 
tf qicikera in England. In the beginning of the late reign they were 
eiiiin;ited at 50,000; and I am apt to believe, they are cncreafed, thai* 
(h.it esicrcafc is not pereeptible, by their laying afide moft of their fin- 
fiilarities. The regularity of their meetings is furprizing, and the ad- 
nonitions which they give to their brethren, by circular letters, fx'aim 
iiieir yearly meetings, are worthy imitation by the bell policed govera*- 
ncnt. The payment of tithes is a kind of a Handing grievance, be-' 
uufe it is renewed every year. They are however rtcady in their oppo* 
ttion to it. They who pay them voluntarily, are always cenfured. 
The books relating to their religion, which they print, mull be liceuA 
td by a committee before they are dif]Tcrfed. 

Many fajnilies in Englaiid ftill profefs the Roman catholic rcligiow, 

and its exercife is under very mild and gentle rellritlions. Though the 

penal laws againft papifts in England appear at firll to be fevcre, yet 

they arc executed with fo much lenity, that a Roman catholic feels him* 

I felf under few hardlhips. Legal evafions are found out for tneir dou* 

ble taxes, upou their landed pwperty, and, as tliey are labjed to none 

of the expences and troubles (unlefs voluntary) attending public of- 

liices, parliamentary elections, and the like burdt is, the Kngliih Ro- 

Iman catholics are in general in good circumftances, as to their private 

Ifortunes. The truth is, they know that a change of go\ernment, in- 

lllead of bettfcring, would hurt their fituation, becauie it would cacreal'e 

thejealoufy of the legiflature, which would undoubtedly expofe them 

daily to greater burdens, and heavier penalties. This fenablc confidcr- 

lation has of late rendered the Roman catholics as dutiful and zealous 

Ifubjecls as any his majefty has, and their interell in eledion of members 

lof parliament, which is confiderable, has for thefe thirty years pall, 

IcominoQly gone for the court. Scarcely any Englilh Roman caiholicy 

lexcepting thofe who were bred or had ferved abroad, were engaged in ths 

Irebellion of the year 1745, and tho' thofe at home were molt carefully 

lobferved, few or none of them were found guilty of dilloyal pradices. 

I fliould here take my leave of the Hate of religion in England, was- 

lit not neceffary to mention thofe who profefs no religion at all, and yet 

bve a vail influence upon the circumllances and Hate of the eilablilbed 

church. Thefe go under the name of Free-thinkers, and they are di~ 

I'ided into as many feds as Chriftianity itfelf. Arians and bocinians^ 

words 



= *' i'*'i 



126 



ENGLAND. 



words well known to imply a diibclief of the doftrines of the cliurch 
of England, with regard to the Trinity, (helter themfelves under the 
name of Free-thinkers. The Deift fhakes himfelf loofe of all religious 
inftitutions, by pleading Free-thinking. The Fatalift, who is a branch 
of deifm, and in fadl lif niiies the fame as a deill, does the like, and 
what is ftill worfe, free*living is often the confequence of free-think- 
ing, as is feen in the unbounded difTipation, debauchery and impiety of 
its profeflbrs. What the effefts of tliis irreligion may prove, is hard to 
fay, but it feems not to be fo general at prefent as in «'ny one reien 
iince the revolution. This is in a great meafure owing to the difcou- 
xagement it meets with from the royal example, which has brought an 
attendance upon religious ordinances into credit; at the court and ca- 
pital. Another circumftance, in favour of religion, is the noble pro- 
vifion, which the enjoyment of a bifhopric, or a dignified ftation in the 
church makes, for the younger fons of noble families. The bench of 
bifhops, has, at no time fince the reformation, been pofleffed by fo ma- 
ny men of birth and quality ; nor has it ever been known that fo many 
young perfons of rank and family, have been educated to the church, 
as at prefentt 

Learning and learned men.] England may be looked upon as 
another word for the feat of learning and the Mufcs. Her great Al- 
fred cultivated both in the time of the Saxons, when barbarifm and ig- 
norance overfpread the reft of Europe, nor has there fince his time been 
wanting a continual fucceffion of learned men, who have diftinguilhed 
themfelves by their writings or ftudies. Thefe are fo numerous, that a 
bare catalogue of their names, down to this day, would form a mode- 
rate volume. 

The Englifh inftitutions, for the benefit of ftudy, partake of the 
eharader of their learning. They are folid and fubftantial, and provide 
for the cafe, the difencumbrance, the peace, the plenty, and the conve- 
niency of its profeflbrs ; witnefs the two univerfitles of Oxford and 
Cambridge, inliitutions that arc not to be matched in the world, and 
which were refpcftcd even amidft the barbarous rage of civil war. The 
induftrious Leiand, who was himfelf a moving library, was the iirft 
who made a Ihort coUeftion of the lives and charadlers of thole learned 
perfons, who preceded the reign of his matter Henry VIII. among whom 
he has inferted fevc-ral of the blood royal of both fcxes, particularly a 
fon and daughter of the great Alfred, Editha, the queen of Edward the 
Confeflbr, and other Saxon princefles, fome of whom were equally de- 
voted to Mars as the Mufes. 

In fpeaking of the dark ages, it would be unpardonable, if I fliould 
omit the mention of that prodigy of learning, and natural philoiophy, 
Rcger Bacon, who was the forerunner in fcience to the great Bacon, lord 
Vcrulam, as the latter was to Sir Ifaac Newton. Among the other cu- 
rious works afcribed to him by Leiand, we find treatile^ upon the flux 
end reflux of the Britifh fea, upon metallurgy, upon aftronomy, cof- 
mographv, aad upon the impediments of knowledge. He lived under 
Henry III. and died at Oxford in 1248. The honourable Mr. Walpoip 
has preferved the memory of fome noble and roydl Englifti avitfiors, 
who have done honour to learning and the Mufes, and to his work I 
lauft refer. Since the Reiormation, England refembles a galaxyr of 
literature, and it is but doing juliice to the memory ot cardinal W-olfey, 
«houoh otherwife a dangerous and profligate miniiter, to acknowleuge 

tlut 



England. 



127 



ihould 
ilophy, 
^n, lord 
per cu- 
|ie flux 
cof- 

under 
falpolp 

tftorsv 

VOTk I 

ixy- of 

1 olfey, 
k^ietige 



Hat both Kis example and encouragemcnl, laid the foundation of the 
polite arts, and the revival of claflical learning in England. As many 
of the Englilh clergy had diflerent fentiments in religious matters, at 
Nie time of the reformation, encouragement was given to learned fo- 
ifianers, to fettle in England. Edward VI. during his (hort life, did a 
freat deal for the encojragement of thcfc foreigners, and (hewed difpo- 
lidons for cultivating the moll ufeful parts of learning, had he lived. 
JLearninf;, as well as liberty, fuffered an almoft total eclipfe in Eng- 
lland, during the bloody bigottcd reign of queen Mary. Elirabeth, her 
Ifiiler, was herfelf a learned princefs. She advanced many perfons oi' 
ccnfummate abilities, to high ranks, both in church and Itate, but flie 
fcems to have confidered their literary accomplifhments to have been on- 
1^' lecondary to their civil. In this llie Ihewed herfelf a great politi- 
cian, but fhe would have been a more amiable queen, had Ihe raifed 
cenius from obkurity ; for though Ihe was no ttranger to Spencer's 
lilufe, Ihc fuffered herfelf to be fo much impofed upon, by an unfeeling 
nlniller, that the poet languilhed to dea^h in oblcurity. Though Ihc 
ailed the beauties of the divine Shakefpear, yet we know not that they 
tere diftinguilhed by any particular ads of her munificence, but her 
paiAmony was nobly fupplied by hei- favourite the-earl of Eflex, the po- 
iiteil fcholar of his age, and Ins friend the earl of Southampton, who 
were patrons of genius. 

The encouragement of lenrned foreigners in England, continued ta 

tie reign of James I. who was very munificent to Cafaubon, and other 

foreign authors of diltinition, even of different principles. He was 

timldf no great author, but his example had a wonderful efteft up- 

n his fuiijcdis, for in his rc-ign were formed thofe great mailers of 

colemic divinity, whofe works are almoft inexhauitible mines of 

knowledge, nor mull it be forgot, that the fecond Bacon, whom 1 

lave already mentioned, v/as by him created vifcount Vcrulam, aud 

io.-d high chancellor of England. He was likewife the patron of Cam- 

I den, and other hiilorians, as well as antiquaries, whofe works aie te 

this day, llandards in thofe lludies. Upon the whole, therefore, itcan- 

Uoc be denied, that Englilh learning is under great obligations to 

Ijames I. 

I His fon Charles I. had a taUc for the polite arts, efpecially fculpture, 
Ipainting, and architedure. He was the patron of Rubens, Vandyke, 
llnigo Jones, and other eminent artiils, fothat had itnot been for the civil 
Iwars, he would probably have converted his couit and capital, into a 
Ifecond Athens, and the coUeclions he made for that purpofe, confider- 
ling his pecuniary ditiiculties were llupendous. His fa\ ouritc, the duke 
lof Buckuigham, imitated him in that refpeft, anJ laid out the amaz- 
ling fum of four hundred thouliind pounds fterling, upon his c binet of 
Ipamtings and curiofities. '^I'he earl of Arundel was, however, the 
Igrcut ivicccenas of that age, and by the immenfe acquifuions he made 
lof antiquities, efpecially his famous marble infcriptions, may ftand up- 
lon a fur^ting, as to the encouragement and utility of literature, with 
Ihe gic'teit of the Medicean princes. Charles, ana his court, had little 
loriio relilh for poetry. 

The public tiicotragenient of learning, and the arts, fuffered indeed 
luicciipi , dur.ng ihe time of the civil vvars, and tlie fuccicding iifur- 
l;ati.i). Many very learned men, however, found their litu:;ti6ns un- 
jierCi era well, tiiough he was no Ilranger to their political ientiments. 



.'it 



-W' 






128 



ENGLAND. 



fa eafy, that they followed their ftudies, to the vaft benefit of crpf* 
branch of learning, and many works of vaft literary merit, appcir- 
ed even in thofe times of diftradion. Uflier, Willis, Harrington 
Wilkins, and a prodigioiir number of other great names, were un- 
molellcd by that iifurper, arid he would cvtn have filled the univcrfities 
with literary merit, could he have done it with any degree of fafety ta 
his government. 

The reign of Charles II. was chiefly dirtinguiflicd by the great profi. 
ciency to which it carried natural knowledge, efpcciaiiy by the iniljtu- 
tion of the royal fociety. The kin" Iiimfelf was an excellent judce of i 
thofe ftudics, and though irreligious himfelf, England never abound- 
ed more with learned and able divines, than in his reign. H» 
loved painting and poetry, but was far more munificent to the former 
than the latter. The incomparable Paradife Loft by Milton» was pub- 
lilhcd in his reign, but fo little read, that the impreftion did not pay 
the expence of 15I. given by the bookfeller for the copy. The reign 
of Charles II. notwithftanding the bad tafte of his court in ievcral of 
the polite arts, by fome is reckoned the Auguftan age in England, and is 
dignified with the names of Boyle, Hook, Sydenham, Harvey, Tem- 
ple, Tillotfon, Butler, Cowley, Waller, Dryden, Wycherley, and Ot- j 
way. The pulpit aflumed more majeily, a better JHIc, and truer ener- 
gy, than it ever had knov/n before. Claflic literature, recovered many 
of its native graces, and though England could not under him boaft of a 
Jones, and a Vandyke, yet Sir Chriftopher Wren introduced a more ge- 
neral regularity, than ever had been known before in a;\,hitcdure, and 
many excellent Englifli painters (for Leiy and KncUer were foreigners) 
llourifhed in this reign. 

That of James II. though he likewife had a tafte for the fine arts, is 
thiefly diftinguifhed in the province of literature, by thofe compofitions 
that were publiflied by the Englilh divines againft popery, and which, 
for ftrength of reafoning, and depth of erudition, never were equalled j 
in any age or country. 

The names of Newton and Locke adorned the reign of William IIL 
e prince, who neither underftood, nor loved learning, or genius in any 
Jhape. Itflourifhed, however, in his reign, merely by the excellency of" ] 
the foil, in which it had been planted. It has been obferved» however^ 
that metaphyfical reafoning, and a fqueamifti fcepticifm in religious 
matters, prevailed too much, and this has been generally attributed to 
his indifference as to facred fubjeds. Argumentation, however, there- 
by acquired, and has ftill preferved a far more rational tone in every pro- 
vince of literature, than it had before, efpecially in religion and phi- ' 
lofophy. 

The moft uninformed readers are not unacquainted with the Improve- [ 
Inents which learning, and all the polite arts, received under the aufpices of I 
queen Anne, and which put her court at leaft on a footing with that of | 
Lewis XIV. in its moft fplendid days. Many of the great men^ vhfl 
had figured in the reigns of the Stuarts and William, were ftill alivejf 
and in the full exercife of their faculties, when a new race fprung up, Inj 
the republic of learning and the arts. Addlfon, Prior, Pope, SwiftJ 
Arbuthnot, Conffreve, Steele, Rowe, and many other excellent writers, both! 
in verie and profe, need but be mentioned to be admired, and the EnglKhj 
W«rc as trimaphant in literature as in war. Religious^ natural, and I 

moral] 



ENGLAND. 



^29 



jioral phllofophy kept pace with the polite arts, and even reljglous and 
political difputes contributed to the advancement of learninc, by the 
inbounded liberty which the laws of England dl-jw in Ipeculative 
1 jattcrs. 

The minifters of George I. were the patrons of erudition, and fome 

Irfthem were no mean proficients thcmfclves. I have already obferved, 

lat in this reign a poet held the pen of full fccretnry of ftute, though 

JHr. Addifon's talents were very inadequate to the pjft, and his temper' 

liill more. 

Though George II. was himfelf no Mecarnas, yet his reign yielded 
jtononeof the preceding, in the numbers of learned and ingenious men 
lit produced. The bencn of bilhops was never known to be fo well pro- 
Ivided with able prelates, as it was in the early years of his reign, a full 
Iriroof that his nobility and minifters were judges of literary qualifica- 
Itions. In other departments of erudition, the favour of the public ge- 
Btrally fupplied the coldnefs of the court. After the rebellion in the 
yor 1745, when Mr. Pelham was confidcrcJ as being firll miniller, this 
foeen between government and literature, was in a great mcafure re- 
moved, and men of genius beg m tlicn to taile the royal bounty. 
The reign of his grandibn promifes to renew a golden age to learning 
ud all the arts. The noble inftitution of a royal academy, and his ma- 
jdly's generous munificence to men of merit, in every ftudy, have al- 
tody thrown an illuftrious refulgence round his court, which muft en- 
dor his memory to future generations. 

Befides learning, and the fine arts in general, the Englifli excel, in 
wkt we call, the learned profeffions. Their courts of jullice are adorn- 
ed with greater abilities and virtues, perhapr., than thofe which any 
otter country can boaft of. A remarkable inftance of which, occurs in 
I tilt appointments for the laft 200 years of their lord chancellors, who 
juld the higheft and the moll uncontroulable judicial feat in the kingdom, 
ltd yet it is acknowledged by all parties, that during that time, their 
tech has remained unpolluted by corruption, or partial afFeftions. The 
Iwinftances that may be alledged to the contrary, fix no imputation of 
liiifiil guilt upon the parties. The great lord chancellor Bacon was cen- 
nred indeed for corrupt praflices, but malevolence itfelf does not fay that 
llewassuilty any fartner than in too much indulgence to his fervants. 
Ifliecaie of one of his fucceflbrs is ftill more favourable to his memory, 
Ithiscenfure refie£ls difgrace only upon his enemies, and his lordfhip 
lias, in the eyes of every man of candour and confcience, acquitted, not 
|ilyofa£lual but intentional guilt. Even JefFeries, infernal as he was 
n his politics, never was accu^d of partiality i« the caufes that came 
liefore him as chancellor. 

j It m 'ft be acknowledged, that neither pulpit, nor bar-eloquence, ha« 
lien much ftudied in England ; but this is owin^ to the genius of the peo- 
lle, and their laws. The fermons of their divines, are often learned, 
jid always found as to the praflical and dodlrinal parts, but the many* 
jigious fefls in England, 'require to be oppofed rather by reafdning 
I In eloquence. An unaccountable notion has however prevailed 
I in among the clergy themfelves, that the latter is incompatible with 
n former, as if the arguments of Cicero and Demoilhenes were weak-^ 
lad by thpfe powers of language,^ with which they are adorned. A 
kt time, perhaps, may remove this prej^ofTefllcDy and convince th< 

K -■ clergy; 



.'4: 



U >n^ 



Ut I. 



iib 



ENGLAND. 



dcrgjr, as well as laity, that trtie eloquence is the firll and faireft han^ 
jnaid of argumentation. The rt-adcr, however, is not to imagine Uiatl 
ain infinuaiin^, that the preachers of the Englifli church are Ueftitutc( 
the graces of elocution, lb far from that, no clergy in the world cj 
equal them, in the purity and pcrfpicuity of language, though I thi« 
that if they confulted more than they do the powers of elocution, the 
vould preach v\ ith more effect. If the femblance of thofe powers, comiq 
from the mouths of ignorant tnrhufiafts, are attended with the ama 
ang cfft'iils we daily fee, what mull not be the confequencc,' if they we 
r.vertcd in reality, and fupportcd with fpirit and learning. 

The laws of England are of fo peculiar a call, that the feveral plead 
3rgs at the bar, do not admit, or but very fparingly, of the flowers ( 
Ifuiech, and 1 am apt to think that a pleading in the Ciceronian manne 
V ould make a ridiculous appearance in Wellminfter-hall. The KngliJi 
lawyers, however, though thty deal little in eloquence, are well vcrfed i 
jhetoric and reafoning. 

Parliamentary fpeaking, not being bound down to that precedca 
V'liich is required in the courts of law, no nation in the worlcl can pro 
d.ice fo many examples of true eloquence, as the Englifh fenate in its tw 
houfes, witnefs the fine fpeeches made by both parties, in parliament 
5ji the reign of Charles I. and thofe that have been printed fince 
acceflion of the prefent family. 

Medicine and lUrgery, botany, anatomy, and all the arts or ftiidii 
fi)r preferving life, have been carried into great perfeftion by the Ens 
Jjdi, and every member of the medical profeffion, is fure of an irapai 
«ial hearing at the bar of the public. The fame may be faid of mufic 
and theatrical exhibitions ; and as no people in the world encourage me 
rit in artills of every kind, equally as the Englilh do, no country cai 
fliew fo great a variety of literary excellence. Even agriculture and me 
chanifm, are now reduced in England to fciences, and that too without sn] 
j>ublic encouragement, but that given by private noblemen and gentle 
:jncn, who aflbciate themfelves for that purpofe. 

Language and dress.] The Englifh language is known to be 
compound of almoll every ether language in Europe, particularly thJ 
tSaxon, the French, and the Celtic. The Saxon however predominatesj 
and the words that are borrowed from the French, being radically Latin 
ire common to other nations, particularly the Spaniards and the Italians 
^i'o defcribe it abftra£ledly, would be fuperfluous to an Englilh readerj 
"but relatively it enjoys all the properties, without any of the defefls o 
other European languages. It is more energetic, manly, and expreffiveJ 
ihan either the French, or the Italian ; more copious than the SpaniflJ 
and mcic eloquent than the German, or the other northern tonguejj 
it is fubjcft, however, to great provincialities in its accent, for thepeoJ 
pie of one county, can fcarcely underftand thofe of another, but thu 
happens in other countries. People of fortune and education in Eng| 
land, of both fcxes, commonly either fpeakj or underftand the French 
and many of them, the Italian and Spanilh • but it has been obferved 
that foreign nations have great difliculty in underftanding the few End 
lilh, who talk Latin, which is perhaps the reafon why that language 
iiifufed in England, even by the learned profeflions. 

As to the drefs of the Englifh, I have already mentioned fomewhat 
tit^ in {fcaung of their mano^rSk The Robiiit/, and people of fortune] 

of 



ENGLAND. 



•13^ 



ifboth Texes, drtfs as thofe of the fame rank in other parts of Europe 1 

Ipd fince the vaft encouragement given by the court, to gold and filver 

lianufaAurei, perhaps more magnificently. The quantities of jewels 

liliat appear on public occalions are incredible, d'pecially iincr the vafl 
ijuifiuons of the F.nglifli, in the Baft-Indies. The fame nobility, and 
icrfons of diftindion, on ordinary occafions, drefs like creditable citi- 
m, that is neat, dean and plain, in the finelt cluthi and the bell of 

llioen. 
Commerce akd manufactures.] This article is fo copious, and 

||iaj been fo well difcuiTed in former publications, many of which are 

Iinalkr-pieces in their kind, that the reader, I hope, will not cxpeft that 
{enter into minutiit. It is well known that commerce and manufadurei 

Uave raifed tiie Englilh to be at this day the firft and moll powerful pco< 
sle in the world. Hillorical reviews, on this head, would be tedious. 
It it fulHcieni to f^y, that it was not till the reign of Elizabeth, that 

Ungland began to feel her true weight in the fcale of commerce. She 
|lanned fome fettlements in America, Virginia particularly, but left the 
npencc attending them to be defrayed by her fubjc£ts, and indeed fhe 

[lastoo parfimonious to carry her own notions of trade into execution. 
|imes I. entered upon great and beneficial fchcmes for the Englilh trade. 

I The Eail-India company owes to him their fuccefs and exiilence, and the 
Jritifh America faw her moll flouriftiing colonies rife under Iiim and his 
bily. The fpirit of commerce went hand in hand with that of liber- 
It, and theit gradations have terminated in the prefent glorious ftate of 
k nation. It is not within my deiign to follow commerce through all 
kr fludUations and ftates. This would be an idle attempt, and it has 
iready taken up large volumes. The nature of a geographical work, 
itquires only a repre^ntation of the prefent ftate of commerce in every 

I ountry ; and in this light I flatter myfelf that I ftiall be able to treat of 
it with more precifion, than former writers upon the fame fubjeft. 
The prefent fyftem of Englifti politics may then properly be faid to 
iive taken rife in the reign of queen Elizabethi At this time the Pro- 

liellant religion was eftabhlhed, which naturally allied us to the reformed 

|Aates, and made all the Popiih powers our enemies^ 
We began in the fame reign to extend our trade, by which it be- 

Jtame neceflary for us alfo to watch the commercial progrels of our neigh-i 

Wiom ; and, if not to incommode and obftrudt th^ir traftic, to hinder 
hfm from impairing ours. 
We then likewife fettled colonics in America, which was become the 

treat fcene of European ambition. ; for, feeing with what treafures the 

Spaniards were annually enriched from Mexico and Peru, every nation 
magined, that an American conqueft or plantation would certainly fill 
he mother country with gf/ld and filver. 
The difcoveries of new legions, which were then every day made, the 

||rofit of remote traffic, and the neceffity of long voyages, produced, in 
I few years, a great muliipUcation of ftiipping. The fea was confidered 

18 the wealthy element ; and, by degreesi a pew kind of fovereignt/ 

[irofe, called naval dominion. 
As the chief trade of Europe, fo the chief maritime power was at firfti 
1 the hands of the Portugucfe and Spaniards, v/ho, by a compaft, to 

I ihich the conient of other princes was not aiked, had divided the newly 

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132 



ENGLAND. 



difcovered countries between them : but the crown of Portugal having fallen 
to the king of Spain, or being fizzed by him, he was mailer of the ftiips 
of the two nations, with which he kept all the coafts of Europe in alarm, 
till the Armada, he had raifed at a vaft expence for the conqueft of Eng- 
land, was deftroyed ; which put a ftop, and almoft an end, to the naval 
power of the Spaniards. 

At this time the Dutch, who were oppreffed by the Spaniards, and 
feared yet greater evils than they felt, refolved no longer to endure tht 
infolence of their mafters ; they therefore revolted ; and after a ftruggle, 
in which they were alfifted by the money and forces of Elizabeth, ereded 
an independant and powerful common-wealth. 

When the inhabitants of the Low Countries had formed their fyftem 
of government, and fome remifllon of the war gave them leifure to form 
fchemes of future profperity, they eafiiy perceived that, as their territo- 
ries were narrow, and their numbers fmall, they could preferve themfelves 
. only by that power, which is the confequence of wealth ; and that by a 
people whofe country produced only the neceffaries of life, wealth was 
not to be acquired, but from foreign^ dominions, and by the tranfporta- 
tion of the produdls of one country into another. 

From this neceflity, thus juftly eftimated, arofe a plan of cammerce, 
which was for many years proficuted with an induftry and fuccefs, perhaps 
- never feen in the world before ; and by \7hich the poor tenants of mud- 
walled villages and impalTable bogs, erefted themfelves into high and 
mighty ftates, who fet the greateft monarchs at defiance, whofe alliance 
was courted by the proudeft, and whofe power was dreaded by the fierceft 
nations. By the eftablifliment of this Hate, there arofe to England a 
new ally, and a new rival. 

At this time, which feems to be the period deftined for the change of 
the face of Europe, France began firft to rife into power, and from de- 
fending her own provinces with difficulty and fluftuating fuccefs, to 
threaten her neighbours with incroachments and devaftations. Henry IV. 
having, after a long ftruggle, obtained the crown, found it eafy to go- 
vern nobles, exhaulled and wearied with a long civil war ; and having 
compofed the difputes between the Proteftants and Papifts, fo as to ob- 
tain, at leaft,. a truce for both parties, was at leifure to accumulate trea- 
fure, and raife forces which he propofed to have employed in a defign 
of fettling for ever the balance of Europe. Of this great fcheme he 
lived not to fee the vanit]^, or feel the difappointment ; for he was mur- 
dered in the midft of his mighty preparations. 

The French, however, were in this reign taught to know their own 
power ; and the great defigns of a king, whofe wifdom they had fo long 
experienced, even though they were not brought to aclual experiment, 
difpofed them to conhder themfelves as mafters of the deftiny of their 
neighbours : and from that time he that ihall nicely examine their fchemes 
and conduct, will find that they began to take an air of 'fuperiority, to 
which they had never pretended before ; and that they have been always 
employed more or lefs. openly, upon fchemes of dominion, though with 
frequent interruptions from domeftic troubles. 

When queen Elizabeth entered upon the government, the coftoms 
produced only 36,000!. a year ; at the reftoradon, they were lett to farm 
for 400,0001. and produced confideribly above double that fum before 
the revolution. I'he people of London, before we had any nlartations, 

and 



ENGLAND. 



131 



ad but very little *rade» were computed at about 100,000 ; at the death 
jf queen Elizabeth, they .vere increafed to 150,000, and are now above 
in times that number. In thofe days, we had not only our naval Acres, 
lat our (hips from our neighbours. Germany furniflied us with all things, 
jade of metal, even to nails ; wine, paper, linen, and a thoufand other 
fxini came from France. Portugal furniflied us with fugars ; all the 

j produce of America wns poured upon us from Spain ; and the Vene- 
tians and Genoefe retailed to us the commodities of the Eall Indies 
at their own price. In ftiort, the legal intereft of money *"as 1 2 per 
cent, and the common price of 04ir land ten or twelve years purchafe. 
We may add, that our manufactures were few, and thofe, but indiffer- 
ent; the number of Engliih merchauts very fmall, and our (hipping 
much inferior to what now belong to our American colonies. 

Such was the ftate of our trade when this great princefs came to the 
throne ; but as the limits of our undertaking do not permit us to give 
a detail of the gradual progrefs of commerce fince that reign, wc flatter 
wrfelves that the Britiih reader will not be difpleafed with the follow- 
ing view of our extenfive trade, at picfent carried on through the va- 
rious nations of the globe. 
Great Britain is, of all other countries, the moft proper for trade ; as well 
ffom its fituation, as an illand, as from the freedom and excellency of its 
tjnftitution, and from its natural products, and conilderable manufaftures. 
For exportation : our Conntry produces many of the moft fubllantial and 
jecefTary commodities, as butter, cheefe, corn, cattle, wool, iron, lead, 
tb, copper, leather, copperas, piicoal, alum, faftron. Sec. Our corn 
fcmetimes preferves other countrifis froin ftarving. Our liorfes are the 
Eoft ferviceable in the world, and highly valued by all nations, for their 
hrdinefs, beauty and ftrength. With beef, mutton, po'k, poultry, bif- 
(uit, we vidual not only our own fleets, but many foreigners that come 
and go. Our iron we export man«fa<?.ured in great guns, carcafes, bombs, 
k. Prodigious, and almoft incredible, is the value likewife of other 
goods from hence exported ; visj. heps, flax, hemp, hats, ftioes, hovl- 
hold-llulF, ale, beer, red-herrings, pilchards, faimon, oyiters, fafi^ion, 

I liquorice, watches, ribbands, toy ;, ^>c. 

There is fcarce a manufaftur^ \n Europe, but what is brought to great 

I perfeftion in England j and thereto' a it is perfciStly unncceflary to enu- 
merate them all. The wooll^-n manutaituro is tiie molt confulerable, and 
exceeds in goodnefs and quantity that of any other na'ion. Kard-vare 

I is another capital article ; locks, edge-tools, guns, fwords, and other 

I arms, exceed any thing of the kind; houfliold utenfils of brafs, iron, 

[ and pewter, alfo are very great articles ; our clocks and watches are in 
very great efteem. There are but few mauufadures we are defeilive in, 

i In thofe of lace and paper we do not fcem to excel ; but we import much 
more than we fliould, if the duty on Britifli paper was taken oit. As to 
foreign traflic, the woollen manufatlure is ftill the grea" foundation and 
fupport of it. 

Our American colonies are the objefts that naturally firxc prefent them- 
felves for our difcuflion, and they may be divided into two clafles, our 
pofleflions on die continent, and thofe in the iflands, which go under the 
name of the Weft-Indies. 

I fliall rank the En^lilh polFeflHons in North America, unli^r the h.uiis 
of die following colonies, viz. Hudfon'sBay, Labrador, Nc\ t'H;:u:l.n:':J, 

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134 



ENGLAND; 



Canada, Nova Scotia, New England, Rhode Ifland, Connecticut 
and New Hampfliire (the three lall forming one colony) New York' 
Penfylvania, Virginia, and Maryland (originally but one colony) 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Eall and Weft Florida, The 
chief commodities exported from Great Britain, to thofe colonies, are 
wrougiii- iror, fteel, copper, pewter, I'Jad, and brafs, cordage, hemp, 
fail cloth, fliip chandlery, painter's colours, millinery, hofiery, haber! 
dafhery, gloves, hats, broad cloths, ftufFs, flannels, Cojchefter bays,, 
long ell filks, gold and filver lace, Manchefter goods, Britifli, foreign^ 
and Lifli linens, earthen wares, grind-ftones, Birmingham and Sheffield 
wares, toys, fadlery, cabinet wares, feeds, clieefe, ttrong beer, fmoak- 
ing pipes, fnufFs, wines, fpirits, and drugs, Eaft India goods, books 
paper, leather, befides many other articles, according to the different 
wants and exigencies of the different colonics, impoffible to be enume- 
rated here. 

The commodities exported from America to Great Britain, and other 
markets, aretob .co, rice, flour, and bifcuit, wheat, beans, peas, oats, 
Indian corn, and other grain, fait beef, pork, hams, bacon, and veni- 
fon, bees wax, tongues, butter, -and cheefe, deer, and other flcins, Rax; 
feed, horfss, and live flock, timber, plank, malls, boards, ftaves, and 
ihingles, pot-afli, fhips bi Jit for fale, copper ore, and iron in bars and 
pigs ; befides many other commodities peculiar to the climes, and foil 
of different provinces. As to thofe, which have been acquired by the 
laft general peace, they are certainly very improveable, nor can we form 
any judgment of them, in their prefent infantine unfe*:tled flate. It 
does not enter within my defign, nor indeed does it fall within my fub-. 
jeft, to recapitulate the differences that unhappily fubfift at prefent be- 
tween thofe colonies, and their mother country. It is fufl'cient if I ex- 
hibit a flate of the trade between them, as it exifted , iien thofe dif- 
ferences took place, marking at the fy^e \ijfiie th$ ^oinmercial flrengtl) 
and ihipping of tiie colonies. 



Colonies. 



Hudfon's Bay 

Labrador, Amcri- 7 
cm vefll-Is 110. 5 

Ni-'wfcundland 
(2C00 boats) 

Canada 

Nova Scotja 

New Knelaiid 

Rliode liland, 
Connefticiit, and 
New Hamplhirtj 

New York 

Penfylvania 

Virginia and Ma- 
ryland 

Korth Carolina 

South Carolinii 

Georgia 

F.aft Florida 

W$a diK9 



^hips. Seamen. 
4 »3o 



} 
I 



3S0 

34 

6 

46 



35 

330 

34 
T40 

24 

3 
10 



20,560 

+08' 

55i 
3G 

390 

3;96o 

408 

i,63o 

24P 

24 
120 



Exports from 
Great Britain. 

I; l6,0QQ 



*73,430 

105,000 

26,500 

395,000 

I2,0CO 

J 31,000 
611,000 

865,000 

18,000 

365,000 

49,000 

7,000 

97,000 



Exports from 

t)ie Colonies, 

f" !t9»34<» 

49,o5Q 

345,000 

105,500 

38,ooq 

370,500 

1 14,501} 

526,000 
705,500 

},040,coo 

68,35a 

395,666 

74,zo() 

63,000 



jjOjS x8;9io 



3>37o»9CO 



3,914,606 

The 



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E N G L A N D. 



»35 



The Englifh trade with their Weft India iflands, confifts chiefly in 
fjgars, rum, cotton, logwood, cocoa, coffee, pimento, ginger, mateji- 
;i for dyers, mahogany, and nianchinecl planks ; for thele the exports 
iom England are ofnabrugs, a coarfe kind of linen, with wliich the 
Jell Indians now clothe their flaves, linen of all forts, with broad cloth, 
jiJ kerfies,_for the planters, their overfeers and families; filks, and 
luifs for their ladies, and houfliold fervants ; red caps for their flaves of 
[jcth fexes ; llockings and (hoes of all forts ; gloves, and hats ; milliner/ 
Lre, and perukes; laces for linen, woollen, and filks ; ftrong beer, pale 
leer, pickles, candles, butter, and cheefe ; iron ware, as faws, ifles, 
axes, hatchets, chiflels, adzes, hoes, mattocks, gouges, planes, ajigres, 
nails ; lead, powder, and fliot ; brafs, and copper wares ; all forts ol* 
India goods, and toys, coals, and pantiles. Formerly the Engliih Welt 
India iflands, fent home large quantities of money in fpecie, which '.hey 
jot upon the balance of trade with the French, Spaniards and Portuguefc. 
we cannot, however, fpeak with any precifion, as to the particulars of 
tie trade between the Engliih Weil Indies, and the mother country, 
io' undoubtedly it is highly for the benefit of the latter, becaufe of the 
ceflions made of new iflands there by the late peace, which, when fully 
ppled, muft have a very fenflble influence upon the former fyftem of 
commerce in thofe parts, as I fliall have occafion to obferve in its proper 



The principal iflands belonging to the Englifh, in the Weft Indies, are 
tk Bermudas, or Summer iflands ; the Bahama, or Lucayan iflands, Ja- 
taica, Anguilla, Berbuda, St. Chriftopher's, Nevis, Antigua, Mont- 
fcrrat, St. Lucia, Dominica, St. Vincent, Barbados, Tobago, and Gra- 
nada, and the Grenadines, or Grenadillos. Of thefe Dominica, St. 
iucia, St. Vincent, Tobago, and Granada, were ceded by France ta 
Great Britain, by the definitive treaty of 1763. 

The trade of England to the Eaft Indies conftitutes one of the molt 
Supendous political, as well as commercial machines, that is to be met 
ivith in hiltory. The trade itfelf is exclufive, and lodged in a compa- 
ny, which has a temporary monopoly of it, in confideration of money 
I advanced to the government. Without entering into the hiftory of the 
Eall India trade, within thefe twenty years paft, and the company's con- 
cerns in that country, it is fufficient to uiy, that befides their fettle- 
ments on the coaft of^ India, which they enjoy under proper reftriftions» 
by aft of parliament, they have, through the various internal revoln- 
jtions which have happened in the empire of Indoftan, acquired fuch ter-« 
ritorial pofleffions, as renders them the moft formidable commercial re- 
public (for fo it may be called in its prcfent fituation) that has been 
I known in the world fince the demolition of Carthage. Their revenues 
are known, and that but imperfedly, only to the direflors of the compa- 
ny, who are chofen annually by the proprietors of the ftock ; but it has 
been publicly affirmed, that it amounts annually to above three millions 
and a half fterling. The cxpences of the company in forts, fleets, and 
armies, for maintaining thofe acquifitions, are certainly very great ; but 
^fter thefe are defrayed, the company not only clears a vaft fum, but is 
able to pay to the government four hundred thoufand pounds yearly, for 
a certain time, partly by way of indemnification, for the expences of the 
public in protefting the companv, and partly as a tacit tribute for thofe 
pofTelTions that are territorial and not commercial. This republic there- 
tore cannot be faid to be independent, and it is hard to fay what form 

K 4 it 






13^ 



ENGLAND. 



it '.nay take when the term of the bargain with the government 
expired. 

This cnnipany exports to the Eaft Indies all kinds of woollen manuJ 
fac^ure, aM foiis of hard-ware, lead, bullion, and quickfilver. TheiJ 
imports coifilt of gold, , diamonds, raw-filk, dru|;s, tea, pepper, arJ 
rack, p?r<'r!ain ware, fait petre for home confumption ; ard of wrought 
filks, m' fiins, Cullicoes, cottons, and all the woven ni.anufaftures of In. 
dia, for exprrtad'n to foreign countries. 1 Ihal! now prcceed to a con;| 
cife view of th" Englifh trade to other countries, accoi jinr to the lateft [ 
and mod authentic accounts. 

To Turkey England ferJs woollen cloths, tin, lead, and iron, in he. 
own bottoms, hard waie, iron utenfils, clocks, watches, verdigreafc | 
ipiqes, cochineel, and logwood. She imports from thence raw-filks I 
carpets, fkins, dying drugs, cotton, fn.rts, medicinal drugs, ccfFee, and] 
ibme otlier articles. Formerly the balance of this trade was about 
500,0001. annually, in favour of Englaii'l. .The Englifh trade was 
afterwards diminilhcd through the praftices c*" the French, but it is now ! 
faid to be reviving. 

England exports to Italy, woollen goods of various kinds, peltry, lea- 
ther, lead, tin, fifli, and Eaft India goods ; and brings back raw and 
thrown filk, wines, oil, foap, olives, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, 
dried fruits, colours, anchovies, and other articles of luxury ; the ba- 
lance of this trade in favour of England, Is annually about 20o,oo«I. 
To Spain, England fends all kinds of woollen goods, leather, tin, lead, 
€fh, corn, iron and brafs manufadures, haberdafhery wares, aflbrtments 
of linen from Germany,, and elfewhere, for her American colonies ; 
and receives in return, wines, oil, dried fruits, oranges, lemons, olives, 
wools, indico, cochineal, and other dying drugs, colours, gold and fiU 
ver coin. 

Portugal, till of late, was, upon commercial accounts, the favourite 
ally of England, whofe fleets and armies have more than once faved 
Jier from deftruftion. Of late her miniftry have changed their fyftem, 
and have fallen in with the views of the houfe of Bourbon. They have 
cftablilhed courts, which are inconfifteni with the treaties between Portu- 
gal and England, and defraud the Englifh merchants of great parts of 
their capitals, which they find it impoflible to recover. They have like- 
wife erefted two Brazil companies ; the one for Maranham, and Graij 
Para, the other for Perambuco, greatly to the detriment of the Englilh 
rights. The court of Londop is, at this time, by its minifters, making 
the ftrongeft efforts for redrefs, and it is to be hoped they will be attendr 
ed with fuccefs, as Portugal itfelf cannot exift even as a kingdom, but 
by the proteftion of the Englifh. Before thefemifunderflandings happened, 
the Englifh trade to Portugal was highly beneficial for both nations. 
England fent to that country almofl the fame kinds of merchandizes as to 
Spain, and they received in return vafl quantities cf wines, with oils, 
fait, dried and moift fruits, dying drugs, and gold coins. 

To France, England fends much tobacco, lead, tin, flannels, horns, and 
fometimes corn ; and always much money at the long run ; and brings 
home, in a fmuggling way, a much greater value in wines, brandies, 
linen, cambrics, lace, vplvets, and many other prohibiited fopperies, and 
brocades; always very confiderably to England's difadvantage. But as 
there is no comniercial treaty fubfifling between England and France, 
^o( ewif. in titpe of peace, England's jufl lofs cannot \)C afcertained. 



a i'l 



ENGLAND. 



137 



England (ends to Flanders, fergcs, flannels, tin, lead, fugars and to- 
llicco, and receives 'n return laces, linen, cambrics, and other articles 
[1 luxury, by which England lofes upon the balance 250,0001. fterling 
lorly. To Germany, England fends cloths and ftufFs, tin, pewter, fu- 
|g-s, tobacco, and Eaft India merchandize; and brings thence vail 

aantities of linen, thread, gcat-fkins, tinned- plates, timbers for all 
wines, and many other articles. Before the late war, the balance 

fthis trade was thought to be 500,000!. annually, to the prejudice of 
liDfland, but that fum is now greatly reduced, as moil of the German 
trinces now find it their interelt to clothe their armies in Englifh ma- 
inftftures. I have already mentioned the trade with Denmark, Norway, 
liveden, and Ruflia, which formerly was againll England, but the ba- 
llffice is now vaftly diminifhed by the great improvements of her Ameri- 
IflD colonies, in raifing hemp, flax, making pot-afhes, iron-v/orks, and 
lallow, all which ufed to be furniflied to her by the northern powers. 

To Holland, England, fends an imnienfe quantity of many forts of 
Iserchandize ; fuch as all kinds of woollen goods, hides, corn, coals. 
Jail India and Turkey merchandize, tobacco, tar, fugar, rice, ginger, 
Ll other American productions ; and makes returns in fne linen, lace, 
cnbrics, thread, tapes, incle, madder, boards, drugs, w])a]ebone, train- 
toys, and many other things; and the balance is ufually fuppoP.-d 
I lobe much in favour of England. I fhall forbear to mention the trade 
Ittween England and Ireland, till I come to treat of the latter kingdom. 

The acquifitions v/hich the Englifli have made upon the coaft of Gui- 
iies, particularly their fettlement at Senegal, have opened new fources of 
wjimerce v/ith Africa. The French, when in poffelfion of Senegal, 
irtied there for gold, flaves, hides, oftrich feathers, bees wax, millet, 
aabercjreafe, and above all, for that ufeful commodity, gum Senegal, 
wiicli was monopolized by them and the Dutch. At prefent England 
feds to the coali: of Guinea, fundry forts of coarfe woollen and linen, 
iion, pewter, brafs, and hardware nianufa£lures, lead-lhot, fwords, 
hives, fire-arms, gunpowder, and glafs manufaftures. And, befides 
is drawing no money out of the kingdom, it fupplies her American co- 
bnies with negro flaves, amounting in number to above 100,000 annually. 
riie other returns are in gold dull, gum, dying, and other drugs, red 
iood, Guinea grains, and ivory. 

To Arabia, Perfia, China, and other parts of Afia, England fends 
such foreign filver coin and bullion, and fundrv Englilh manufaftures 
( woollen goods, and of lead, iron, and brafs i and brings home from 
iiofe remote regions, muflins, and cottons, of many various kinds, cal- 
icoes, raw and wrought filk, chints ; teas, porcel;,m, gold duft, colfee, 
ilt-petra, and many other drugs. And 16 great a quantity of thofe va- 
ious merchandize are re-exported to foreign European natioris, as more 
ian abundantly compenfates for all the fUvei- bullion which England 
irries out. 

With regard to the general account of England's foreign balance, the 
iports have been computed at feven millions llerjing, ajid its imports 
sfive, of which above one million is re-exported, fo that if this calcu- 
kion is true, Jipglaftd gains, annually, three millions ilerling in trade; 
k this is a pomt upop whicli thjs moft experienced merchants, and 
W calculators, differ. After all that has b.^en faid, it mufl: be ac- 
bwlcdged, that many exceptions lie to particular eftim^tes. The valt 
JBj»rovements at home, in iron, 'filk, linen, and other manufactures. 



; 









!l 



I 



138 



E N G L A N m 



and the growing imports from America, muft greatly diminifh the Em^. 
liih imports from abroad^ On the other hand, fome of the other Euro > 
jpean natioHs are making vigorous efforts for rivalling the Engliih manu 
£i.£lure?> With what luccefs they may be atterided, time aloi^ can 
determine ; but hitherto, the appearances on their fide are not very pro. 
mifing. 

Yet our foreign trade docs not amount to one fixth part of the in- 
land ; the annual produce of the natural produ^s and manufaflures of 
Englau J amounting to above forty-two millions. The gold and filver of 
England is received from Portugal » Spain, Jamaica, the American colo- 
Aics, and Airtca ; but great part of this gold and filver we again, ex- 
port to Holland, and the Eaft-lndies ; and it is fuppofcd that t^^'o-thirds 
cf all tlie foreign tralfic of England is carried on ir> the port of London. 

We tlKill conclude this account of our trade with the following com- 
patTiiive view of fhipping, which, till a better table can be formed, may 
have its ufes. 

If tlie Ihipping of Europe be divided into twenty parts, then> 

Great Britain, &c. ts computed to have — — 6 

*rhe United Provinces — — ... — 6 

The fabjeds of the northern crowns — — 2. 

The trading cities of Germany, and the Auftrian Netherlands » 

France — — — — — 2 

Spain and Portugal — — — — , ^ 

Italy, and the reft erf Europe — ■ — — i 

My bounds will not afford room to enter into a particular detail of the 
places where thofe Engliih manufadures, which are mentioned in the 
above account, are fabricated -, a few general ilri^ures, however, may 
be p. iper. 

Cornwall and Devonffiire fupply tin and lead, and woollen mann- 
faflures is common to almoft all the weftern counties. Dorfetfhire ma- 
Bofaftures cordage for the navy, feeds an incredible number of ftieep, 
and has large lace manufa£ture». Somerfetiliire, befides furnishing lead, 
copper, and lapis calaminaris, has large manufactures of bone lace, 
ftockings and caps. Briftol, which is both a city and county, is faid by 
fome to employ 2000 maritime veffels of all fizes, coafters as well as 
fiiips employed in foreign voyages: it has many very important manu- 
fitfiures ; its glafs-bottle and dnnking-glafs one alone occupying fifteen 
large hoofes : its brafs-wire manufaftures are alfo very eonfidcrable. Vail 
manufactures of all kinds, glafs in particclar, are carried on in London 
and its neighbourhood; the gold and iilvermanufafturea of London and 
Spitalhelds, through the encouragement given them by the court and 
the nobility, already equal, if they do not exceed, thofe of any country 
in F.Krope. Colchefter is famous for its manufaftures of bays and 
itrf^-s ; and Norwich for its excellent (luffs, camblets, druggets, and 
ftockings. Birmingham, though no corporation, is one of the largeil 
and moft populous towns in England, and carries on an amazing trade, 
intvcillcnt and ingenious hard-ware manufaftures, particularly fnuffand 
tobacco- boxes, buttons, fhoe-buckles, etwees, and inany other forts of 
ftccj and brivis wares : it is here, and in Sheffield, which is famou^ for 
Ciitlcn-, that the true genius of Engliih art and induftry is to be feen ; 
tpf f«th ;iie tiicir excvll«|»t inveiition? for fabricating hard svafcs, that 

{hey 



ENGLAND. 



n9 



dimJnini theEn*^. 
)f the other Euro, 
the Engliih manu 
I, tirae aIon€ can 
: are not very pro. 

th part of the in- 
id manufaftures of 
gold and filver of 
lie American colo- 
liver we again, ex- 
fcd that tu'o-thirds 
J port of London, 
he following com- 
m be formed, may 

ts, then^ 

— 6 

— 6 

— z 
Netherlands i 

— 2 

— a 

icular detail of the 
mentioned in the 
es, however, may 

woollen manu- 
Dorfetfliire ma- 
number of ftieep, 
is furnilhing lead, 
es of bone lace, 
county, is faid by 
)afters as well as 
important manu- 
occnpying fifteen 
onfiderable. Vail 
ied on in London 
res of London and 
by the court and 
>fe of any country 
res of bays and 
s, druggets, and 
me of the largeil 
n amazing trade, 
iculavly fnuffand 
ny other forts of 
ich is famou; for 
' is to befeen; 
bard wares, that 
;bey 



{)iev€an afford them for the fourth part of the price at which other na- 
tions can furniih the fame or an inferior kind : the cheapnefs of coals, and 
jU nece/Taries, and the conveniency of iltuation, no doubt, contribute 
gttatly to this. 

The northern counties of England carry on a prodigious trade in tha 
(oarfer and flighter woollen manufaftures ; witnefs thofe of Hallifax, 
Leeds, Wakefield, Richmond, Whitby, ahd, above all, Mancheller; 
ihich, by its cottons, dimities, tickens, and the like ftuffs, is become 
I beautiful and populous place, though it is no more than a village, and 
its higheft magiftrate a conitable. I might mention many other manu- 
fa^uring towns and places of England, each of which is noted for fome 
particular commodity, but the detail would become too bulky. I mult 
not, however, difmifs this head, without obfcrving the beautiful porce- 
lane and earthen ware that has of late years been manufactured in di£fe- 
j^nt places of England, particularly in Worcefterfliire and StafFordfliire. 
The Englifti carpets, though but a late manufafture, equals in ftrength 
and beauty any imported from abroad ; and, confequently, is a vaft fav- 
intr to the nation. The parliament, of late, has given encouragement 
for reviving the manufafture of falt-petre, which was firft attempted in 
England by Sir Walter Raleigh, but was dropt afterwards in favour of 
the Bad-India company : the fuccefs of fuch an undertaking would be of 
immenfe benefit, as well as fecurity to the nation. 

After all that has been faid on this head, the feats of manufa^ures* 
and confequently of trade, in England, are fludluating; they will always 
follow thofe places where living is cheap, and taxes are eafy : for this 
reafon, they have been obferved of late to move towards the northenx 
counties, where provifions are in plenty, and the land-tax very low ; 
add to this, that probably, in a few years, the inland navigations which 
are opening in many parts of England, will make vail alterations as to 
its internal ftate. 

Many fenfible but fpeculative Engliflimen, daily exprefs their appre- 
iienfions, left the weight of taxes and dearnefs of living in England, 
Hiould enable other nations to ruin the Englifh trade at foreign markets, 
hy underworking them. This objedlion is of a long ftanding, and would 
liave great weight, did not experience prove that it is not founded in fadl. 
An Englifh workman, it is true, lives much better than a foreigner, but 
ihcn he will do double, if not triple the work, in the fame timej,aii4 
Other nations are taxed deeply as well as England. 

i^ort view of the Stocks, or public funds in England ^ nvith a» 
hijiorical account of the Eaji-Indiat the Bankf and South-Sea Comr 

panits. 

As there are few fubjefts of converfation more general than the value 
cf (locks, and hardly any thing fo little underftood, nothing can be more 
ifeful than a Ihort account of them, which we fliall here give in as clear 
ind concife a manner as poffible ; prefenting our readers with the ra- 
tonale of the ftocks, and a Ihort hiftory of the feveral companies, de- 
Icrlbing the nature of their feparate funds, the ufes to which they are ap- 
plied, and the various purpofes they anfwer, both with refpeft to the 
pernment, the companies tlicmfelves, and the community in ge- 
ftral, 



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E N G L A N D. 



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In order to give a clear idea of the money trar^6lions of the feveral 
companies, it is proper we (hould fay fomething of money in general 
and particularly of paper money, and the ditference between that and 
the curjxnr Ipccie. Money is the ftandard of the value of all the neccf- 
faries and accommodHtions of life, and paper-mnney is the rcprefentative 
of that Itandard to fi:ch a di';ncc, as to fupply it:, place, and to anfwcr 
al! the purpofes of gold arid fiivcT coin. Nothine is neceflary to make 
this reprefentative of money fupply the place of ^ecie, but the credit of 
that office or company, who delivers it ; which credit confifts in its al- 
ways being ready to turn it into foecie whenever required. This is ex. 
aftly the cafe of the Bank of England ; the notes of this company are of 
the fame value as the current coin, as they maybe turned into it whenever 
the poflefTor pleafes. From hence, as notes are a kind of money, the 
counterfeiting them is punillied with death, as well as coining. 

"^Phe method of depofiting money in the Bank, and exchanging it for 
notes (tliOuj;h they bear no intereft) is attended with manyconveniencies* 
as t'ley are not onlv fafer than money in the hands of the owner himfelf- 
but as tlie notes ai>' more portable, and capable of a much moreeafy 
COivv-cy.incc : fince a bci.ik i)(nc fr>y n verv la'i>i. fimi, ni^y !k: i*;r.t by the 
poii, and to prevent the defions r-i r<.i.;hers, niisy, wirhout dnmii'^-c, be 
cut in two, and font at two (everal times. Or bills, caiU- ». Bank poft. 
bin,'., may be had by application at the B.''.ik, which are particularly cai- 
cul.ited to prevent lofles' by robberies, they being made payable to the 
order oi' the perfon who takes them out, at a certain number of days 
after fight ; which gives an opportunity to flop bills at the Bank, if they 
ihould be loft, and prevents their being fo eafily negociated by ftrangcrs 
as common Bank notes are : and whoever confiders the hazard, the ex- 
pence and trouble, there would be in fending large fums of gold and 
iilver to and from diftant places, muft alfo confider this as a very Angular 
advantage. Befide which, another benefit attends them ; for if they are 
deftroyed by time, or other accident, the Bank will, on oath being 
made of fuch accident, and fecurity being given, pay the money to the 
perfon who was in pofleflion of them. 

Bank notes differ from all kinds of flock in thefe three particulars ; 
I. They are always of the fame value. 2. They are paid off with- 
out being transferred ; and, 3. They bear no intereft ; while flocks are 
a fhare in a company's funds, bought without any condition of having 
the principal returned. India bonds indeed (by fome perfons, though 
erroneoufly, denominated ftock) are to be excepted, they being made 
payable at fix months notice, either on the fide of the company or of the 
pofTefTor. 

By the word Stock was originally meant, a particular fum of money 
contributed to the eftablifhing a fund to enable a company to carry on a 
certain trade, by means of which the perfon became a partner in that 
trade, and received a fhare in the profit made thereby, in proportion to 
the money employed. But this term has been extended farther, though 
improperly, to fignify any fum of money which has been lent to the go- 
vernment, on condition of receiving a certaiif intereft till the money is 
repaid, and which makes a part of the national debt. As the fecurity 
both of the government and of the public companies is cfteemed pre- 
ferable to that of any private perfon, as the flocks arc negotiable and ; 
auy be fold at any time, and as the in(ereA is always pundually paid j 

wh«u 



[ 



ENGLAND. 



141 



L«n due, fo they are thereby enabled to borrow money on a lower in- 
-tJl than what might be obtained from lending it to private perfons, 
yere there muil be always Tome danger of lofmg both principal and in- 

tfft. 
I But as every capital flock or fnnd of a company is raifed for a partl- 

Ujrpurpofc, and limited by parliament to a certain fuin, it neceiiarily 
tllovvs, that when that fund is complcated, no flock can be bough i of 
L company ; though fhares already purehafed, may be transferred from 
iineperlon to another. This being the cafe, there is frequently a great 
jiifpfoportion between the original value of the fhares, and what is given 
llor them when transferred ; for if there are more buyers than fellers, a 
Iptrfon who is indifferent about felling, will not part with his fhare with- 
loat a confiderable profit to himfelf ; and on the contrary, if many are dif- 
Ipofed to fell, and few inclined to buy, tlie value of fuch fliares will natu- 
My fall, in proportion to the impauence of tJiofe who want to turn their 
Hock into fpecie. 
Thefe obfervations may ferve to give our readers fome idea of the na- 
tireof that unjullifiable and difhonefl practice called Stock-jobbing, the 
Lyiler)' of which confifts in nothing more than this: the perfons con- 
I (tmed in that pradicc, who are denominated Stock-jobbers, make con- 
tnftj to buy or fell, »t a certain diftant time, a certain quantity of fbme 
particular ftock, againft wliich time they endeavour, ' according as their 
cojtraft is, either to raife or lower fuch ftock, by raifmg rumours and 
fprcading fictitious ftories, in order to induce people either to fell out in 
aliiirr)'. and confequently cheap, if they are to deliver ftock ; or to be- 
come unwilling to fell, and confequently to make it dearer, if they are 
loreceive ilock. 

The perfons who make thefe contrafts are not In general pofTefTed of 

aiv real ftock, and when the time comes that they are to receive or de- 

lirer the quantity they have contracted for, they only pay fuch a fum of 

noney as makes the difference between the price the ftock was at whea 

I liiey made the cont^aft, and the price it happens to be at when the con- 

rad is fulfilled ; and it is no uncommon thing for perfons not worth 

Jiool. to make contrafts for the buying or felling 100,000 1. ftock. In 

lijie language of Exchange- Alley, the buyer in this cafe is called the Bull, 

Iind the feller the Bear. 

Befide thefe, there are another fet of men, who though of a higher 

[lank, may properly enough come under the fame denomination. Tiiefe 

ire your great monied men, who are dealers in ftock, and contractors 

Kith the government whenever any new money is to be borrowed. Thefe 

lindeed are not fictitious, but real buyers and fellers of ftock ; but by 

[nifing falfe hopes, or creating groundlefs fears, by pretending to buy or 

\k\\ large quantities of ftock on a fudden, by ufmg the fore-mentioned fet 

iTmen as their inftruments, and other like practices, are enabled to raife 

I « fall the ftock? one or two per cent, at pleafure. 

However, the real value of one ftock above another, on account of itf 

King more profitable to the proprietors, or any thing tJiat will really, or 

aly in imagination, afFeCt the credit of a company, or endajiger the go- 

xmment, by which that credit is fecured, muft naturally have a con- 

Kerable effeCl on the ftocks. Thus, with refpeCt to the intereft of the 

fioprittors, a fhare in the ftock of a trading company which produces 

il> or ^ 1. per cent, perann. muft be more valuable than an annuity 

with 



it'*; 






Uii 



E N C L A N D. 



'.;ii 









^i'i 



mi^ ^>. 



tm 



with govrrnment fccurity, that produces no more than 3 I. or ili 
cent, pfcr annum ; and confcqutfntly fuch ftocic mail fell at a higher pnc^l 
than iuch an annuity. Though it muA be obferved^ that a Ihare in thJ 
ilock of a trading company producing 5I. or 61. per cent, per annum! 
ivill not fetch fo much money at market as a government annuity pro.*! 
ducing the fame fum, becaufe the fecurity of the company is not reck- 1 
oned equal to that of the government, and the continuance of thcirl 
paying fo much per annum, is more precarious^ as their dividend is or 
ought to be, always in proportion to the profits of their trade. 

As the flocks of the Eaft-India) the Bank, and South-Sea companies 
are dilUnguifhed by dift'crent denominations, and are of a very different 
nature, we Ihall give a fhort hiltory of each of them, together with an 
account of the different flocks each is po/IefTed of, beginning with ths 
£afl-lndia company, as the firlt cllablifliedi 

Public trauing companies.] Of thefe the Eafl^-India company 
takes the lead ; and I have already given fome account of it, as b ' 
the capital commercial objed in England. The firfl idea of it wasl 
formed in queen Elizabeth's time, but it has fince adhiitted of vaftalJ 
terations. Its fhares, or fubfcriptions, were originally only 50 l.fterling J 
and its capital only 369,891 1. 5 s. but the directors having aconfi- 
derable dividend to make in 1676, it was agreed to joi i the profits to the 
capital, by which the fhares were doubled, and, confequently, each be- 
came of looL value, and the capital 739,782 1. los. to which capital, 
if 963,639 I. the profits of the company to the year 1685, be added, the 
whole flock will be found to be 1,703,402 I. Though the eflablifhment 
of thia company was vindicated in the clearefl manner by Sir Jofiah Childi I 
and other able advocates, yet the partiality which the duke of, York, 
afterwards James II. had for his favourite African trade, the lofTes it 
fuflained in wars with the Dutch, and the revolutions which had hap- 
pened in the affairs of Indotlan, damped the ardour of the public to fup- 1 
port it J fo that at the time of the Revolution, when the war broke out 
lyith France, it was in a very indifferent fituation< This was in a great j 
tneaflirc owing to its having no parliamentary fan£lion« whereby its ftock 
often fold for one half lefs than it was really worth ; and it was refolved 
that a new company fhould be ereded, under the authority of par- 
liamept. 

The oppofition given to all the public fpirited meafiires of king Wil- 
liam by fadion, rendered this propofal a matter of vaft difliculty j but 
tttiafl, after many parliamentary enquiries, the new fubfcription pre- 
vailed ; and the fubl'cribers, upon advancing two millions to the public 
at 8 per cent, obtained an aft of parliament in their favour. The old 
company, however, retained a vafl interefl both in the parliament and 
nation; and the aft being found in fome refpefts defeftive, fo violent a 
ftruggle between the two companies arofe, that in the year 1702; they 
were united by an indenture tripartite. In the year i7oii, the yearly fund 
of 8 per cent, for two millions, was reduced to 5 per cent, by a loan of 
1,200,000!. to the public, without any additional interefl; for which 
confideration the company obtained a prolongation of its exclufiv6 privi- 
leges ; and a new charter was granted to them, under the title cf^ The 
United Company of Merchants trading to the Eafl Indies. Its exclufive 
tight of trade was prolonged from time to time; and a farther fum was 
lent by the company in 1730, by which, though the company's pnvi;« 
leges were extended for thirty- duce years, yet the jntergft of their capital, 

whicli 



ENGLAND. 



'45 



»iicK tlietJ amounted to 3,200,000!. was reduced to three per cent. 
,iJ ailed the India 3 per cent, annuities. 

Thofe annuities are difierent from the trading ftock of the comp.nny, 
lilt proprietors of which, inllead of receiving a regular annuity, have, 
scording to their different fhares, a dividend of the profits arifing troin 

I lie company's trade; and that dividend rifes or falls according; to the 
tircumllanccs of the company, either real, or, as h too often the Cufe, 
pretended. A proprietor of (lock to the amount of 500 1. whether mait 
Of (voman, native or foreigner, has a right to be a manager, and to giv« 
a vote in the general council. Twothoufand pounds is the qualificatioa 
fbradireftor: the diredors are twenty-four in number, including the 
chairman and deputy-chairman, who may be rc-elcfted for four'yeari 
fncceffively. The chairman has a falaryof 200 1. a year, and each of" 
the directors i 50 1. The meetings, or court of direftors, are to be held 
It ieaft once a week ; but are commonlv oftcner, being fummoned as 
(ccafion requires. Oat of the body of diredlors are chojen feveral com- 
jtittees, who hare the peculiar infpe(5lio« of certain branches of the 
tompany's bufmefs; as the committee of corrcfpondence, a committee 
rfbijying, a committee of treafury, a houfe committee, a committee of 
larchoulcs, a committee of (hipping, a committee of accounts, a con»>f 
mittee of law-fnits, and a committee to prevent the growth of private 
trade ; who have under them a fecietary, cafhier, clerks, and warehoufe« 
keepers. 

The ama:ting territorial acquifitions of this company, which are at- 
tndcd with a proportionable encreafe of trade, joined to the diflention* 
among its managers both at home and abroad, have of late engaged the 
attention of the Tegiflatu*e fo much, that a reftridion has been laid for 
tieir dividends for a certain time, not to exceed 1 2 and a half per cent. 
Aj to the vaft fortunes acquired by their governors and officers abroad, 
ie lUtc in which they live, aod their other economical regulations, they 
vc foreign to this head. 
Odier officers of the company are governors and faftors abroad, fome 

I of whom have guards offoldiers, and live in all the ftate of fovereigi| 

I princes. 

I Bank of England.] The company of the Bank was incorporated 
by parliament, in the 5th and 6th years of king William and queen 
Mary, by the name of the Governor and Company of the Bank of Eng- 
land ; in confideration of the loan of i,20o,oool. granted to the govern- 
ment; for which the fubfcribers received almoft 8 per cent. By this 
charter, the company are not to borrow under their cor imon feal, unlefs 
by a^ of parliament ; they are not to trade, or fufFer ^ny perfon in tri/ft 

I for them, to trade in any goods, or merchandize; but they may deali 
[Is of exchange, in buying or felling bullion, and foreign gold an 

jilvercoin, Sec, 
By an ad of parliament pafTed In the 8th and 9th year of Will. JIL 

j ky were impowered to enlarge their capital ftock to 2,201,171 1. lo s. 
It was then alfo eaa£ied, that bank (lock (hould be a perfonal, and not a 
sal edate ; that no contract either in word or writing, for buyiag or 
Uliing bank ftock, fhould be good in law, unlefs regiftered in the l»oks 
(f the Bank within feven days ; and the (lock transferred in fourteen days, 
ad that it (hould be felony, without benefit of clergy, . to counterfeit the 
nmmon feal of the Banic, or any fealcd Bank billi or any Bank note, 
6 to alter or erafe fuch bills or notes. 

3 Bj 







144 



ENGLAND. 



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By another aA paHed in the 7th of queen Anne, the company wei\ 
impowcrcd to augment their capital to 4,402,34.3 1. and they then al 
vanccd 400,000!. more to the government ; and in 1714, they advanced 
anotlier loan of* 1,500,000!. 1 

Ir, the tliird year of the rcign of icing George I. the intcreft of thcij 
capital lloclc was reduced to 5 per cent, when the Banlc agreed to delivd 
up as many Exchequer bil!s as amounted to 2,000,000 1. and to acccpl 
an annuity of 100,000 1. and it wa3 declared iawfu! for the Bank to cm 
from their member.s in proportion to their intereds in the capital ftocld 
fuch fum3 of money as in a gencial court fhouid be found ncceffary. J 
any member fhouid negled to pav his lh.ire of the monies fo called fori 
at tlie titae appointed by notice in the London Gazette, and fixed upo| 
the Rojal Exchange, it Ihould be lawful for the Bank, not only to ftoi 
the dividend of fuch member, and to apply it toward payment of the mo^ 
ney in quertion ; but alfo to ftop the tranifers of the lliare of liich deJ 
faulter, and to charge him with an interell of 5 per cent, per annum,! 
for the money fo omitted to be paid : and if the principal and iqtercdl 
fhouid be three months unpaid, the Bank (hould then have power to fel],] 
fo much of the ftock belonging to the defaulter as would fatisfy thel 
fame. I 

After this, the Bank reduced the interell of the 2,000,000 1. lent to| 
the government, from ; to 4 per oent. and purcliafed fcveral other an- 
nuities, which were afterwards redeemed by the government, and the] 
national debt due to the Bank, reduced to 1,600,000 1. But in 1742,] 
the company engaged to fupply the government with 1,600,000 1. at 
3 percent, which is now called the 3 per cent, annuities j fo that the 
government was now indebted to the company 3,200,000 1. the one half 
carrying 4, and the other 3 per cent. 

In the year 1746, the company agreed that the fum of 986,800!. due 
to them in the Exchequer bills uniatisfied, on the duties for licences to I 
fell fpirituous liquors by retail, (hould be cancelled, and in lieu thereof] 
to accept of an annuity of 39,442 1, the interell of that fum at 4 per 
cevz. The company alfo agreed to advance the further fum of i,ooo,oool. 
into the Exchequer, upon the credit of the duties arifing by the malt and 
land-tax, at 4 per cent, for Exchequer bills to be iffued for that pur* 
pofe ; in consideration of which, the company were enabled to augment 
their capital with 986,800 1. the interell of which, as well as that of the 
other annuities, was reduced to 3 and a half per cent, till the 25th of 
December 1757, and from that time to carrj'ouly 3 per cent. 

And in order to enable them to circulate; the laid Exchequer bills, 
they eftabliflied what is now called Bank circulation. The nature of 
which, not being well underftood, we Ihall take tl^e liberty to be a little 
more particular in its explanation than we have been with regard to the 
other flocks. 

The company of the Bank are obliged to keep cafh fufficient to arfwer 
not only the common, but alfo any extraordinary demand tlut may be . 
made upon them ; and whatever money they have by them, over and 
above the fum fuppofed necefTary for thefe pui-pofes, they employ in what 
may be called the trade of the company ; that is to fay, in difcounting 
bills of exchange, in buying of gold and filver, and in government feca- 
rities. Sec. But when the Bank entered into the above-mentioned con- 
tradl, as they did not keep unemployed a larger fum of money than what 
tiiey deemed ajecellary to anfwer their ordinary and extraordinary 

demandsy 



ENGLAND. 



HS 



Bands, they could not conveniently take out of their current calh fo 
a fum as a million, with which they were obliged to fiirnifh the 
llirtrnment, without cither Icflfening that fum they employed in dii- 
Lnting, buying gold and filver, &c. (which would have been very 
Ldvantageous to them) or inventing feme method that ihould anfwer 
ithc purpofes of keeping the million in cafli. The method which they 
|olc, and which fully anfwers their end, was as follows. 
iTht/ opened a fubfcription, which they renew annually, for a million 
fmoiiey ; wherein the iubfcribers advance lo percent, and enter into 
jcontraft to pay the remainder, or any part thereof, whenever the 
|aiik(hall call upon them, under the penalty of forfeiting the lo per 
tent, fo aHvanced ; in confideration of which, the Bank pays the fub- 
ribers 4 per cent, interelt for the money paid in, and one fourth per 
Jttnt. for the whole fum they agree to furnilh ; ai.d in cafe a call fliould 
(bimadc upon them for the whole, or any part thereof, the Bank far- 
liitr agrees to pay them at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum for fuch fum 
[till they repay it, which they are under an obligation to do at the end 
Itifthe year. By this means the Bank obtains all the purpofes of keep- 
lit* a million of money by them ; and though the fublcribers, if no call, 
iiinade upon them (which is in general the cafe) receive 6 and a half 
Mcent. for the money they advance, yet the company gains the fum 
0113,500 1. per annum by the contradl ; as will appear by the following 
liccount. 
The Bank receives from the government for the advance of £. 

a million — — — — •— 30,000 

The Bank pays to the fubfcribers who advance 100,000 1. 
and engage to pay (when called for) 900,000 1. more 



j_,w — 
I 6,500 



The clear gain to the Bank therefore is — -^ 



23,500 



This is the (late of the cafe^ provided the compahy (hould make na 
on the fubfcribers, which they will be very unwilling to do, be- 
aafe it would not only lefTen their profit, but aifedl the public credit in 
pral. 

Bank (lock may not improperly be called a trading (lock, fince with 

Ills they deal very largely in foreign gold and filver, in difcounting bills 

nexchange, Sic. Befide which, they are allowed by the government 

Itry confiderable fums annually for the management of the annuities 

hid at their office. All which advantaores, render a (hare in their (lock 

Itry valuable ; though it is not equal m value to the Eaft-India (lock. 

!he company make dividends of the profits half yearly, of which notice 

I publicly given ; when thofe who have occafion for their money, may 

ndily receive it : but private perfons, if they judge convenient, are 

irmitted to continue their furids, and to have their intercH added to 

ie principal. 

This company is under the direction of a governor, deputy-governor, 
id twenty-four direftors, who are annually elefted by the general court, 
Jthe fame manner as in the Eail-Iudia company. Thirteen, or more, 
cnpofe a court of directors for managing the affairs of the company. 
Tne olFcers of this company arc very numerous. 
South-sea company.] During the long war with France, in the 
i^ of queen Anne, the payment oAhe failors of the royal navy being 
sijlefted, and they receiving tickets ^ftead of money, were frequently 
by their negcflities, to fell thefe tickets to avaritious men at a 

L difcount 



i- I., I; 



m 



m 

if 



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1? !f>l 



■1: 1' 






f^ffi 



ENGLAND. 



difcount of 40 1. and fomctimes 50 1. per cent. By thi , and othe 
means, the debts of the nation unprovided for by parliament, and- 
<vhich amounted to 9,471,321!. fell into the hands of thefe uilirersl 
On which Mr. Harley, at that time chancellor of the Exchequer, and! 
afterward earl of Oxford, propofed a fcheme to allow the proprietors ofl 
thefe debts and deficiencies 61. percent, per annum, and to incorporatel 
them, in order to their carrying on a trade to the South-fea ; and tlieyl 
were sKcordingly incorporated nnder the title of the Governor and Com-I 
pany of Merchants of Great-Britain, trading to the South-Seas, aujl 
other parts of America, and for encouraging the Fifhcry, &c. 

Thottgh this company feem formed for the fake of commerce, it i$l 
certain the minittry never thought fcrioufly, during- the courfc of th«| 
war, about making any fettlemcnts on rhe coaft ot South America,! 
which was what flattered the expedations of the people ; nor was it in-l 
deed ever carried into execution, or any trade ever undertaken by thisl 
company, except the AiTiento, in purfuanre of the treaty of Utrecht, fori 
furnifliing the Spaniards with negroes } of which this company was deprivedl 
upon receiving fome equivalent by a convention between the courts of Great.j 
Britain and Spain, foon after the treaty of Aix la Cliapelle, in 1748. 

Some other fums were lent to the government in the reign 
queen Anne, at 6 per cent. In the third of George I. the intereL 
of the whole was reduced to 5 per cent, and they advanced two millionjl 
more to the government at the fame intereft. By the llatute of the 6t|il 
of George I. it was declared, that this company might redeem all oM 
any of the redeemable national debts ; in confidcration of which, the! 
company v. ere empowered to augment their capital according to tiiel 
lums they fhould dilcharge : and for enabling the company to raife fuchl 
fums for purchafing annuities, exchanging for ready money new Exche-I 
quer bills, carrying on their trade, &c. the company might, by fucl>| 
means as they fhould think proper, raife fucli flams of money as in a gene-j 
ral court of the company fliould be judged necefFary. The company were! 
aifo empowered to raife money on the contracts, bonds, or obligationsj 
under their common feal, on the credit of their capital flock. But if thcj 
fub-governor, deputy-governor, or other members of the company,! 
ihould purchafe lands or revenues of the crown, upon account of the] 
corporation, or lend money by loan or anticipation, on any branch of 
the revenue, other than fuch part only on which a credit of loan wasj 
granted by parliament, fuch fiib-governor, or other member of the com- j 
pany, fhould forfeit treble the value of the money <b lent. 

The fatal South-Sea fcheme, tranfadted in the year 1720, was exe- 
cuted upon the 1 all-mentioned llatute. The company haa it iirll fetouij 
with good fuccefs, and the value of their Hock, for tlic full five yeurs,! 
liad rilen fafter than that of any other company, and his uiajelly, after! 
puichafmg 10,000 1, ilqck, had condefcended to be their governor. 
Things were in this fituation, when taking ad/antage of the above! 
llatute, the South-Sea bubble was projeded. The pretended dcfign of j 
which was to raife a fund for carrying on a trade to the South-ieas, and] 
, purchafing annuities, &c. paid to the other companies : and propofalsj 
were printed and diflributed, fliewing the advantages of tlic deiign, and! 
inviting perfbns into it. The fum neceflary lor carrying it on, togetherl 
with tlie profits that were to arife from it, were divided into a certairtl 
number of fnares, or fubfcriptions, to be purchafcd by perfons diipofcdl 
to adventure therein. And the bet.'icr to carry on the deception, the! 
iiiredois engaged to make very lur^^e divid»nus j unJ at^Udlly declared, 



i 



thai 



fi N G L A N D. 



U7 



,j every lool. original ftock would yield 50I. per annum: which oc- 
liJiioned fogre.it a rife of their (lock, that a (hare of 100 1. was fold for 
Lwards otSool. This was in the month of July ; but before the 
1 gd of September, it fell to 150 1. by which multitudes were ruined, 
Ud fuch a fcene of diftrefs occafioned, as is fcarcely to be conceived. 
lilt the confequences of this infamous fcheme are too well known. We 
J Jail pafs over all the other tranfaftions of this company in the reign of 
[ling George I. as not material to onr prcTent piirpcfc. 
I By a ftatute of the 6th of his late majefty, it was enafted, that from 
j,nd after the i4th of June, 1733, t' e capital ftock of this company, 
jwliich amounted to 14,651,103 1. 8 ". i d. and the fliares of the refpec- 
; proprietors, fhould be divided into four equal parts, three-foiirths 
(It which fliould be converted into a joint ftock, attended with annuities, 
[after the rate of 4 per cent, until redemption by parliament, and fhould 
l)e called, the new South-Sea annuities} and the other fourth part 
lliould remain in the company as a trading capital ftock, attended with 
t rclidue of the annuities or funds payaole at the Exchequer to the 
company for their whole capital, till redemption ; and attended with 
tie fame films allowed for the charges of management; and witK all 
tftcls, profits of trade, debts; privilege*, and advantages, belonging 
to the South-Sea coapany. That the accomptant of the company 
liioald, twice every year, at Chriftmas and Midfummer, or within one 
Mth after, ftate an account of the company's affairs, which fhould be 
Iiii before the next general court, in order to their declaring a divi- 
dcad: and ixll dividends fliould be made out of the clear profits j and 
Wd liot e;iceed wliat the company might redfohably divide; witliout 
kurring r.iiy farther debt ; provided that the company fliould not at 
iny time divide more than 4 per cent, per annum, until their debts 
wre difcharged ; and that the South-Sea company, and their trading 
lock, fhould, exclufively from the new joint ftock of annuities, btf 
liable to all the debts and incumbrances of the company ; and that the 
company fhould caufe to be kept, within the city of London, an ofHce 
d books, in which all transfers of the new annuities fhould be en- 
ted, and figned by the party making fuch transfer, or his attorney; 
lad the perlbn to whom fuch transfer fhould be made, or his attorney; 
tould under-wfife his acceptance; and no other m''^od of transferring 
ie annuities fliould be good in law. 

The annuities of this company, as well as the other, are now reduced 
S3I. per cent. 

This company is under the direftion of a governor, fub-^overnor; 
itputy-governor, and twenty-one directors ; but no perfl)n is qualified 
s be governor, his majefty excepted, unlefs fuch governor ba'S in his 
wn name and right, 5000^1. in the trading ftock ; the fub-governor ia 
iihave400ol. tlie deputy 3000 1. and a direftor zooofl. in the fame 
kk. In every general court, every member; having in his owA name 
id right, 5001. in tradiitg ftock, has orie vote ; if zoool* two votes; 
130001. three votes, and if 5000 1. four votes. 
The Eaft-India company, the Bank of England, and the Gouth-Sea 
(Mipany, are the only incorporated bodies to which the government ii 
itiiEbted, except the Million-Bank, whofe capital is only one million^ 
dnftituted to nurchafe the reverfion of the long Exchequer grders. 
The intercft of all th'3 debts owing by the government, is novr reduced 
io} pier cent> excepting only the Annuities for the years 1756, and 
i/jS, the lif«f annuities and the Exchcv^ucr orders : but the South-Sea 

jL 9. company 






k\' 



I 



I m 



i'l! 






? 



I 1 



148 



ENGLAND. 



company ftill continues to divide 4 per cent, on their prefent capita^ 
Hock ; whiqh they, are enabled to do from the p;ofits they make on thJ 
fums allowed to them for management of the annuities paid at their ofl 
lice, end from the intereft of annuities which are not claimed by th? 
proprietors. 1 

As the prices of the different ftocks are continually fluftuating abovl 
and below paty fo when a perfon who is not acquainted with tranl3 
aftions of that nature, reads in the papers the prices of ftocks, wherJ 



[ool. of thofe refpeftive ftocW 



Bank ftock Is marked perhaps 127, India ditto 134 a 1345, South-Sej 
ditto 97 1, &c. he h to underftand, thnt u ' 
fell at fuch a time for thofe feveralfums. 

In comparing tlie prices of the different (locks one with another, i| 
mull be remembered, tliat the intereft due on them from the time of thi 
laft payment, is taken into the current price, and the feller never re^ 
ceives any feparate confideraiion for it, except in the cafe of Jndi 
bonds, where the intereft due Is calculated to the day of the fale, ani 
paid by the purchafer, over and above the premium agreed for. But 
the intereft on the different ftocks is paid at different times, this, if noi 
rightly underftood, would lead a perfon, not well acquainted wi 
them, into confiderable miftakes in \\m computation of their value 
fome always having a quarter's intereft due on them more than others^ 
which makes an appearance of a conficerable difference in thepricci 
when, in reality, there is none at all. Thus, for inftance, old South. 
Sea annuities fell at prefent for £. 85 .', or £. 85 10 s. while op 
South-Sea annuities fetch only £,. 84^, or/'. 84 15 s. though each 
them produce the fame annual fum of 3 per cent, but the old annuitii 
have a quarter's intereft more due on them than the new annuitiesL 
which amounts to 15 s. the evad diflerence. There is, however, onq 
or two caufes that will always make one fpecies of annuities fell fome 
what lower than another, though of the fame real value ; one of whid 
is, the annuities making but a fmall capita!, and there hot being, foi 
that reafon, fo many people at all times ready to buy into it, as int( 
others, where the quantity is larger ; becaufe it is apprehended thai 
whenever the government pays off the naiional debt, they will begiaj 
with that particular fpecies of annui'i\-, the capital of which is thei 
fmalleft. 

A ftock may likewife be affefted by the court of Chancery ; for 
that court Ihould order the money which is under their diredlion, to be 
laid out in any particular ftock, tliat ftock, by having more purchafers»i 
win '■'e raifed to a higher price than any other of the like value. 

ijy what has been faid, the reader will perceive how much the credii 
and intereft of the nation depends on the lupport of the public funds.' 
While tije annuities, and intereft for money advanced, is tlierc regularij 
paid, and the principal infured by both prince and people, (a fecuritj 
not 10 be had in ether nations) foreigners will lend us their property, 
and all Europe be interefted in our welfare j the paper of the com' 
panics will be convuted into money and merchandize, and Great-Brii 
tain can never want calh to carry her fchemes into execution. 

In other nations, credit is founded on the word of the prince, if amO' 
narchy; or that of the people, if a republic; but here if 
on the interefta of both prince and people, which is the ftrongcii. lecurity 
for however lovely and engaging honclly may be in other refpefts, in 
tereft in money-matters will always obtain confidence j becaulb man 
people pay ^icit regard to thgir intereft, ^', ho have but little veneratioi 
for virtue. 



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ENGLAND. 



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Intereft per annum. W'lien du^ I When transferred. I Holidays. \ 


Jan. I, 6, 18,25, 30 

Feb. ?., 24. 

March 25. 

April 23, 25. 

May 1 , 29. 

June 4, II, 24, 29. 

July 25. 

Augaft 12, 24. 

Sept. 2, 21, 22, 29. 

Oft. i8, 25,28. 
Nov. 1, 4, 5, 9, 30. 
Dtc.21,25,26,27,28 


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Mon. Tu. Th. & Fr. 

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Ditto 

Tuefd. & Thurf. 
Mon. Wed. & Frid. 
M.Tu. We.Th. &Fr. 
Tu. Wed. Th. & Fr. 

Wed. & Satur. 
Ditto 


Mon. Wed. & Frid. 

Ditto 

Tuef. Thurf. & Sat, 

Tuef. & Thurf. 


^- w ^ 0-3 

ON 0— «^ 


Ditto 

5 April & 10 Oft. 

5 Jan. & 5 July 

Ditto 

Dittc 
5 April & 10 Oft. 


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South-Sea Stock. 
— 3 per cent, old an. 
— 3 per cent, new 

— 3 per cent. 1751. 

— 


01 

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N. B. Intereft on In- 
dia bonds due 31ft 
March and 30th of 
September. 






'50 



ENGLAND. 



>f!l 



i 




Constitution and laws.] Tacitus, in defcribing fnch a conftij 
tntion as that of England, Teems to think, that however beauti-l 
ful it may be in theory, it will be found imprafticable in the execution.! 
Experience has proved his miftake, for by certain checks, that operate! 
mutually, and which did not fall withir^ his ideas, the Englifh confti, 
tution has continued in its full vigour for above five hundred years. \i\ 
muft, at the fame time, be admifted, that it has received, during thati 
time, many amendments, and fome interruptions, but its principles are] 
the fame, with thofe defcribed by the above-mentioned hiftorian, as beJ 
longing to the Germans, and the other northern anceftors of the Englilhi 
nation and which are veiy improperly blended under the name of Go-f 
thic. On the firft inyafion of England by the Saxons, who came from 
Germany, and the neighbouring countries, their laws and manners werel 
pretty much the fame, as thofe mentioned by Tacitus. The people had] 
a leader in time of war. The conquered lands, in proportion to the 
merits of his follower":, and their abilities to fer\'e him, were diftributcd 
among them, and th^ .^ -1^ was confidered as the common property 
which they wpre to unite 'ending againftall invaders. Frcfh adven- 

turers coming over, under it _ rate leaders, the old inhabitants were dri- 
ven into Wales, and thofe Readers, at laft, affumed the title of kings, ' 
over the feveral diftrids they had conquered. This change of appel- 
hition made them more refpeftable among the Britons, and tlieirj 
neighbours the Scots and Picts, but did not encreafe their power, the j 
operations of which continued to be confined to military affairs. 

All civil matters were propofed in a general aflembly of the chief offi. 
jcers, and the people, till, by degrees, fherifls, and other civil officers, I 
were appointed. The country was divided into wapentakes, and hun- 
dreds, names that (liU fubfift in England, and overfeers were chofen to 
direft them £br the good of the whole. The fhenfF was the judge of all 
civil and criminal matters, within the county, and to him, after the in- 
troduflion of Chr'ftianity, was added the bifhop. In procefs of time, 
as bufinefs multiplied, itinciant, and other judges, were appointed, but 
by the earliell records, it appears, that all civil matters were decided by 
twelve or fixteen men, living in the neighbourhood of the place where 
the difpute lay, and here we have the original of Englifh juries. 

Before the introduftion of Chriftianity, we know not whether the 
Gaxons admitted of juries in criminal matters, but we are certain that 
there was no aftion fo criminal, as not to be compenfatcd for by money*. 
A mulct was impofed in proportion to the guilt ; even if it was the mur- 
der of the king, upon the malefatJlor, and by paying it, he purchafed 
I;i3 pardon. Thofe barbarous ufages feem to have ceafed foon after the 
S::xons were converted to Chriftianity, and cafes of murder and felony 
were then tried, even in the king's court, by a jury. 

Royalty, among the Saxons, was not, ftridlly fpeaking, hereditary, 
though in faft it came to be rendered fo through the affettion which the 
people bore for the blcod of their kings, and for prefcrving the regula- 
rity of government. Even e.latcs and honours were not ftrittly heredita- 
j-y, till t.'iey were made fo by William the Conqueror. 

That prince new modelled the Englifh conftitution. He divided the 
conquered lands among his followers, as had been agreed before the 



# Called by the Saxon) Guzlt> and thence the v/otdguily in crimioal trials< 

tinva 



ENGLAND. 



»5i 



l^jie fif tlie invafion, in perpetual property. He partitioned out the 
llitds into knight's fees, an indetermined number of which formed a ba- 
Lv, and thofe baronies were given to the great noblemen, who compofed 
l(kat is called the King's Co'irt, or Court of Peers, from every baron 
Ling a peer or equal ':o another. In this court all civil as well as mi- 
litary matters, and the proportions of knights and men, which each 
aron was to raife for the king's fcrvice, were fettled. Even biftioprics 
[fere converted imo lay baroiiies, and were obliged, as others, to fur-» 
lilh their quotas. In other refpeds, the Conqueror, and the firfl: princes 
ff the Norman line, did all they could, to efface from the minds of the 
tople, the remembrance of the Saxon conftitution, but the attempt was 
Jto no purpofe. The nobility, as well as the people, had their com- 
(plaints againft the crown, and after much war and blood-fhed, the fa- 
Ijious charter pf Englilh liberties, fo well known by the name of Mag- 
ciCharta, vi^ forcibly, in a manner, obtained from king John, and coft- 
hrmed by his fon Henry III. who fucceeded to the crown in 1216. It 
hoes not appear, that till this reign, and after a great deal of blood had 
hem fpilt, the commons of England were reprefented in parliament, or 
^reat council of the nation, fo entirely had the barons engroffed 
tothcmfelves, the difpofal of property. 

The precipe year, when the houfe of commons was formed. Is not 
hovvn, but we are certain, that it began in the reign of Henry III. 
though we fhall not enter into any difputes about their fpecific powers. 
Ws Ihall therefore proceed to defcribe the conllitution, as it ftands at 
prefcnt. 

In all ftates there is an abfolute fupreme power, to which the right 
of legiflation belongs ; and which, by the fingular conilitution of thefe 
kingdoms, is here veiled in the king, lords, and commons. 

Of the king.] The fupreme executive power of Great Britain, 

zsdlreland, is veiled by our conllitution in a fingle perfon, king, or 

queen ; for it is indifferent to which fex the crown defcends : the perfon 

, tntitled to it, whether male or female, is immediately intrufted with all 

the enfigns, rights, and prerogatives of fovereign power. 

The grand fundamental maxim upon which the right of fuccefHon 

Itothe throne of thefe kingdoms depends, is: " that the crown, by 

common law and conftitutional cuJlom, is hereditary ; and this in a 

manner peculiar to itfelf : but that the right of inheritance may from 

time to time be changed or limited by ad't of parliament : under which 

I limitations the crown Hill continues hereditar\'." 

That the reader may enter more clearly into the doduilion of the follow- 
ling roval fuccefiion, by its being transferred from the houfe of Tudor, to 
thatcf^iituart, it may be proper to inform him that on the death of queen 
'Elizab,nh, without ilfuc, it became necefiary to recur to the other Iflucof 
ier grandfather Henry VII. by Elizabeth of York his queen : whofe eldeft 
iaugnter Margaret, havin,^ married Jamcp IV. king of Scotland, king 
limes tiie Sixih of Scotland, and of England the Firll, was the lineal 
le.ccndant from that alliance. So that in his perfon, as clearly as in 
Henry VIII. centered all the claims of the difterent competitors, from 
k Norman conqueit downward ; he being indifputably the lineal heir 
«r the conqueror. And, what is Itill more remarkable, in his perfor) 
jiD centcicd the right of the Saxon monavclis, which lv«d been fulpcnd- 



^' I 



im 



I 



IJ2 



ENGLAND, 



ed from the cohqucft till his acceflion. For Margaret, the filter of Ed 
giii- Athel'iig, the di lighter of Edward the Outlaw, and granddaughta 
of Icing Edmund Ironude, was the perlbn in whom the hereditary tip^m 
of the Saxon kings, fuppofingit not abelilhed by theconquelt, refuledJ 
She married Malcolm III. king of Scotland ; and Ifenry JI by a de^ 
fcent from Matilda their daughter, is generally called the r^liorcr of tha 
Saxon line. But it mull be remembered, that Malcolm, by his Saxoa 
queen, had fons as well as daughters j and chat the rcyal family of 
Scotland, from that time downward, were the oftspring of MalLolml 
and Margaret. Of this royal family king James I. waj the direct li,l 
neal defcetidant; and therefore united in his perfon every polfiblel 
claim, by hereditary right, to the Englilh as well as Scottifh throne I 
being the heir both of Egbert, and Wjlliam the Conqueror. | 

At the revolution, the convention of eftates, or reprefentativc body] 
of the nation, declared, that the mifconduft of king James II. amount- 1 
ed to an abdication of the government, and that the throne was thereby 
vacant. ' 

In confequence of this vacancy, and from a regard to the ancient line 
the convention appointed the next Proteftant heirs of the blood royal or 
king Charles I. to fill the vacant throne, in the old order of fucceffion ; 
with a temporary exception, or preference, to the perfon of king Wil- 
liam III. 

On the impending failure of die Proteftant line of king Charles I. 
(whereby the throne might again have become vacant) the king and 
parliament extended the fettlement of the crown to the Proteftant line of I 
king James I. viz. to the princefs Sophia, of Hanover, and the heirs 
of her body, being proteftants : and flie is now the common ftock, from 
whom the heirs of the crown muft defcend *t 

The 



* A Chronology of EngliA Kincs, from the time that this country became united under 
one monarch, in the perfon of Egbert, who fubdued the other princes of the Saxon hep- 
tarchy, and gave the name of Angle-land to this part of the ifland, the Saxons and An- 
gles having, about four centuries before, invaded and fubdued the ancient Britons. 
whom they drove into Wales and Cornwall. 

Began to 
reign. 

800 Egbert 
838 Ethelwulf 
Ethelbald 
Ethelbert 
Ethelred 
Alfred 

Edward the Elder 
Athelftan 
Edmund 
Edred 
Edwy 
Edgar 
975 Edward the Martyr 
979 Ethejred II. 
JO 1 6 Edmund II. J 

3017 Canute, king of Denoiark 1 



!57 
860 

866 

87* 

900 

9*5 

946 

955 
959 



Saxon PrlncsSi 



»«>35 Harold, Ofurper 
1039 Hpruicanute 



1 



Daniflt. 



JBegan 



E N G D A N D. 



'53 



fhe true ground and principle, npon which the revolution proceed- 
h was an entirely new cafe in politics, which had never before hap- 
hned in our hiflory ; the abdication of the reigninsr monarch, and the 
Ijcancy of the throne thereupon. It was not a defeazcincc of the rijrht 
/fucceflion, and a new limitation of the crown, by the king and 
mH houfes of parliament : it was the aft of the nation alone, upon a 
jonvidtion that there was no king in being. For in a full aflembly of 
[e lords and commons, met in convention upon the fuppofition of thb 

vacancy. 



■ Saxon. 



legan to 

reien. 

^'l Edward the ConfefTor 7 , 

,ii6; Harold, Ufarpcr 5" 
I 1 (Commonly called the Conqueror, from his conquering Fnghnd) duke 

|ip66 William I. > of Normandy, a province fiicing the fouih of England, i>ow an- 
I 3 nexed to the French monarchy. 

,c87 William II. 7 s^„, ^f ^^c Conqueror. 
Iico Henry I. i ^ 

iijc Stephen, grandfon to the Conqueror, by his fourth daughter Adela. 
I u IT C (Plantagenct) grandfon of Henry I. by his daughter the emprcfs Maud, 
"54 ^^"^y "• 2 and her fecond huiband Gcoffroy Planlagenet. 
„?9RichardI.7s„„3„f H II, 
1159 John 5 

i;i6 Henry III. fon of John. ^ 

]i-i Edward I. fon of Henry III. 
^C7 Edward II. fon of Edward I. 
ij!7 Edward III. fon »f Edward II. 

i]7 Richard II. grandfon of Edward JIT. by his eldeft fon, the black prince. 
Ij59 Henry IV. fon to' John of Gaunt, 4th fon to Edw. III.^ 
I '12 Henry V. fon of Henry IV". > Houfe of Lancafter. 

Ijjj Henry VI. fon of Henry V. J 

i;6i Edward IV. defcended from Edw. III. by Lionel his 3d fon 



} 



Houfe of York. 



Houfe of Tudor, in whom were united 
the houfes of Lancafter and York, by 
Henry VII's marriage with Elizabeth 
of York. 



11S3 Edward V. fon of Edward IV 

14S3 Richard III. brother of Edward IV. 

r (Tudor) fon of the coun- 
1 1485 Henry VII. \ tefs of Richmond of 

C the houfe of Lancafter. 
1508 Henry VI'I. fon of Henry VII. 
1547 Edward VI. fon of Henry VIII. 

'li^lElSbeth^D-ebters of Henry VIIL 

1 , . , C Great erandfon of Tames IV. king of Scotland, and firft of the Stuart 
[feJamesLj fo^ify i„ England. 

6:5 Charles I. fon of James L 
! I'furpation by commonwealth and Cromwell. 

.649 Chai-lcsIL 7 s„„3 of Charles L 
l6.)4 James II. 5 

... 5 William III. nephew and fon-in-law of James IL 

iand Mary 7 Daughters of jamesll. inwhonieodcd the Proteftant line of Charles I. 

i'02 Anne 5 for James II. iipon his abdicating the throne, carried with him his 
infant fon (the lite pretender) who was excluded by a£V of parlia- 
ment, which fettled tlie fuccelTion in the next Pniteftant heirs of 
James VI. The fv.rvivjng Iflue of James, at the time of his death, 
were a fon and a daughter, viz. Charles, who fucceeded him, and 
the princefs Elizabeth, who married the eleftor palatine, who took 
the title of king of Cohemla, and left a d.-.ughter, the princeis So- 
phia, who married th« duke of Brunfwick Lunenburg, by whom 
ftje hai George, eleftor of Hanover, who afccnded the throjie, 
by aft of parliament, exprei.ly made in favour of his mother. 



!'r4 George I. 
v.ij George II. 
i;6o George IlL i 



(. Houfe of Hanovtr, 



I 



HI 






In 


1 




BMi 




HI 


H^HmI 


lii 


t^HKIH J^ffij 






mm 




«1 



154- 



E N G 1. A N D. 





11 


H^Hw 


1 






vacancy, both hoiifcs came to tliis refolutton ; ** that klnj^ Jnmes IT, 
having endeavouie 1 to fuhvcrt the conftitution of the kingdom, by 
breaking the original contrafl between king and people; and by the ad- 
vice o\ jefuits, and otlier wicked perfons, having violated the funda- 
xnental laws ; and having v^itlidrawn himfclf out of this kingdom, has 
abdicated the r;ov"rfiment, and that the throne is thereby vacant." Thus 
t-nded at once, by this fudden and unexpedcd vacancy of the throne, the 
old line of fuccefTion : which from the conqueft had lalled above 6od 
years, and from the union of the Saxon heptarchy in king Egbert, aU 
mofl 900. 

Though in Hnne points (owing to the peculiar circumflances of things 
and periuns) tlie revolution was not altogether fo perfect as might have 
been wiihed; yet from ihcnce a new a-ra commenced, in which the 
bounds of prerogative and liberty have been better defined, the prin- 
ciples of govevnmcnt more thoroughly examined and underftood, and 
the rights of the I'ubjed more explicitly guarded by legal provifions, 
than in any other period of the EngHfh hiilory. In particular, it is wor- 
thy obfervatioii, that the convention, in this their judgment, avoided 
with great wifdom tiie v/:14 extreams into which the vifjonary theories 
i.f fome zealous republicans would have led them. They held that 
this mifcondudt of king fames amounted to an endeavour to fubvert the 
conftitutii^u, aiul not to an aftual fubverfion, or total diflblution of 
the government. They therefore very prudently voted it to amount to. 
no more than an abdication of the government, and a ponfequent va- 
cancy of the throne ; whereby the government was allowed to fubfill, 
though the executive miigilbiie was gone : and the kingly oriice to rcr 
main, though king James was no longer king. An^ thus the conllitu- 
tion was kept intirc ; which, upon every foimd principle of government, 
mull oiherwife have fallen to pieces, had fo principal and conllituent a 
part as the royal authority been aboliftied, or even lufpended. 

Hence it is ealy to cclleft, that the title to the crown is at prefent he- 
reditary, though not quite fo abf;)lutely hereditary as formerly ; and the 
common ftock or anceftor, from whom the defcent mull be derived, isi 
alfo difierent. Formerly the common ftock was king Egbert ; then 
William the Conqueror ; afterward, in James I.'s time, the two common 
flocks united, and lb continued till the vacancy of the throne in 1688: 
now it is the princefs Sophia, in whom the inheritance was veiled by the 
new king and parliament. Formerly the defcent was abfolutc, and the 
crown went to the next heir without any reltrittion ; hut now, upon the 
new fcttlement, the inheritance is conditional ; being limit-d to fuch 
heirs only, of the body cf the princefs Sophia, as are Proteilant mem- 
bers of the church of England, and are married to none but Piotellants. 

And in this due medium confifls the true conllitutional notion cf die 
right of luccefTion to the imperial crown of thefe kingdoms. T\\e ex- 
tiemes, between which it lleers, are each of them equally deilruftiveof 
thole en.'s for which Ibcietics were formed, and are kept on foot. Where 
the raagilhiite, upon every fucceflion, is eledled by the people, and may 
by the exprels provifion of the laws be depofed (if not puniihed) by his 
lubjefts, this may found like the perfetlion of liberty, and look well 
enough when delineated on paper ; but in praftice will be ever pioduftive 
of tuniultj conteutioii, and anarchy. J^nd, on the other haucl, divine 

indq-: 



ENGLAND. 



153 



jniffcafible hereditary ri^ht, when coupled with the doftrine of unli- 
jiited paffive obedience, is furely of all conftitutions the moll thoroiigh- 
lillavilh and dreadful. But when liich an hereditary right, as our law* 
lave created and veiled in the royal (lock, is clofely interwoven with 
ilinfc liberties, which are equally the inheritance of the fubjeft ; thi$ 
jnion will form a conflitution, in theory the mofl beautiful of any, in 
ffaftice the mofl approved, and, in all probability, will prove in dura- 
non the moft permanent. This conftitution, it is the duty of every Bri-t 
ton to unclerftand, to revere, and to defend. 

The principal duties of the king are exprefTed in his oath at the co- 
ronation, which is adminillered by one of the archbilhops, or bifliops, 
of the realm, in the prefence of all the people; who, on their parts, 
dD reciprocally take the oath of allegiance to the crown. This coro-. 
nation oath is conceived in the following terms : 

»* T^he archhijhop, or bijhop, Jhall fay. Will you folemnly promife 
and fwear, to govern the people of this kingdom of England, and the 
dominions thereunto belonging, according to the llatutcs in parliament 
agreed on, and the laws and culloms of the fame ? — The king or queen 
jcill fay, I folemnly promife fo to do. 

Archbifljop or bijhop. Will you to your power caufe law and juftice, 

in mercy, to be executed in all your judgments?- King or queen. I 

inli. 

Archbijhop or lijhop. Will you to the utmoll of your power main- 
ta'n the laws of God, the true profeflion of the gofpel, and the Protef- 
taiit reformed religion ellablilhed by the law ? And will you preferve 
unto the bifliops and clergy of this realm, and to the churches com- 
mitted to their charge, all fuch rights and privileges as by the law do or 
Hall appertain unto them, or any of them \ >■ » King er queen. All 
tliis I promife to do. 

Jl.fler this the king or queen, hying his or her hand upon the holy 
0els, jhall fay, I'he things which I have here before promifed, 1 
mil perform and keep : fo help m>; God. And thenfhall ki/s the book." 

This is the form of the coronat ion oath, as it is now prelcribed by 
cur laws : and we may obferve, that in the king's part in this original 
coniraft, are exprefTed all the duties that a monarch can owe to his 
people; viz. to govern according to law : to execute judgment in iv.ercyt 
and to maintain the eftablifhed religion. With refpett to the latter of 
thefe three branches, we may farther remark, that by the adl of union, 
5 Ann. c. 8. two preceding ftatutes are recited and confirmed ; the one 
of the parliament of Scotland, the other of the parliament of I'.ngland: 
which enaft ; the former, that every king at his fucceiiion Ih^ul take and 
fiibfcribe an oath, to preferve the Protellant religion, and Preibyteriaa 
church government in Scotland : the latter, that at his coronaiion he 
Ihall take and fubfcribe a iimilar oath, to preferve the fettlemcnt of the 
church of England within England, Ireland, Wales, and iierwick, and 
the territories thereunto belonging. 

The king of Great Britain, notwithftanding the limitation.i of the 
power of the crown, already mentioned, is o' :j of the greateil morarchs 
reigning over a free people. His perfon is fatred iu thi.: eye of the law, 
which makes it high treaibn fo much as to imagine or intcni his death ; 
jeither can he, in himfelf, be deemed guilty of any crime, the law 

taiung 



I/m' 111 



156 



ENGLAND. 



tt 



taking no cognizance of his aftions, but only in the pcrfons of hh 
miniilers, if they infringe the laws of the land. As to his power, ir 
has no bounds (except wjiere it breaks in upon the liberty and proper- 
ty of his fubjeds, as in making new laws, or raifing new taxcb) for he 
can make war or peace j fend and receive ambalTadors ; make treaties 
of league and commerce ; levy armies, fit out fleets, employ them as he 
thinks proper ; grant commiflions to his officers both by fea and land 
or revoke them at pleafurc ; difpofe of all magazines, caftles, &c. fum- 
mon the parliament to meet, and, when met, adjourn, prorogue, or 
diflblve it at plealure ; refufe his allent to any bill, though it hatli paiTud 
both houfcs ; which, confequently, by fuch a refufal, has no niorc forc^ 
than if it had never been moved. He poffeiTeth the ri^iit of chufiti" 
his own council ; of nominating all the great olhccrs of Hate, of the 
houftiol.l, and the church ; and, in fine, is the fountain of honour, from 
whom all degrees of nobility and knighthood are derived. Such is the 
dignity and power of a king of Great Britain, 

Ov THE PARLIAMENT.] Parliaments, in fome Ihape, are, as has 
been oj.-iVCil, oi' as high antiquity as the Saxon govcrnmcni in this 
ifland; and have iuDiiiled, in their prefent form, at leall five hundred 
years. 

The parliament is afTcmbled by the king's writs, and its fitting muft 
not be intermitted above three years, its conftituent parts urc, the 
king fiiting there in his royal political capacity, and the three eltatcs of 
the realm ; thj lords fpiritual, the lords tenipora , (who fit, together 
with the king, in one houfe) and the commons, who fit by themfelves 
in another. The king and thefe three eftates, together, form the great 
corporation or body politic of the kingdom, of wiiich the king is faid 
to be ca/iut, principiumy et finis. For .upon their coming together trie 
king meets them, either in perfon, or by reprefen*-ation ; witliout whicli 
there can be no beginning of a parliament j and he alfo has alone the 
power of difi'olving them. 

Jt is highly neceilary for preferving the balance of the conftitution, 
that the executive power fhould be a branch, though not the whole, of 
the legiflature. The crown cannot begin of itfelf any alterations in the 
prefent ellablifhed law ; but it may approve or difapprove of the altera- 
tions fuggefled and confented to by the two houfes. The legiflative 
therefore cannot abridge the executive power of any rights which it now 
has by law, without its own confent : fmce the law mud perpetually 
ftand as it now does, unlefs all the powers will agree to alter it. And 
herein indeed confills the true excellence of the Engliih government, 
that all the parts of it form a mutual check upon each other. In the le- 
giilature, the people are a check upon the nobility, and the nobility a 
check upon the people ; by the mutual privilege of rejefting what die 
other has refolved : while the kin? is a check upon both, which preferves 
the executive power from encroachments. 

The lords fpiritual confift of two archbifhops and twenty-four bifliops. 
The lords temporal confift of all the peers of the realm, the bifhops not 
being in ftri^lnefs held to be fuch, but merely lords of parliament. Some 
of the peers fit by defcent, as do all antient peers ; fome by creation, as do 
air the new-made ones ; others, fince the union with Scotland, by elec- 
tion, which is the cafe of the fixteen peers, who reprefent the body of 

the 



E N G L. A N D, 



^57 



tlic Scots nobility. The number of peers is indefinite, and may be 
idcrcafcd at will by the power of the crown. 

A body of nobility is more peculiarly neccflary in our mixed and 
(ompouiidcd conftitution, in order to fiipport the rights of both the 
j'own anrl the people ; by forming r. barrier to withftand the encroach- 
ments of both. It creates and prefcrvcs that gradual fcale of dignity, 
ivhich proceeds from the pcafant to the prince; rifing like a pyramid 
iffom a broad foundation, and diminifhing to a point as it rifes. The 
nobility therefore are the pillars, which are reared from among the peo- 
ple, more immediately to fupport the throne: and if that falls, they 
mull alfo be buried under its ruins. Accordingly, when in the lail cen- 
tury the commons had determined to extii-pate monarchy, they alfo voted 
I the houfe of lords to be ufelefs and dangerous. 

The commons confift of all fuch men of any property in the king- 
dom, as have not feats in the houfe of lords ; ever)' one of which has a 
voice in parliament, either perfonally, or by his leprcfentatives. In a 
free ftate, every man, who is fuppofed a free agent, ought to be, in fome 
mMfurc, his own governor ; and therefore a branch at lea<t of the legi- 
llative power fliould refide in the whole body of the people. In fo large 
a Hate as ours, it is very wifely contrived, that the people ihould do that 
by their reprefentatives, which it is imprafticable to perform in pcrfon : 
ttprefentatives, chofen by a number of minute and fepajate diftriftst 
wherein all the voters ai-e, or eafily may be, diftinguilhed. The coun- 
ties are therefore reprefented by knights, elefted by the proprietors of 
lads : the cities and boroughs are reprefented by citizens and burgeffes, 
chofen by the mercantile part, or fuppofed trading intereft of the na- 
tion. The number of Englifli reprefentatives is 513, and of Scots 455" 
ir^ll558. And every member, though chofen by one particular dif*- 
J:^., when eledled and returned, ferves for the whole realm. For the 
end of his coming thither is not particular, but general ; not barely to 
idvantage his conflitiients, but the common wealth, and to advife his 
majefly, as appears from the writ of fummons. 

Thefe are the couftituent parts of a parliament, th6 king, the lords 
fpiritual and temporal, and the commons. Parts, of which each is fo 
neceflary, that the confent of all three is required to make any new law 
:hat ihould bind the fubjeft. Whatever is enafted for law by one, or 
by two only, of the three, is no ftatute ; and to it no regard is due, un- " 
lefs in mat:ers relating to their own privileges. 

The power and junfdiftion of parliament, fays Sir Edward Coke, is 
fo tranfcendent and abfolnte, that it cannot be confined, either for caufes 
or perfons, within any bounds. It hath fovereign and uncontrolable au- 
thority in making, confirming, enlarging, rellraining, abrogating, re- 
pealing, reviving, and expounding of laws, concerning matters of all 
poffible denominations, ecclefiaftical, or temporal, civil, military, 
maritime, or criminal : this being the place where that abfolnte defpo- 
tic power, which muit in all governments refide fomewhere, is en- 
irufted by the conftitution of thefe kingdoms. All mifchiefs and grie- 
lanccs, operations and remedies, that tranfoend the ordinary courle of 
ihe laws, are within the reach of this extraordinary tribunal. It can 
legulate or new model the fucceHion to the crown ; as was done in the 
(tign of Henry VIII, and Willhm III. It can alter the eftablilhed reli- 
z gion 




m 



158 



ENGL A N D: 



I*"' 



pion of the land ; as was done in a variety of inftances, in the reigns of 
king Henry VIII. and his three children. It can change and create afrclli 
tven the conftitution of the kingdom, and of parliaments themfelves; s.i 
was done by the aiX of union, and the fevcral llatutcs for triennial and 
feptennial cledions. It can, in (hort, do every thing that is not mitural- 
ly impoflible ; and therefore fome have not fcruplcd to call h, power, by 
a figure rather too bold, the omnipotence of parliftment4 True it I;; 
that what the parliament doth, no authority upon earth can undo. So 
that it is a matter moft etUntial to the liberties of this kingdom, that fuch 
members be delegated to this important trull, as are moll eminent for 
their probity, their fortitude, and their knowlege ; for it was a known 
apothegm of the great lord treafurer Burleigh, ** that England could ne- 
ver be ruined but by a parliament :" and, as Sir Matthew Hale ob- 
ferves, this being the highell and greateft court, over which none other 
can have jurifdidion in the kingdom, if by any means a mirgovcrnment 
Ihould any way fall upon it, the fubjeiSls of this kingdom arc left with- 
out all manner of remedy. 

In order to prevent the mifchiefs that might arife, by placing this 
extenfivc authority in hands that are either incapable, or elfe improper^ 
to manage it, it is provided that no one (hall fit or vote in either houfe 
of parliament, unlefs he be twenty-one years of age. To prevent inno- 
vations in religion and government, it is enaftcd, that no member fhal! 
vote or fit in cither houfe, till he hath, in the prefence of the houfe, 
taken the oaths of allegiance, fupremacy, and abjuration ; and fubfcrib- 
ed and repeated the declaration againll tranfubllantiatlon, the invocaticii 
fcf faints, and the facrifice of the mafs* To prevent dangers that may 
arife to the kingdom from foreign attachments,- connexions, or depen- 
dencies, it is enatJted, that no alien, born out of the dominions of the 
crown of Great-Britain, even though he be naturalized, fhall be capable 
of being a member of either houfe of parliament. 

Some of the more notorious privileges of the members of either hoiiic 
are, privilege of fpeech, of perfon, of their domeftics, and of their 
lands and goods. As to the lirfl, privilege of fpeech, it is declared by 
the ftatute of i W. Sc M. ft. 2. c. 2. as one of the liberties of thepeo^ 
pie, " that the freedom of fpeech, and debates, and proceedings in par- 
liament, ought not to be impeached or queftioned in any court or place 
out of parliament." And this freedom of fpeech is particidarly demand- 
ed of the king in perfon, by the fpeaker of the houfe of commons, at the 
opening of every new parliament. So likewifc are the other privileges, 
of perfon, fervants, lands and goods. This includes not only privilege 
from illegal violence, but alfo from legal arreils, and feifures by procefs 
£-om the courts of law. To aflault by violence a member of either 
houfe, or his menial fervants, is a high contempt of parliament, and 
there punilhed with the utmoil feverity. Neither can any member of 
either houfe be arrellcd and taken into cuflody, nor fervcd with any 
procefs of the courts ot law ; nor can his menial fervants be arrefted ; 
nor can any entry be made on his lands ; nor can his goods be dillrained 
or feized,' without a breach of the privilege of parliament. 

Thefe privileges, however, which derogate from the common law, 
being only indulged to prev^ent the memwfs being divened from the 

^ublid 



ENGLAND. 



^5i 



mMjc bufinefs, endure no longer than the feflion of parliament, fave 
only as to the frecUoin of his pcrfon : which in a peer is for over fa- 
(ffd and inviolable ; and in a commoner for forty days after every prO- 
lOgation, and forty days before the next appointed meeting ; whicn is 
now in cffed as long as the parliament iLibftlhs, it feldom being prorogued 
|br more than foiirfcore days at a time. As to all other privileges whicii 
obftrudt the ordinary courfe of juftice, they ceafe immediately after tl»e 

Niflblution or prorogation of the parliament, or adjournment of the 
houfes for above a fortnight ; and during thcfc recc/les a peer, or mem- 
ber of the houfe of commoAs, may be fucd like an ordinary fnbjeci, 
and in confequence of fuch fuits may be difpofiefied of his lands and 
goods. Likcwife, for the benefit of commerce, it is provided, that any 
trader, having privilege of parliainent, may be ferved \vith legal procefs 
fornnyjiill debt, to the amount of lool. and unlefs he makes fatisfac- 

I tion within two months, it (hall be deemed an ad of bankruptcy ; and 
ihatcommiiTions of bankrupt may be iil'ucd againll fucii privileged tra- 
cers, in like manner as agamll any other. 
The houfe of lords have a right to be attended, and confcquently are, 
by the judges of the court of king's bench and common-pleas, and fuck 
of the barons of the exchequer, as are of the degree of the coif, or have 
ken made ferjeants at law ; as likcwife by the mafttrs of the court of 
chancery ; for their advice in point of law, and for the greater dignit/ 
of their proceedings. 

The fpeaker of the houfe of lords is generally the lord chancellor, or 
lordJ "^er of the great feal, which dignities are commonly veiled m 
tie nerfon. 

E. ^.v;cr has a right, by leave of the houfe, as being his own re- 
prefentative, when a vote pafies contrary to his fentiments, to enter kis 
(lilTcnton the journals of the houfe, with the reafous for fuch diflent; 
which is ufually ftiled his protell. Upon particular occafions, however, 
liefe protells have been fo bold as to give oll^nce to the majority ojf 
ike houfe, and have therefore been expunged from the journals. 

The houfe of commons may be properly ftiled the grand inqueft of 
Great Britain, impowered to enquire into all natiunal grievances, m 

I Drder to fee them redrefled. 

The peculiar laws and cuftoms of tlie houfe of commons relate princi- 
pally to the raifiDg of taxes, and the cledions of members tp ferve iu. 

I parliament. 
With regard to taxes : it Is the antient indifoutable privilege and right 

I of the houfe of commons, that all grants of mbfidies, or parliamentary 
iids, do begin in their houfe, and are iirll bellowed by them ; although 
their grants are not effeftual to all intents and purpofes, until they have 
theaflent of the other two branches of the legiflature. The general rea- 
f)n given for this exclufive privilege of the houfe of commons, is, that 
ihe fupplies are raifed upon the body of the people, and therefore 
It is proper that they alone (hould have the right of taxing themfelves. 
kd fo reafonably jealous are the commons of this privilege, that herein 
ky will not fuffer the other houfe to exert any power but that of rc- 
jtcling ; they will not permit the leaft alteration or amejidaent to be 
sade by the lords to the mode of taxing the people by a money bill. 
ladir this appellation are included all biHs, by whi^h money is diredcd 

to 




i 



:,\\ 

H 



hft fri 



ii-' 



i6o 



ENGLAND. 



to be raifed upon the fubjeft, for any purpofc, cr in any fliape wliat- 
foever ; either for the exigencies of government, and coliedled from the 
kingdom in general, as ihc land tax ; or for private benefit, and col- 
lefted in any particular diftrift, as by turnpikes, parilh rates, and die 
lifep. 

The method of making laws is much the fame in both houfes. In 
each houfe the adl of the majority binds the whole : and this majority is 
declared by votes openly and publicly given : not as at Venice, and 
many other fenatorial nflemblies, privately, or by ballot. This latter 
method may be ferviceable, to prevent intrigues and unconllitiuional 
combinations : but is impoflibie to be prattifed with us ; at leal! in 
the houfe of commons, where every member's conduft is fubjeft to the 
future cenfure of his conftituents, and therefore fhould be openly fub. 
mitted to their infpeftion. 

To bring a bill into the houfe of commons, if the relief fought by it 
is of a private nature, it isfirft neccfiary to prefer a petition ; which muft 
be prefented by a member, and ufually fets forth the grievance defired to 
be remedied. This petition (when founded on fafts that may be in 
their nature difputed) is referred to a committee of members, who exa- 
mine the matter alleged, and accordingly report it to the houfe ; and 
then, (or, otherwife, upon the meer petition) leave is given to bring in 
the bill. In public matters, the bill is brought in upon motion made to 
the houfe, without any petition. (In the houfe of lords, if the bill be- 
gins there, it is, when of a private nature, referred to two of the judges, 
to examine and report the ftate of the facls alleged, to fee that all necef- 
fary parties confent, and to fettle all points of technical propriety.) This 
IS read a firft time, and, at a convenient diftance, a fecond time; and 
after each reading, the fpeaker opens to the houfe the fubftance of the 
bill, and puts the quelHon, whether it fliall proceed any farther. The 
;->troduftion of the bill may be originally oppofed .s the bill itfeli'may 
ftc either of the readings ; and, if the oppofition Ibccceds, the bill mull 
be dropt for that fefT.ons ; as it muft alio, it oppofed with fuccefs in .iny 
of the fubfequent ftages. 

After the fecond reading, it is committed, that is, referred to a com- 
mittee; which is either felefted by the houfe in matters of fmall impor- 
tance, or elfc, if the bill is a matter of great, or national confcquence, 
the houfe refolves itfelf '.ito a committee of the whole houfe. A com- 
mittee of the whole houfe is compofed of every member ; and, to form 
it, the fpeaker quits the chair, (another member being appoinieJ chair- 
man) and may fit and debate as a private member. In thcfe commit- 
tees, the bill is debated claufe by claufe, amendments made, the blanks 
£lled up, and fometimes the bill entirely new modelled. After it ha« 
gone through the committee, the chairman reports it to the houfe, with 
Such amendments as the committee have made ; and then the houfe re- 
confider the whcie bill again, and the quellion is repeatedly put upon 
every claufe anc amendment. When the houfe have agreed or difa- 
greed to the araenJnicnu of the committee, and fometimes added new 
amendments of th^ir own, the bill is then ordered tc be engrol|ed, or 
written in a ftronj grofs hand, on one or more long rolls of parchments 
fewed together. When this is finiflied, it is read a third time, and 
amendments are fometimes then made to it j and, if a Jicw tl«ufe be 



1^, holdii 
Jill pafs. 
Lofthe r 
f,icurrenc( 
if houfe ol 
j iim 1 is wo 
Ij! other ho 
[&d, no 1 
Ijcoir.ing a 
hj WO mal 
Ince, by tw 
■ill remains 
lut if any 
lliebill to 
li.airree to 



Itoulc 



AldfJ 



ENGLAND. 



i6i- 



)f 



L^ed, It is done by tacking a feparate piece of parchment On the bill, 
Lliich is called a ryder. The fpeaker then again opens the contents; 
Ijid, holding it up in his hands, puts the quelHon, whetJier thi bill 

pafs. If this is agreed to, the title to it is then fettled. Aftc this, 
l^of the members is direfted to carry it to the lords, and def ; their 
fjcurrence ; who, attended by feveral more, carries it to the bar 
jf houfe of peers, and there delivers it to their fpeaker, who comes dowa 
hml's woolfack to receive it. It there partes through the forms, as in 
Ije other houfe, (except enr,ro{fing, which is already done) and, if re- 
Ijiled, no more notice is tJcen, but it \>vSi.<t% fnh ft/cntio, to prevent un- 
hcoming altercations. But if it is agreed to, the lords fend a meifage 
L two maltcrs in chancery (or, fomcdmcs in matters of high impor- 
liiice, by two of the judges) that they have agreed to the fame : and the 
Jill remains with the lords, if they have made no amendment to it. 
iiit if any amendments are made, I'uch amendments are fent down with 
lliebill to receive the concurrence of the commons. If the commons 
lUirree to the amendments, a coi',fercuce ufually follows between mem- 
leri deputed from each h^^uie ; who, for the m oil part, fettle and adjult 
jthediirercnce : but, if both houk:. remain inflexible, the bill is dropped. 
[ifik commons agree to tlie amendr.ijiu.i, the bill \i fcnt back to the 
llordsbyonc of the members, with a meflage to acquaint them there- 
Iwitd, The feme forms are obfcr\ed, mutatis mutandis, when the bill 

ns ill the houfe of lords. But, v.Iien an act cjf grace or pardon is 
Ipiifed, it is firrt figned by hla majclty, and then read once only in each 
loftkhoufes, without any nevv engroiTing or ;imendment. And when 
Ibotlihoufes have dc. -"ith ;uiy bill, it always is depofit^-d in the houfe 
lofpters, to wait the roy li ail'ent ; except in the cafe oi a money-bill, 
Iwhich, after receiving the concurrence of the lor as, is fent back to the 

c of comrrons, ft may be necellary here to iicquiiint the reader, 
Itiiatboth in the houfes, and in their committees, the ilighteil expreffi.^n, 
lormolt minute alteration, does not pafs, till the fpeaker, or the chairman, 
US the quellion ; which, in the houfe of commons, is anfwered by ttye 
lirw; and, in the houfe of peers, by content or 7iot content. 
I The giving the royal afllnt to bills, is a matter of great forn). When 
lit king is to pafs bills in perfon, he appears on his throne in the houfe 
|<peers, in his royal robes, with the crown on his head, and attended 
lifhis great officers of ilate and heralds. A feat on the riglit hand of the 
pne, where the princes of Scotland, when peers of England, for- 
licriy fate, is referved fir the prince of Wales. The other princes of 
liblood fit on the left hand of the king ; and the chancellor on a clofy 
Itach removed a little backwards. The vifcounts and temporal barons, 
IdorJs, face the throne, on benches, or wool-packs, covered with 
In! cloth or baize. The bench of bilbops runs along the houfe to the 
llvon the right hand of the throne; as the dukes and earls do on the 
IIe, The chancellor and judges, on ordinary days, fit upon wool-packs 
Ibeen the barons and the tUrone. The common opinion is, that the 
Ike fitting on wool is fymbolical of wool being formerly the ftaple 
[ccainodity of the kingdom. Many of the peers, on folemn occafjons, 

ar in their parliamentary robes. None of the commons hive any 
|Wi, excepting the fpeaker, who wears a long black filk gown j ar^4 

ihe appears before the king, it is trimmeU with "'^ 



sj 



gold. 



M 



. Tha 



Ifo 



ENGLAND. 



The royal aflent may be given twc ways: i. Inperfpn. When the 
king fends for the houfe ci commons to the houfe of peers, the fpeakerl 
carries up the money-bill Oi' bills in hi.'i hand ; and, in delivering them I 
he addrelles his majefty in a fclcmn .'peech, in which he feUom fails tol 
CKtol the wcnerofity and loyalty of the commons, and* to tell his majefty] 
how necefiary it is to be frugal of the public money. It is upon this oc- 
cafion, that the corr»mons of Great- Britain appear in their higheft Juftrc. , 
The titles of all che bills that have pafled both houfes are read ; and the j 
king's anfvver is declared by the clerk of the parliament in Norman- 
French : a badge, it muft be owned, (now the only one remaining) of] 
conquelt ; and which one could wilh to fee fall into total oblivion ; un- J 
iefs it be referved as a folemn msmento to remind us that our liberties are! 
mortal, having once been deftroyed by a foreign force. If the king con-| 
fents to a public bill, the clerk ufually declares, le roy le -veut, " the] 
Jking wills it fo to be ;" if to a private bill, /bit fait come il eft deftrt\ 
ff be it as it is defired." If the king refufes his aflent, it is in the gentle! 
language of /^ roy s' a-vi/era, " the king will advife upon it." Whenij 
money-bill is pafied, it is carried up and prefented to the king by the! 
■ fpeaker of the houfe of commons, and the royal aflent is thus expreffed.l 
/f roy rcmercie fes loyal /uhjcds, acccpte Icur bene'uolencey et auffi le veut\ 
*' the king thanks his loyal fubjefts, excepts their benevolence, andwilljj 
it (o to be." In cafe of an act of grace, which originally proceeds froml 
the crown, and has the royal aflent in the firll ftage of it, the clerk off 
the parliament thus pronounces the gratitude of the fubjecl ; les prelaisi 
ftigneurs, et ccmmcns, en ce prefent parliament ajfemblies, au notn de tou'.\ 
<vous antres /iibjeds, reviercient ires humhlement <votre majefie^ et prient a 
Dieu 'vous donner en f ante bone ■^jie et longue ', *' the prelates, lords anu 
commons, in this prefent parliament aflembled, in the name of all yourf 
ptlier fubjefts, moft Jaumbly thank your majefty, and pray to God to 
grant you in health and wealth long to live." 2. By the ftatute 33I 
Hen. Vlll. c. 21 the kinr may give his aflient by letters patent under! 
his great feal, figned with his hand, and notified, in his abfence, tol 
both houfes aflembled together in the high houlb, by commiflioneis con*| 
fifting of certain peers, named in the letters. And, when the bill has| 
:.*eceivcd the royal aflent in either of thefc ways, it is then, and not be^ 
for-, a ilatuce or acl of parliament. 

This ftatute or aft is placed among the records of the kingdom ; therfl 
needing no formal promulgation to give it the force of a l;av, as waij 
necefl*;iry by the civil law with regard to the emperors edifts : becauftj 
every man in England is, in judgment of law, party to the making o| 
an a£l of parliament, being prefent thereat by his reprefentatives. How-I 
pvei, a copy thereof is ufually printed at the king's prefs, for the infor-j 
mation of the whole land. 

An ad of parliament, thus made, is the exercife of the higheft authoJ 
rity that this kingdom acknowledges upon earth. It hath power to bind 
pvery fubjedl in the land, and the dominions thereunto belonging ; nayJ 
even the kinghimfelf, if particularly named therein. And it cannot ba 
altered, amended, difpenled with, fufpended, or repealed, but in thd 
fame forms, and by the fame authority of parliament : for it is a maxin 
in law, that it requires the fame ftrength to diflblve, as to create an obJ 
liij ition. . t • w ' , I 

• - SucU 



E N G I, A N D. 



163 



ItantiHg 



;.w, as wasi 



Such is the parliament of Great-Britain; the fource and guardian of 
,„ liberties and properties, the ilrong cement which binds the foun- 
jjon and fnpcrftrufture of our government, and the wifely concerted 
il^jnce maintaining an equal poife, that no one part of the three cilatcs 
itrnower or dirtrefs either of the other. 

frain the above general view of the Englifh conftitution, it appears 
U no ftcurity for its permanency, which the wit of man can devife, is 
If it fliould be objected, that parliaments may become fo cor- 
ns to give up or betray tlie liberties of the people, the anfwer is, 

t parliaments, as every othe- body politic, are fuppofed to watch over 
lii political exillence, as a private perfon does his natural life. If a 

riisment was to aft in that manner, it muft become yiVo iie/e, an evil 
3t no human provifions can guard againft. But there are ftill fucn re- 
ources of liberty in England, that no fuch fatal effeft is now to be ap- 
rfhended ; and thotigli the conftitution has been even overturned, and 
Uetimes dangeroully wounded, yet, its own innate powers have re- 
overcd and ftill prcfervc it. Monf. Mezeray, the famous hiftorian, 
laid to a countryman of ours, in the clofe of the laft century, *' We 
llad once in France the fame happinefs and the fame privileges which 
yfiuhave ; our IaT.vs nvere then made by repre/entati'ves of ov^ own chu" 

(J, therefore our money ivas not taken from us ; but granted by us. Our 
kings were then fubjeft to the rules of law and realbn — now, alas ! we 
rmiferable, and all is loft. Think nothing, Sir, too dear to main- 
tain thefe precious advantages : if ever there Ihould be occafion, venture 
vour life and cftate rather than bafely and fooliftily fubmit to that abjeft 
condition to which you fee us reduced." — 

The king of England, befules his high court of parliament, has fub- 
crdinaie chancellors and miniflcrs to affift him, and who are refpr- 
fible for their advice and conduft. They are made by the king's no: 
ration, without either patent or grant ; and on taking the i.ecefl'ary oaths, 
tky become immediately privy-counfcllors, during the life of the king 
i:: choofes them ; but fubjeft to removal at his direftion. 

Tilt- duty of a^rivy-cr)unfcllor appears from the oath of office, whicl^ 
unlifts of feven articles : i . To advife the king according to the beft of 
ji cunning and difcretion. 2. To advife for the king's honour and 
|ood of tl:e public, without partiality through affeftion, love, meed, 
Bubt, or dread. 3. To keep the king's counfel fecret. 4. To avoid 
(orruption. 5. To help and ftrengthen the execution of what (hall be 
kre refolved. 6. To withftand all perfons who would attempt the con- 
srv. And, laftly, in general, 7. To obferve, keep, and do all that 9 
pcd and true counfellor ought to do to his fovereign lord. 

As no government 9:in be fo complete as to be provided with laws that 
i;y anfwer every unforefeen emergency, the privy-council, in fuch 
lilv's, can fiipply the deficiency. If has even been known, that upoa 
pt and urgent occafions, fuch as that of a famine, they can fuperiede 
nc operation of the Jaw, if the parliament is not fitting ; but this is 
mfidered as illegal, and an aft of parliament muft pafs for the pardon 
d indemnification of thofe concerned. 

Among the privy-counfellors, the two fecretaries of ftate are more of- 
litial.y fo than the others, as they arc entrufted with the king's fignet^ 
ari are fuppofed to advife him in afts of government that may not be 

'per to be commuijicated cvea to a privy-counfellor j fuch as giving 

M 2 orders 



'^'\ 



I 






m 




nji! 


^^^^^B^H^P*^*' 


1 ' 


! 












m 


1 




SDiiiiiii^ 




BSIH^^«l< 


i- 




ii 


BBSaMI 


; 


IP 


;i!«i| 






1 





164. 



ENGLAND. 



¥ 



orders for fecret expeditions, correfpondencc with fpies or other apejjts I 
fecuring traitors, and the like. The fecretarylhip of ilate is now heldl 
by two noblemen or gentlemen ; formerly the king nominated three I 
^ut the office wus not iheii of that confequence which it is now. Since! 
the acceflion of the family of Hanover, we have likewife known three! 
principal fccretaries of ftate ; but one of them was fuppofed to tranfaftl 
yhe affairs of Scotland, which are now committed to other minifters 
(Jpon the vaft encreafe of the Britilh colonies, a new board of trade was 
erecled, a..dthe firft commiflioner arts as fecretary for the American af- ' 
fairs, but without that title. Till this eredlion took place, all Ameri- 
can difpatches came firft to the hands of a principal fecretary of ftate 
who correfponded with the American governors, and fent them directions 
in his majefty's name. The office itfelf is at prefent divided into a 
fouthern and a northern department. The fouthern contains France 
Spain, Sardinia, Conftantinople, Naples, Florence, the Svvifs Cantons' 
Portugal, and, in (hort, all the ft^tes in the fouthern parts. The northern' 
comprehends Germany, Hungary, Copenhagen, Poland, Saxony, Pruf- 
fia, Holland, Ruflia, the . lanfe-towns, the court of Munich, and the 
diet of Ratifhon; BrufTels, the eleftorate of Cologn, Mei^tz, Triers 
the circle of Wcftphalia, and Sweden. 

With regard to the capital afts of government, which were formerly 
entrulleJ \yith the fecretaries of ftate, a committee of the privy-council 
commonly called the cabinet-council, are chiefly entrurte4, This cabinet 
generally confifts of a feledl number of minifters and noblemen, accord- 
ing to the king's opinion of their integrity a|id abilities ; but though its 
operations are powerful and extenfive, a cabinet-council is not efTential 
to the ronftitution of England. 

1 nis obfervation naturally leads me to mention the perfon who is fq 
well known by the name of the firft minifter ; a term unknown to the 
Englilh conftitution, though the office, in effect, is perhaps necefTa- 
ry. The conftitution points oi^t the lord high chancellor as minifter, 
but the affairs of his own coi^rts give him fufficient employment. 
When the office of firft lord of the treafury is united with that of chan- 
cellor of the excheque*- (offices which I an? to explain hereafter) in the 
fame perfon, he is confidered as firft minifter. The truth is, his ma- 
jefty iiiay make any of his fervants his firft minifter. But though it is no 
office, yet there is a refponfibility annexed to the name and common re- 
pute, that rei^dcrs it a poft of difficulty and d;mgcr. I fliall now take a 
Ihort review of the nine great ofticers of the crown, who by their polls 
take place next to the princes of the royal family and the two pri- 
mates. 

The firft is the lord high fteward of England. This is an office fo 
great, that it is now exercifed only occafionally, that is, at a coronation, 
or to fit judge on a peer or peerefs, when tried for a capital crime. In 
coronations, it is held, for that day only, by fome high nobleman. In 
cafes of trials, it is exercifed generally by the lord chancellor, or lord 
keeper ; \yhofe commilfion, as high ttpward, enils with the trial, by 
breaking his white rod, the badge of his office. 

The lord high chancellor preiides in the court of chancery, to mode- 
rate the feverities of the law, in all cafes where the property of the fub- 
jed is concerned j and he proceeds according to the didates of equity 
jtnd reafon. " "' 

The 



ENGLAND. 



1^^ 



The poft of lord high treafurer has of lata been veiled in a com- 

I jiiiiioii, confining of five perfons, who arc calleil lords of the treafury ; 

but the firlt commiflioner is fuppofed to poflefs the power of lord high 

tpiiurer. He has the management and charge of all the revenues of 

ij{ crown kept in the Exchequer ; as alfo the letting of the leafcs of all 

jown lands, and the gift of all places belonging to the atftoms in the 

liveral ports of the kingdom. From this fliort view of his office, its im- 

lortance may be eafily underftood ; as he has, in faftj the public finances 

1 J his hands, befides the difpofal of fo great a number oflucravive places, 

ioth in England and America, that the bare catalogue of them would 

[ixcecd the bounds we allot to a long article. 

The lord prcfident of the council, was an officer formerly of great 
ijower: his duty is to propofe all the bafincfs tranfadled at the council- 
hoard, .ind to report to the king, when his majorty is not prefent, all its 
Jebates and proceedings. It is a place of great dignity as well as diffi- 
culty, on account of the va(t number of American and Weft-Indian caufes^ 
captures, and the like afFiiirs, that come before the board; all which 
Lay be abridged to the valt conveniency of the fubjcdl by an able prc- 
jfiiient. 

The office of lord privy feal, confifts in his putting the king's feal to 
[ ill charters, grants, and the like, which are figned by the king, in 
order to their paffing the great feal. The lord privy feal has likewife 
under his cognizance fevcial other affairs, which do not require th" 
great feal. He is to take care that the crown is not impofed upon in any 
traiifadion paffing through his hands; and he is refponfible if he Ihould 
apply the privy Teal to any thing againll the law of the land. 

Tne office of lord great chamberlain of England is hereditary in thd 
dukeof Ancafter's family. He attends the king's perfon, on his coro- 
nation, to drefs him : he has likewife charge of the houfe of lords during 
tlie fitting of parliament ; of fitting up Wellminfter-hall for coronations^ 
or trials of peers. 

The office of lord high conftable has been difufed ftnce the ycaf 15^1,- 
but is occafionally revived for a coronation. It was formerly a place of 
dehigheft trull, as it commanded all the king's forts and garrifons, and 
mk place of all officers in the field. 

The duke of Norfolk is hereditary earl marlhal of England. Before 
England becai. 1 . fo commercial a country, as it has been for a hundred 
tears pall, this office required great abilicies, learning, and knowledge 
cithe Englilh hillory for its difcharge. In war time, he was judge of 
imycaufes, and decided according to the principles of the civil law. 
Ifthe caufe did not admit of fuch decifion, it was left to a perfonal com- 
ht, which was attended with a vaft variety of ceremonies, the arrange- 
rent of which, even to the fmnllcll triH^*, tell within the marlhal's pro-, 
we. To this day, he, or \\h deputy, regulates all points ofprece- 
iiicy according to the archives kept in the herald's office^ which is en- 
tely within his jurifditlion. He directs all folemn proceffions, coro- 
mdons, proclamations, funerals, general mournings, and the like. He 
isAippolcd to be judge of the Marilialfea-court; and in tbofe reigns 
were proclamations had the force of law, he had a cenforial power in 
allcafes of ufurping falfc names, defignationsj armorial bearings, and 
thelikc; but this power is now difputed, and reduced to a conformity 
witli the common law. As his grace is difqualihcd by his religion from 

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ENGLAND. 



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the exercife of many parts of his office, fomc nobleman/'j^ehfrally on«| 
of his own friends or family, is deputed to ai\ for him; and he wears I 
as his biilge, a gold baton tipped with ebony. 

The office of lord high admiral of England is, now, likewife held Ir 
conimifiion, and is equal in its importance ro r.ny of the procedin/l 
cfpccialiy fmce the growth of the Britilh naval power. The Erglilh ad- 
jniralty is a board of dire*fkion as well as execution, and is in its pro-| 
cecdings independent of the crown itfelf. All trials upon life andiieath I 
in maritime affairs, are appointed and held under a commiiTion immc-l 
diately iffuing from that board ; and the members muft fign even thel 
death warrants for execution : but it may be eafily conceived, that asl 
they arc renioveable at plcafure, they do nothing that can clalh wirh the! 
prerogative of the crown, and conform themfolvcs to the diretilions thtwl 
receive from his majefly. I'he board of admiralty regulates the whole] 
naval force of the realm, and names all its officers, or confirms tlienil 
when named ; fo that its jurifdiftion is very extenfive. They appoint! 
vice-admirals under them ; but an appeal from them lies to the higlxj 
court of admiralty, which is of a civil nature ; London is the place where! 
it is held; and all its procefles and proceedings run in the lord highad-J 
miral's name, or thofe of the commiffioners, and not in that of the kinj^.l 
The judge of this court is commonly a doAor of the civil law; but dlj 
criminal matters, relating to piracies, and other capital offences com.I 
mitted at fea, are tried and determined according to the laws of England,! 
by witnefles and a jury, ever fincc the reign of Henry VIII. It now re- 
mains to treat of the courts of law in England. 

Courts of law.] The court of Chancery, which is a court of] 
equity, is next in dignity to the high court of parliament, and is de-l 
figned to relieve the lubjeft againft frauds, breaches of trufl, and other! 
oppreffions; and to mitigate the rigour of the law. The lord highchan-j 
cellor fits as fole judge, and in his abfcnce the mailer of the Rolls. T.iej 
form of proceeding is by bills, anfwers, and decrees, the witnefles be-l 
ing examined in private : however, the decrees of this court are only] 
binding to the perfons of thofe concerned in them, for they do not affeil I 
their lands and goods; and confequently, if a man refules to comply] 
with the terms, they can do nothing more than fend him to the prlfon of j 
the Fleet. This court is always open ; and if a man be font to prifon,] 
the lord chancellor, in any vacation, can, if he fees reafon for it, grant 
a habeas corpus. \ 

The clerk of the crown likewife belongs to this court, being obliged, I 
or by his deputy, always to attend on the lord chancellor as often as he] 
fits for the difpatch of bulinefs; through his hands pafs all writs for 
fummoning the parliament or chufing of members ; coinmiffions of the 
peace, pardons, &c. 

The King's Bench, io called either from the kings of England fome- 
times fitting there in perfon, or becaufe all matters determinable byj 
common law between the king and his fubjefts, are here tried; except 
fuch aifairs as properly belong'to the court of Exchequer. This court is, 
likewife, a kind of cheque upon all the inferior courts, their judges, j 
and jullices of the peace. Here prefide four judges, the firil of whom i»j 
ililed lord chief juftice of the King's bench, or by way of eminence, | 
lord chief jufticc of England, to exprefs the great extent of his jurif* 
didioa over the kingdom .• for this court can grant fiohibitions in any 
\ eaufej 



ENGLAND. 



j6f 



ci/e depending either in fpiritual or temporal courts ; and the houTe of 
rfffs does often direft the lord chief juilice to iilue oui h.s warrant fjr 
jiiprehcading nerfons under the fuipicion of liigh crimes. The other 
iree judges art called juftices, or judges, of the k.inp;'s bench. 

Tlie court of common Pleas takes cognizance of all pleas debateable 
jjtween fubjedl and fubjeft ; and in it, befide all real aftions, fines and 
.tcoveries are tranfafted, and prohibitions are likewiie iffued out of 
j, as well as from the King's Bench. The firft jad!;;e of this court is 
{ilcd lord chief juftice of the common pleas, or common bench ; bendc 
nhom there are likewife tliree other judges, or juftices, of this court* 
N'one but ferjeants at law are allowed to plead here. 

Tiie court of Exchequer was inftituted for managing the revenues of 
the crown, and has a power of judging both according to law and ac- 
cording to equity. In the proceedings according to law, the lord chief 
baron of the Exchequer, and three other barons, prefide as judges. They 
aic ftiled barons, becaufe formerly none but barons of the realm were 
allowed to be judges in this court. Befide thefc, there is a fifth, called 
curfitor baron, who has not a judicial capacity, but is only employed in 
adminillring the oath to ilierifts and their oflicers, and alfo to feveral of 
tk officers of the cuftom-houfe. — But when this court proceeds accord- 
jtff to equity, then the lord trcafurer and the chancellor of the Exchequer 
prefide, aflifted by the other barons. All matters touching the king's 
trcaiury, revenue, cufloms, and fines, are here tried and determined.— 
Befide the officers already mentioned, there belong to the ExchcqueH, th« 
king's remembrancer, who takes and ftates all accounts of the revenue, 
culloms, excife, parliamentary aids and fubfidies, &c. except the ac* 
counts of the (heriiFs and their officers. The lord treafurer's remem* 
bncer, whofc bufinefs it is to make out procelTes againft ftieriiFs, re* 
ceivers of the revenue, and other officers. 

For putting the laws eiFedlually in execution, an hIgh-ihcrifF is an* 
Dually appointed for every county (except Weftmoreland and Cumber* 
laid) by the king ; whofe office is both miniftmal and judicaaL Heis 
[0 execute the king's mandates, and all writs dire^d to him out bf ithdr 
king's courts of juftice; to impannel juries, to. bring caafes and ' -maii* 
faftors to trial, to fee the fentences, both in civil and criminal affairsv 
executed. And at the affize to attend tke judges, dnd guard them' all 
the time they are in his county. It is alfo part of his office to cqllei^'all 
public fines, diftreffer, and amerciaments, into the Exchequeri or where 
the king (hall appoint, and to make fuch payments out of them as his 
majefty fhall think proper. . ■ i 

As his office is judicial, he keeps a courts called the coilnty court, 
ivhich is held by the Iheriff, or his undf.r-lherifFs, to hear and determine 
nil civil caufes in the county under fo' ty (hillings ; this, however, ii no 
court of record ; but the court, formerly called th3 IherifF's turnj Was 
one ; and the king's leet, through all the county : {or in this court, en- 
quiry was made into all criminal offences againft the common law, where 
by the Itatute law tliere was no reftraint. This eourtj however, ha« 
been long fince abolilhed. 

Under the fheriff are various officers, as the under-ftierifF, clerks, 
lewarts of courts, bailiffs, (in Loadon called ferjeants) conllables, 
Jiolers, beadier Sec. 



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ENGL A N D. 



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The next oflicer to the Jhcriff, is the jurtice of peace, feveral 
whom are commillioned tor each county : and to them is entrulUd the. 
power of putting great p.irt of the ftatute law in execution, in relatioil 
to the highways, the pocr, \agranis, trcafon.s, felonies, riots, the pre.l 
fervation of the game, ivc. Sec. and they examine and commit to prifoHl 
all who break or diilurb the pence, and difquiet the king's fubjeits. lul 
order to punifh the offenders, they meet evcrv quarter at the county-! 
town, when a jury of twelve men, called the grand inquell of the coiin-l 
ty, is fummoned to appear. This jury, upon oath, is to enquire into! 
the cafes of all delinqueiit.N, ;',nd to prefent them by bill guilty of the! 
indidtment, or not guilty: the julUces commit the former to gaol for 
their trial at the next afiiz-s, and the latter are acquitted. This is call- 
ed the quarter-feilious for the county. The julhce of peace ou^ht to 
be a perfon of great good fenfe, fagacity, and integrity, and to be not 
without fomc knowledge of the law ; for as much power is lodircd in 
his hands, and as nothing is fo intoxicating, without thefe qualifica- 1 
tions he will be apt to make miftakcs, and to llep beyond his authori- 
ty, for which he is liable to be called to an account at the court of kino'j j 
bench. 

Each county contains two coroners, who are to enquire, by a iury of 
neighbours, how and by whom any perfon came by a violent death, and 
to enter it on record as a plea of the crown. 

The civil government of cities \s a kind of fmall independent policy 
of icielf ; for every city hath, by charter from the king, a jurifdiftion 
ivithin itfelf, to judge in all matters civil and criminal ; with this re- 
ilraint only, that all .civil caules niav be removed from their courts to 
the higher courts at Welhr.inller ; and all offences that are capital, are 
committed to the judge of the alfize. The government of cities differs 
according to their difTcrent charters, immunities, and conllitutions. They 
arc cbhllituted with a mayor, aldermen, and burgefTes, who together 
make the corporation of the city, and hold a court of judicature, where 
the maydr prefides as judge. Some cities are counties, and chufe their 
own flicrifFs, and all of them have a powtr of making bye-laws, for 
their own government. Some have thought the government of cities, 
by mayor, aldermen, and common-council, is an epitome of the Eng- 
lilh government, by king, lords and commons. 
. The government of incorporated boroughs is much after the fame man- 
ner : in Ibme there is a mayor, and in others two bailiffs. All which, 
during their mayoralt)', or niagillracy, are juftices of the peace withia 
their liberties, and confequently elquires. 

' For the batter government of villages, the lords of the ftiil, or manor 
(who were formerly calkd barojii)^iave generally a power to hold courts, 
called courts-ltet, and court .-biiron, where their tenants are obliged to 
atten^-and receive jufticc. Die biifineff of coiirts-leet is chieriy to pre- 
fent and punifh nuifimce.s ; and .it courts-baron, the conveyance.^ and 
alienatjous of the copyhold tenants ave em oiled, and they are admitted 
to thfir ellates on a defcent or purchaie. 

A conftable is a very antient and rcfpeilablcbflice of the peace, under 
the Eoglifh conftitution. Every hundred has a high conftabl-*, and every 
parifh in that hundred u conilable, and they are to attend tnc high con- 
ftable upon occafioni. Thty arc afftrted by another antient officer^ called 

the 



ENGLAND. 



169 



Lftvthinj); man, who formerly fuperintendcd tlie tenth part of a hun- 
(n-ti^ or ten free burgs, as they wt c called in the time of the 'Jaxons, 
Ljd each free burg coiifilling of ten f imilies. The bufinefs of a conlhi • 
be is to keep the peace in all cafes of quarrels and rir.ts. He can ini- 
Lifon offenders till they arc brought before a jufricc; of peace ; and it is 
liis duty to execute, within his dillrid, every warrant that is direckil 
j;)him from that magiilrate, or a bench of juilices. 'i'he ncglccl of the 
jold Saxon courts, both for the prefervatiun of the peace, ami the more 
Italv recovery of fniull debts, has been regretted by many eminent law- 
lers, and it has of late been foimd neceffary to revive (bine of them, and 
L appoint others of a ftmilar nature. 

I Belides thefe, there are courts of confcience fettled in many parts of 
Kiifland for the relief of the poor, in the recovery or payment of fmall 
Idebts, not exceeding forty fliillings. 

There neither is, nor ever was, any conftitution provided with fo ma- 
Ipv fences, as that of England is, for the fecnrity of perfonal liberty, 
lEverv man imprifoned has a right to bring a writ before a judge in WelU 
Iniinlter-hall, called his Habeas Corpus. 

It" that judge, after confidcring the caufe of commitment, fl»nll find 
I tliat tlie oftcnce is bailable, the party is immediately admitted to bail, 
11 lie is condemned, or acquitted, in a proper court of jultice. 
The rights of individuals are fo attentively confidcred, that the fubjcft 
may, without the leall danger, fue his fovereign, or thofe who adl in 
liii name, and under his authority ; he may do this in open court, where 
the king maybe call, and be obliged to pay damages to his fubjcdl. 
He cannot take away the liberty of the leall individual, unlefs he has, 
by fome illegal ad, accufcd or fufpcdcd upon oath, to have forfeited 
his right to liberty, or except when the Hate is in danger, and the 
reprefentativcs of the people think the public fafety makes it ne- 
cfiFary that he lliould have the power of confining perfons, on a 
tiilpicion of guilt: fuch as that of an aft of rebellion within the 
kingdom, the legiflature has thought proper to pafs a teraporaiy fuf- 
feniion of the Habeas Corpus Aft ; but this never has been done b\it 
ivitli great difficulty and caution, and when the national fatety ab- 
iblutely required it. The king h.is aright to pardon, but neither he 
:or the judges, to whom he delegates his authority, can condemn a 
:i;iii as a criminal, except he be iiril found guilty, by twelve men, who 
null be his peers or his equals. That the judges may not be influenced 
hy the king, or his minifters, to mifreprefent the cafe to the jury, they 
have their ihlaries for life, and not during the pleafure of their fove- 
eign. Neither can the king take away, nor endanger the lite of any 
iibjecl, without trial, and the perfons being firil chargeable witii a capi- 
hl crime, as treafons, murder, felony, or fome other aft injurious to f i- 
;;cty: nor can any fubjeft be deprived of his liberty for the higheit 
lime, till fome proof of his guilt be given upon oath before a magif- 
■iite ; and he has then a right to infill upon his being brought, the firil 
pportunity, to a fair trial, or to be rellored to liberty on giving bail 
:,c his appearance. If a man is charged with a capital offence, he mull 
;ot undergo the ignominy of being tried for his life, till the evidenceg 
1: his guilt are laid before the grand jury of the town or county in 
fhich the faft is alledged to be committed^ and not without tv.'clve of 

them 



I 



11 



< II 









I 



170 



ENGLAND. 



them ap^reelng to a bill of indidment againft him. If they do this, he 
is to Hand a lecond trial befi^re twelve other men, whofc opinion is ilt. 
finitive. In fome cafes, the man (who is always fuppofcd innocent til] 
there is fufficient proof of his guilt) is allowed a copy of his inilia- 
ment, in order to help him to make his defence. He is alio furniflicd witJi 
thepanncl, or lift of the jury, who are his true and proper judges, that 
he may learn their charadters, and difcover whether they want abilities 
or whether they are prejudiced againft him. He may in open court per- 
emptorily obje£l to twenty of the number*, and to as many more as lie 
can give reafor for their not being admitted as his judges ; tiil at lafl 
twelve unexceptionable men, the neic;hbours of the party accufed, or 
living near the place where the fuppoled faft was committed, arc fworn, 
to give a true verdidl according to the evidence produced in court. By 
challenging the jury, ihc prifoner prevents all poffibility of bribery, 
or the influence of any fuperior power : by their living near the place 
where the fad was committed, they are fuppofed to be men who knew 
the prifoner's courfe of life, and the credit of the evidence. Thefe only 
are the judges, from whofe fentence the prifoner is to exped life or 
death, and upon their integrity and underftanding, the lives of all that 
are brought in danger ultimately depend ; and from their judgment 
there lies no appeal : they are therefore to be all of one mind, and after 
they have fully heard the evidence, are to be confined without meat, 
drink, or candle, till they are unanimous in acquitting, or condemn- 
ing the prilbner. Every juryman is therefore inverted with a folemn 
and awful trull : if he without evidence fubmits his opinion to that of 
any of the other jury, or yields in complaifance to the opinion of the 
judge; if he negleds to examine with the utmoft care; if he qucftions 
the veracity of the witnelies, who may be of an infamous charader; or 
after the moll impartial hearing has the leaft doubt upon his mind, and 
yet joins in condemning the perfon accufed ; he will wound his own 
confcience, and bring upon himiclf the complicated guilt of perjury 
and murder. The freedom of Englillimen confifts in its being out of 
the power of the judge on the bench to injure them, for declaring 
a man innocent, whom he wilhes to be brought in guilty. Was not 
this the cafe, juries would be ufelefs ; fo far from being judges them- 
lelves, they would only be the tools of another, who'e province it is not 
to guide, but to give a fandion to their determination. Tyranny might 
triumph over the lives and liberties of the fubjed, and the judge on the 
bench be the minifter of the prince's vengeance. 

Thefe are the glorious privileges which we enjoy above any other 
nation upon earth. Juries have always been confidcrcd as giving the 
xnoft efFedual check to tyranny ; for in a nation like this, where a 
king can do nothing againft law, they are a fecurity that he Ihall ne- 
ver make the laws, by a bad adminillration, the inftruments of cruelty 
and oppreflion. Was it not for juries, the advice given by father Paul, 
in his maxims of the republic of Venice, might take effed in its fulleft 
latitude. *' When the offence is committed by a nobleman againft a 
fubjed, fays he, let all ways be tried to juftify him ; and if that is not 
poffible to be done, let him be chaftiicd with greater noife than damage* 



The party may challenge thiity-Ave in cafe of treafon* 



u 



ENGLAND. 



171 



]i it be a fabjcA that has affronted .1 noblcmnn, let him be puniilicd 
tt::h the utmoft fcvcrity, that the fubjcft may not "ct too £reat a cullora 
of laying their hands on the patrician crJrr." In iliort, wns it not far 
jiiric.., a corrupt nobleman might, whenever he pleafed, ail the tyrant, 
lihile the ju<igc would have tliat power which is now denied to our 
tings. But by cur happy conftiruticn, which breathes nothin'^ but libcr- 
IV and equity, all imaginary indulgence is allowed to the meane/l, as 
ivdl as tlic rie.uell. When a prifbiier is brought to take hii trial, lie is 
treed from all bonds; and though i ho judges are fuppofed to be counfel 
fcr the prifoncr, yet, as he m;iy u': incapable of vindicating his owa 
c'Mk, other coinifel are allowed l.im; he may try the validity and lega- 
lity of the indirtment, and may let it afidt, if it be contrary to law. 
Nothing is wanting to clear up the caufe of innocence, and to prevent 
the Aiiicrer from finking under the power of corrupt judge;, and the op- 
prefiion of the great. The raci;s and tortures that arc cruelly miulc 
ufe (f in other parts of Europe, to make a man accufe hinilelf, are 
litre unknown, and none punilhed without cojiviition, but he who re- 
taffs to plead in his own defence. 

As the trial of nialefadl<M-s in England is very di/Fercnt from that of 
other nations, the following account thereof mny be uleful to foreigners 
aud others, who have not li?en thofe proceedings. 

The court being met, and the prifoner called to the bar, the clerk 
ccininanls him to hold up his hand, then charges him \sith the crime of 
which he is accufed, ard aflcs him whether he ii> £u:/>y or f:ot guilty. U 
the prifoner anfwers ^«/7/y, his trial is at an end; but if lie anfwcrs tiot 
luiliy, the court proceeds on the trial, even though he r.v^y before have 
confeficd the faft : for the law of England takes no notice of fuch con- 
fclfion; and unlefs the witneffes, who are upon oath, prove him guilty 
of the crime, the jury muft acquit him, for they are d:!ec:lcd to bring 
ia their verdidl according to the evidence given in court. If the pri- 
funer refwfes to plead, that is, if he will not fay in court, whether he is 
guilty or not giiiity, he is by the law of England to be prclicd to death. 

When the witne/Tes have given in their evidence, and the prifoner 
has, by himfclf or his coii.ifel, crofs examined them, the judge recites 
to the jury the fubftance of the evidence given againll the prifoncr, and 
bids them difcharge their confcicnce ; when, if tJiC matter be very 
clear, they commonly give their verdic^t without going out of court ; 
and the foreman, for himfelf and the rell, declares the prifoner ^;<.'7/_>', 
0: net guilty, as it may happen to be. But if tny doubt ajufes amon^ 
the jury, and the matter requires debate, they ail witlicraw into a room 
with a copy of the indidment, wliere iliey are locked up, till they are 
iinanimoully agreed on the verditit ; and if any one of tlie jury Ihuuld 
(lie during this their confinement, the prifoner will be atijuiited. 

When the jury have agreed on the verdiiS, they intivrjii the court 
thereof by an ofhccr who waits without, and the prifoner is again fet to 
tlic bar, to hear his verdifl. This is unalterable, except iii fume doubt- 
ful cafes, when the verdltl is brought in fpecial, and is therefore to be 
determined by the twelve judges of England. 

If die prifoner is found guilty, he is then afked what reafjn he can 
jive why fentence of death (liould'not be pafl'ed upon him? There ii 
niw no benefit of clergy — it is changed to tranlpoitatiou, or burnitjg 
in the hand. Upon a capital conviction the feateucc of deatji, alter 

a fa a;- 



172 



ENGLAND. 



; t 



a fummary r.ccount of the trial, is pronounced on the prifoncr, In 
thele words : T/je laiv is, ^thnt thou Jhalt return to the place frcn ai'hntc' 
thcu cameft, and from thence he curried to the place cj excci,i:..;\ iLhcn 
thou Jhult hang by the neck, till thy bndy be dead, and the Lcrd hat'C mercy 
en thy foul : whereupon the flierill" is cliargcd with the execution. 
■ Ailprifoncrs found not guilty by the jury, art immediately ncqiiitted 
and difcharged, and in fome cal'cs obtnin a copy of their indidnicnt 
from the court to proceed at law aguinll their profccutors. 

Of punishments.] 'I'hough the law^ of England are cftcemcd n o'c 
merciful, withrefpeft to ofFendtrs, than thofc wnich at prefent fubfiU in 
any other part of the hninvn world; yet the punifhmcnt of fuch who 
at their trial refufe to plead guilty or not guilty, is here very cruel. In 
this cafe the prifoncr is laid upon his bade, and his arms and h-gs being 
ftretched out with cords, and a confiderable weight laid upon his breaft, 
he is allowed only three morfels of barley bread, which is given him 
the next day without drink, after which he is allowed nothing but foul 
water till he expires. This, however, is a punifhment which is fcarcdy 
inflifted once in an age ; but fome offenders have chofe it to prelbrve 
their eftates for their children. Thofe guilty of this crime are not now 
fuffered to undergo fuch a length of torture, but have fo great a weight 
placed upon them, that they foon expire. In cafe of high treafon, tho' 
the criminal Hands mute, judgment is given againft him, as if he had 
been convifted, and his eftate is confircated. 

The law of England includes all capital crimes under high »:rer.fon, 
petty treafon, and felony. The firll confills in plotting, confpiiing, or 
rifing up ill arms againft the fcvereign, or in counterfeiting the coin. 
The traitor is punifhed by being drawn on a fledge to the place of ex- 
ecution, when, after being hanged upon a gallows for fome minutes, 
the body is cut down alive, the heart taken out and expofed to public 
view, and the entrails burnt : the head is then cut off, and the body 
quartered, after which the head is ufually fixed on fome ccnfpicuous 
place. All the criminal's lands and goois are forfeited, his wife lofes 
her dowry, and his children both their eiiates and nobility. 

But though coining of money is adjudged high trcalbn, the criminal 
is only drawn upon a fledge to the place of execution, and there hanged. 

Though the fentence paffed upon all traitors is the fame, yet with re- 
fpeft to perfons of quality, the punifhment is generally altered to behead- 
ing : a fcaffold is erefted for that purpofe, on which the criminal placing 
his head upon a block, it is ftruck off with an axe *. 

Th» punifhment for mifprifion of high treafon, that is, for neglefting 
or concealing it, is imprifonment for life, tlie forfeiture of all the offen- 
der's goods, and of the profits arifmg from his lands. 

Petty treafon is when a child kills his father, a wife her hufband, a 
clergyman his bifliop, or a fervant his mafler or mil^refs. This crime is 
punilhed by being drawn in a fledge to the place of execution, and there 
hanged upon a gallows till the criminal is dead. Women guilty both of 
this crime, and of high treafon, are fentenced to be burnt alive, but in- 
Itead of fuffcring the full rigour of the law, they are itrangled at the 
iiake before the fire takes hold of them. 

* This is not to be confidcred as a different punifhment ; but as a remiflion of all tit* 
parts uf the len're.nce mentioned before, excepting the article of bchcftdiug. 

Felony 



•felony! 
Thefc arc! 
fcon after| 
H) be pi 
feme Hlle\l 
vears to hi 
benefit of I 
i in the haf 

OtlKT 

M:'n'!.Tj 



11 



!nc 



ENGLAND. 



»75 



•^clony includes murders, robberies, forging notes, bonds, deeds, fee. 
Thcfc are all punilhcd by hanging, only * murderers are to be executed 
fcon after fentrncc is palled ; and then delivered to the furgeons in Ofvier 
10 be publicly difledcd. Perfons guilty of robbery, when there are 
iome Hlleviating circumftances, are fomctimcs tranfportcd for a term of 
tears to his majclly's plant.-.tion.s. And in all fuch felonies where the 
kiicfit of the clergy is allowed, as it is in uiany, the ciiminal is burnt 
in the hand with a hot iron. 

Other crimes punilhed by the laws are, 

M.'inilnuglucr, wliich is the unlawful killing of .1 pcrfon without pre- 
meditated malice, but with a prcfcnt intent to kill ; as when two who 
formerly meant no harm to each other, quarrel, and the one kills the 
ether; in this cafe, the criminal is allowed tiie benefit of his clergy for 
the firfl time, and only burnt in the hand. 

Chance-medley, is the accidental killing of a man without an evil in> 
tent, for which the offender v: alfo to be burnt in the hand ; unlefs the 
offender was doing an unlawful ad, which lall circumllance makes the 
punifhment death. 

Shop-lifting, and receiving goods knowing them to be (lolcn, arc 
punilhed with tranfportation to his majclly's coUmies, or burning in the 
knd. 

Perjury, or keeping diforderly hcufes, arc punifiied with the pillory 
and imprifonment. 

Pctty-larccny, or fmall theft, under the value of twelve-pence, is 
punilhed by whij)p*ng. 

Libelling, ui:'\pr t Ifc weights and meafurcs, and foreftalling the mar- 
ket, are commonly punilhed with llanding on the pillory, or whipping. 

For ftriking, fo as to draw blond, in the king's court, the criminal 19 
punilhed with lofing his right hr.nd. 

For Itri king in Weftminfter-hall, while the courts ofjuftlce are fitting, 
is imprifonment for life, 'and forfeiture of all the oitender's eftate. 

Drunkards, vagabonds, and loofe, idle, diforderly perfons, are punilhc4 
by being fet in the ftocks,. or by paying a fine. 

Of HUSBAND AND wHE.] The firfl; private relation of perfons is 
[hat of marriage, which 'ncludcs the reciprocal rights and duties of 
tiilbanJ and wife ; or, as moft of our elder law books call them, ia- 
tm and /effie. The holinefs of the matrimonial ftate is left entirely to 
the ecclefialHcal law ; the punifhment therefore, or annulling, of incef- 
mous, or other unfcriptijral marriages, is the province of fpir^tual courts. 

The Hrft legal difability is a prior marriage, or iiaving another huJband 
tr wife living J in which cafe, befides the penal tic j confcquent upon it 
;sa felony, the fecond marriage is to all intents and purpofes void : po- 
Ijgamy being condemned both by the law of the New Teftament, and 
lie pjlicy of all prudent Itatcs, efpecially in thef^i northern climates. 
The fecond legal difability is want of age. This is futlicient to avoid all 
tiher contracts, on account of the imbecillity of judgment ir\ the parties 
;ontratlii)g. Therefore if a boy under fourteen, or ii girl under twelve 
jears of age, marries, this marriage is impcrfeft ; and, when either of 



' By a late aft murderers are to be executed within twenty-four hours after fentctice 
isptonoimced; but as Sunday is not reckoned a dii), ihoy arc generally tried on a Satur- 
|k, fo that they obtain a rcfjiit^ till MunJay. ' ' 

' ' theia 






J 74 



ENGLAND. 



■p ' 



. ;■ I 






H 



li X.i 



theifl comes to the age of confent aforefaid, tliey may uifagrre, and de-t 
ciarc the marriage void, without any divorce or fentence ia the fpiritu- 
r:I court. Thi;; is founded on the civil law. But the c.non law pavf^ 
a greater rcn;.u\i to tlie conftitution, than the aq;e of the parties : for if 
they are bal-ius ad jnatrunoi^lum, it is a good marriage*, whatever their 
age may be. And in our law it is fo far a marriage, that if at the- aoe 
r.f coniint they agree to continue together, they need not be marriai 
again. If the huiband be of years ot difcretion, and the wife iiniL'r 
twelve, wh..-n Toe comes to years oi difcretion, he may diftgrce as well 
as liic may ; for in contrad, the obligation mull be mutual ; both muil 
fee bound, or neither ; and fo it is, 'vice 'vtrfa, when the wife is of yean 
cf difcretion, and the hulhan'l under. 

Another incapacity arifcs from v ant of confent of guardians. By the 
common law, if the parties themfelves were o{ the age of confent, there 
wanted no other concurrence to make the marrii^c valid : and this was 
agreeable to the canon law. But by fevcral itatutes, penalties of lool. 
are laid on ''very clergyman, who marries a couple either without publi- 
cation of banns (winch may give notice to parents or guardians) or with- 
out a licence, to obtain wliiclithe confent of parents or guardians muft be 
f\vorn to. And it has been lately thought proper to enaft, that all mar- 
riag-es celebrated by licence (for banns fuppofe notice) \\ here either of 
tiie parties is under twenty-one (not being a widow, or widower, who are 
iuppofed free) without the confent of the fithcr, or, if he lie nor livinc^, 
ef the mother or guardians, Ihall be abi'vlucely void. A provifmn is 
made> as ia the civil law, when the moiher or guardian is non ccwpa, 
beyond fea, or nnreafonablv froward, to difpenic witii fuch confciu at 
the difcretion oi the lord chancellor ; but no provifion is made, in c:Ul' 
the fither fl) )u!d labour under any mental or odicr incapacity. Mucii 
may be, and much iias been faid, both tor and againft this innovation 
irpon our antient laws and conllitution. On the one hand, it prevents 
the c'.indellinc marriage of ir.inors, which are often a terrible inconve- 
nience to thofe private families wherein they happen. On the other 
hand, rcllraints upon marriages, elpeciallv among the lowvr claf;, are 
evidently detrimental to the pub'.it, by hindering the encrenfc of peo- 
ple ; and to religion and morality, by encouraging licentiournefs ar.J 
debauchery,, among the fingle 0/ both fcxes ; and tjiercby deflroying one 
<nd of fociety and government. 

A fourth incapacity is want of reafon ; v/ithout a competent Hiare of 
wliich, as no other, {o neither can the matrimonial contra.:^, be valid. 

LaHly, the parties niull^ not onK' be willing, and able to contract, hut 
3'-hially mull: ci>ntradt themielves in due fbrni of la. , to ma!:e it a good 
civil marriage. Verbal contraQs arc now of no force, to compel a future 
rnanMag/.'. Neither is nr^y marriage at prcfcnt valid, that is not cclebrat- 
fd in fome parilii churc!', or public cliapfl, uidefs by ilifpenlation from 
the archbilhop cf Cmrerbury. It muft alio be preceded by pubiicarioi) 
of banns, or by licence from the fpiritual judge. Jt is held to be alio 
cfTential to marrLige, that it be performed by a perfon in orders: though 
in the times of the gr;intl rebellion, all marriages were performed by the 
julUces of the peace ; and thefe marriages were declared valid in the luc- 
ceeding reign. But, as tl-.e law nov/ flands, wc may upon the whole eol- 
}e6t, that no marriage by the temprral law is void, tliat is celebrated by 
a perfon in orders, — in a parifh clurch, or public chapel (or elfewhere, 
py a diipenfaiicn) — Jn purllianrc of banns or a lie -'nee, — between ftngio 

pcilonsi 



ENGLAND. 



"^IS 



Ljj-Qfis, — confcnting, — of found mind,— -and of the age of twenty-one 
jjjfj . — or of the age of fourteen in male, and twelve in female, with 
'[•ifcnt of parents or g\ ardians, or v/ii' out it, in cafe of widowhood. 

There are two kinds of divorce, die one total, the other partial. The 
rial divorce muft be for fome of the canonical caufes of impediment, and 
■i)le cxiilinp: before the marriage; as confanguinity, allinity, or cor- 
onal inibccillity. The iflue of fuch marriage, as is tlius entirely dif- 
dved, arc ballards. 

The other kind of divorce is when the marriage is juft and lawful, and 
litrcforethe law is tender of diflblving it ; but, for fon e Aipervenient 
jaufe, it becomes improper, or impoHible, for the parties to live toge- 
jicr: as in the cafe of intolerable ill temper, or adultery, in either of 
;lie parties. In this cafe the law allows alimony to the wife (except 
iv'nen for fldultery, the parliament grants a total divorcr, as has happen- 
ed frequently of late years) which is that allowance, which is made to a 
Voman, for her fupport, out of the hulband's cftate ; being fettled at the 
(iifcretioa of the ccclefiaftical judge, on confideration of all the circum- 

anccs of the cafe, and the rank and quality of the parties. 

Having thus Ihewn how marriages may be made, or diffolved, I come 
now, lalUy, to fpeak of the legal confequences of fuch making, or dif- 
Iblution. ^ ^ _ ^ ■ 

By n-.arriage, the hufl>and and wife are one perfon in law ; ^^hat is, the 
vorv being, or legal exillence of the woman, is fufpended during the 
marriage, or at lead is incorporated and confolidated into that of the 
jisiband : under whofe wing, protetEtion, and co-ver., fliq performs every 
thing;, and is therefore called in our law French, a feme -covert, under 
tiie protcvfiion and influence of her hufband, her hnron, or lord ; and 
kr condition, during her marriage, is called her co'v'.rture. Upon this 
pripcip];, of an union of perfon in hufband and wife, depend almoft all 
thelcgnl rights, duties, and difabillties, that either of them acquire by 
tk marriage. I fpeak not at prefent of the rights of property, but of 
fsch as arc merely per/oual. l^or this reafon a man cannot grant any 
tiling to his wife, or enter into covenant with her ; f Jr the grant would 
ic to 111 ppofe her feparate exillence; and the covenant with her, would 
ieonly to covenant with himfclf ; and therefore it is generally true, that 
ilcompacls made between huflsand and wife, when fmgle, are voided by 
;!ie intermarriage. A woman indeed may be attorney for her hulband ; 
srthat implies no feparation from, but is rather a reprcfentation of her 
lird. And a hufband may alfo bequeath any thing to his wife by will ; 
Srthat cannot take effett till the coverture is determined by his death. 
liic hulband is bound to provide his wife with nfceflarics by law, as 
ajch as himfelf ; and if flie contrafts debts for them; he is obliged to 
;3y them ; but, for any thing, befides neccfiaries, he is not chargeable, 
llfo if a wife elopes, and lives with another man, the huiband is not 
iirgeable even for necelTarics ; at Icaft, if the perfon who furniflie<} 
km, is fulficiently apprized of her elopement. If the wife be indebted 
kforc marriage, the hufband is bound afterwards to pay the debt ; for 
is has adopted her and her circumftances together. If the v,'if'e be in- 
j»ed in her perfon or property, Ihc can bring no aiJlion for redreis 
V. diout her huloand'a concurrence, and in his name, as well as her own ; 
i'.t.ther can flie be liicd, with'^nt making the hufband a defendant ; ex- 
cept when the hulband has abjured the realm, or is bauiflied ; for then 
i'f is dead in law. In criminal profccutions, it is true, tho wife may 

1>C 



!:!».: ■ 



f ; ft-' 'i 
•■J 



tl: 



h 



176 



E N G I. AND. 



be indiflcd, and puniflipd feparatcly ; for the union is only a civil union. 
But, ill trial.') of any Joi t, they are not alkmcd to be evidences for, or 
againll, each other; partly bccaulc it is impoluble their telliniony fliould 
1-k; indifferent ; but principally bccaiife of the union of perlon. But 
where the offl^ncc in directly atrainll the perfon of the wife, this rule has 
Wen ufually diipenfed with ; and, therefore, in cafe a. woman be forci- 
lily taken away, and married, Ihe may be a witnefs againll fuch her huf. 
band, in order to convicl iiim of felony. 

In the civil law, the hulhaiul and the wife are confidered as two dif- 
tinct perfons ; an I may have feparate ellates, contrafts, debts, and in. 
juries ; and, therefore, in our ecclcfiaftical courts, a woman may fue, 
and be fued, without her hulhand. 

But, though our law in general confiders man and wife as one perftn, 
yet there are fomc iulbnces in which flie is feparately confidered, as infe- 
rior to him, and acting by hii cnnpulfion. And therefore all deeds ex- 
ecuted, and a-.'ts done, by her, during her coverture, arc void; except 
it be a iine, or the like matter of record, in which cafe Ihe mult be fole- 
ly and fecretly examined, to learn if her ail be voluntary. She cannot 
by will devife land to her hulband, unlefs under fpecial circumftances ; 
for at the time of making it, ihe is fuppofed to be under his coercion. 
And in fome felonies, and other inferior crimes, committed by her, thro' 
conftraint of her huiband, the law extufcs her : but this extendi not to 
•jeafon or nnirdcr. 

The huiband alfo (by the old, and likevvifc by the civil law) might 
give hib wife moderate correction. For, as he is to anfwer for her mifbe- 
haviour, the law thought it reafonable to entrult him, with this power 
of rellraining her, by domeilic chatUfrment, in the fame moderation 
that a man is allowed to correct his fervants or children ; for whom the 
mailer or parent i> alfo liable in fome cafes to anfwer. But in the poHter 
reign of Charles II . this power of corredion began to be doubted ; and 
a wife may now have lecurity of the peace againll her huiband ; or, in 
return, a huiband againlt hio wife : yet the lower rank of people, who 
were always fond of the old common law, ilill claim and exert their 
antient privilege ; and the courts of law will lUU permit a huiband to 
rellrain a wife of her liberty, in cafe of any grofs mifbehaviour. 

Thefe are the chief legal cH'eds of marriage during the coverture ; 
upon which we may obferve, that even the difabilities, which the wife 
lies under, are for the molt part intended for her protedion and bene- 
fit. So great a favourite is the female fex of the laws of England. 

Revenues of the Bri- 7 The king's ecclefiallical revenue con- 
TiSH government. J fills in, I. The cullody of the tempo- 
ralities of vacant biflioprics ; from which he receives little or no advan- 
tage. 2. Corodies and penlions, formerly arifuig from allowances of 
meat, drink, and cloathing, due to the king from an abbey or monallry, 
and which he generally beilowed upon favourite fervants ; but now, 1 be- 
lieve, difufed. 3. Extra-parochial tithes. 4. The iirll fruits and tenths 
of benefices. At prefent, fuch has been tho bounty of the crown to the 
church, that thofe fm r branches atford little ■r no revenue. 

'I'he king's Orel. nary temporal revenue cjufilts in, 1. The demefne 
lands of the crown. 2. The hereditary e xcife ; being part of the 
I'onfideration for the purchafe of his fcoilal profits, and the preroga- 
;^vps of purveyance and pre-emption. 3. An annual fum iffuing 

from 



ENGLAND. 



177 



Uoirtlie Jiit^on wine licences; being the refidue of the fame confideia- 

joa, 4. His forells. 5. His courts' of juilice, &c. 

The extraordinary grants are ufually called by the fynonlmous names 
Jul aids, fubfidies, and fupplies ; and are granted, as has been before 

feteJ, by the commons of Great-Britain, in parliament afTembled : 

,so, when they have voted a fupply to his majelly, and fettled the quan- 
L of that fupply, ufually jrefolve themfelves into what is called a com- 

jitteeof ways and means, to confidor of the ways and means of raifing 
L fupply fo voted. And in this committee every member (though it is 
I joked upon as the peculiar province of the chancellor of the exchequer) 
jijypropofc fuch fcheme of taxation as he thinks will be leaft dctrimen- 
Lto the public. The refolutions of this commitlrce (when approved by 
J.vcte of the houfc) are in general eJlcemed to be (as it were) final and 
londiifivc. For, though the fupply cannot be aftually raifed upon th« 

hied till directed by an a6l of the v/hole parliament, yet no monied 
iijiiwill fcruple to advance to the government any quantity of ready 
[alli, on the credit of a bare vote of the houfe of commons, tiiough ni> 

aw be yet parted to eftablifh it. 

The annual taxes are, i. The land tax, or the antient fubfidy raifed 
■upon a new affeflment. 2. The malt tax, being an annual excifc on 

lalt, mum, cyder, and perry. 
. Tlic perpetual taxes are, i. The cuftoms* or tonnage ".nd poundage 
Icfall merchandize exported or imported. 2. The exclie duty, or inland 
jimpolition, on a great variety of commodities. 3. The fait duty. 4. 
JTlie * poll office, or duty for the carriage of letters. 5. The ftamp 
jdiiij on paper, parchment, &c. 6. The duty on houfes and windows. 
It, The duty on licences for hackney coaches and chairs. 8. The duty 

iioScesand penfions. 

The clear neat produce of thefc fevcral branches of the revenue, after 
charges of coUeding and management paid, amounts annually to 
jiboiit fev';n millions and three quarters fterling; befides two millions and 
[iqwrter raifed .annually, at an average, by the land and malt tax» 
pw thefe immenfe fums are . appropriated, is next to be confidered. 
Ifcd this is, firll and principally, to the payment of the interell of the 
Iponal debt. 

I Older to take a clear and comprclicnfive view of the nature of this 
Iconal debt, it muft be firft premiicd, that after the Revolution, when 
IE new connexions with Eumpe introduced a new fyftcm of foreign 

Itiitics ; the expenccs of the nation, not only in fettling the new ella- 

iment, but in maintaining long wars, as principals, on tlio conti- 
Ie;, for the feciirity of the Dutcli barrier, reducing the Frcncli mo- 
lEhy, fettling the Spanilh fucceflion, fupporting the houfe of Auftria, 
jmuiiuing the liberties of ^he Germanic body, and other purpofes, in*. 
jKied to an unufual degree : infomuch that it was not thought advife- 
liieto raife all the expcnces of any one year by taxes to be levied within 
Ilk year, lelt the unaccullomed weight of them fhould create murmurs 
jjaag the people. It v.'as therefore the policy of the times, to antici- 
Iptlie revenues of their poflcrity, by b.^rrowing immenfe fums for the 
Ttrnt fervice of the llate, and tQ lay no more taxes upon the fubje6t 



•From the ycrrs 1715 to T763, the annual amount of f^finked letters gradually in* 
|»aiil'r3m a3,cocl. iei7f,73sl. 

N thjm 



'm 









%■ 






\lil 



ft' 



11 



lifi 






Kiris 



J! 



I7S 



ENGLAND. 



W.-- 



¥■ 



than would fuiHce to pay the annual intereft of the fums fo bor- 
rowed: by this means converting the principal debt into a new fpecies of 
property, transferable from one man to another, at any time and in any 
quantity. A fyftem which feems to have had its original in the ftate of 
Florence, A. D. 1344: which government then owed about 60,000 1. 
fterling : and, being unable to pay it, formed the principal into an ag- 
gregate fum, called metaphorically a mount or bank : the Ih ares whereof 
were transferable like our ftocks. This 1. id the foundation of what is 
called the national debt : for a few long annuities created in the reign 
of Charles II. will hardly deferve that name. And the example then fet 
has been fo clofely followed, during the long wars in the reign of queen 
Anne, and fince ; that the capital of the national debt (funded and un- 
funded) amounted, in January 1765, to upward of 145,000,000!. to 
pay the intereft of which, and the charges for management, amounting 
annually to about four millions and three quarters, the extraordinary re- 
venues juft now enumerated (excepting only the land-tax and annual 
malt-tax) are in the firft place mortgaged, and made perpetual by par- 
liament ; but ftill redeemable by the fame anthority that impofed them : 
which, if it at any time can pay off the capital, will aboliih thofe taxes 
which are raifed to difcharge the intereil. 

It is indifputably certain, that the prefent magnitude of our national 
incumbrances very far exceeds all calculations of commercial benefit, 
and is produftivc of the greateft inconveniencies. For, firft, the enor- 
mous taxes that are raifed upoi; the neceffaries of life, for the payment of i 
the intereft of this debt, are a hurt both to trade and manufaftures ; by 
raifmg the price, as well of the artificer's fubfiftence, as of the raw mate- 
rial ; and of cotirfe, in a much greater proportion, the price of the com- 
modity itfelf. Secondly, if part of this debt be owing to foreigners, 
either they draw out of the kingdom annually a confiderable quantity of | 
fpecie for the intereft ; or elfe it is made an argument to grant them un- 1 
reafonable privileges, in order to induce them to refide here. Thirdly,! 
if the whole be owing to fubjefts only, it is then charging the aftive ii\i j 
induftrious fubjedl, who pays his Ihare of the taxes, to maintain the in- 1 
dolent and idle creditor who receives them. Laftly, and principally, it 
weakens the internal ftrength of a ftate, by anticipating thofe refources 
which Ihould be refcrved to defend it in cafe of neceflitj. The intereft 
we now pay for our debts would be nearly fufficient to maintain any war, I 
that any national motives could require. And if our anceftors in king! 
William's time had annually paid, fo long as their exigencies lafted,! 
even a lefs fum than we now annually raife upon their accounts, theyj 
would, in time of war, have borne no greater burdens than they havel 
bequeathed to, and fettled upon, their pofterity in time of peace j andj 
might have been eafed the inftant the exigence was over. j 

I'he produce of the feveral taxes before-mentioned were originally fepa^l 
rate and diftinil funds ; being fecurities for the fums advanced on each! 
feveral tax, and for them only. But at laft it became neceffary, in ordef 
to avoid confufxon, as they multiplied yearly, to reduce the number ofl 
thefe feparate funds, by uniting and blending them together; fuper^ 
adding the faith of parliament for tht general ftcurity of the whole, 
that there are now only three capital funds of any accouitt : the aggre^ati 
fund, and the general fund^ fo called from fuch union and aaaitionf 
and the South Sea fund, being the produce of the taxes appropriated td 
pay the intereft of fuch part of the national debt as was advanced by thar 



fe N G L A N b. 



179 



company and its annuitants. Whereby the feparate funds, wlilch were 
(lius united, are become mutual fecurities for each other; and the whole 
produce of them, thus aggregated, liable to pay fuch intercft or annui- 
ries as were formerly cnarged upon each dillinft fund ; the faith of the 
willature being moreover engaged to fupply any cafual deficiencies. 

The cuftoms, excifes, ana other taxes, which are to fupport thefe 
finds, depending on contingencies, upon exports, imports, and con- 
umptions, muft necelfarily be of a very uncertain amount : but tlvey 
tive always been confiderably more than fafficient to anfwer the 
(harge upon them. The furplufles therefore of the three great national 
funds, the aggregate^ general, and South-Sea funds, over and above the 
2itereftand annuities charged upon them, are direfted by ftatute 3 Geo. I. 
;. 7. to be carried together, and to attend the difpofition of parliament ; 
ind are ufually denominated the finking fund, becaufe originally de- 
ilined to fink and lower the national debt. To this have been fince added 
many other intire duties, granted in fubfequent years ; and the annual 
Intereft of the fums borrowed on their refpedive credits, is charged on, 
and payable oUt of the produce of the finking fund. However the neat 
furplufles and favings, after all deduftions paid, amount annually to a 
very confiderable fum ; particularly in the year ending at Chriftmas 
i;64, to about two millions and a quarter. For, as the intereft on the 
national debt has been at feveral times reduced, (by the confent of thd 
proprietors, who had their option either to lower their intereft, or be 
paid their principal) the favings from the appropriated revenues mull 
needs be cxtreamly large. This finking fund is the laft refort of the 
nation; its only domeftic refource, on which muft chiefly depfllid all the 
hopes we can entertain of ever difcharging or moderating our incum- 
brances. And therefore the prudent application of the large fums, now 
ariling from this fund, is a point of the utmoft importance, and well 
worthy the ferious attention of parliament ; which was thereby enabled, 
in the year 1765, to reduce above two millions fterling of the public 
debt. 

But, before any part of the aggregate fund (the furplufles whereof are 
CDC of the chief ingredients that form the finking fund) can be applied 
todiminilh the principal of the public debt, it ftands mortgaged by par- 
liament to raife an annual fum for the maintenance of the king's houf- 
kld and the civil lift. For this purpofc, in the late reigns, the produce 
of certain branches of the excife and cuftomsy the poil-oilice, the duty 
On wine-licences, the revenues of the remaining crown lands, the profits 
infing from courts of juftice, (which articles include all the hereditaiy 
menues of the crown) and alfo a clear annuity of 120,000 1. in moneys 
wre fettled on the king for lifej for the fupport of his majefty's houf- 
kold, and the honour and dignity of the crown. And, as the amount of 
Me feveral branches was uncf rtain, (though in the laft reign they were 
computed to have fometim^;. r lifed almoft a million) if they did not arife 
atiually to 800,000 1. the p'l 'ament engaged to make up the deficiency. 
Bit his prefent majefty hay' •, foon after his acceflion, fpontancoufly 
figtified his confent, that his owi. hereditary revenues might be fodifpofed 
of, as might beft conduce to the otility and fatisfadioh of the public ; 
and having gracioufly accepted the limited fum of 800,000 1. per anttum, 
fonhe fupport of his civil lift, (and that alfo charged with three life an- 
nuities, to the princefs of Wales, the duke of Cumberland, and princefs 
i Amelia, to Uie amount of 77,0001.) the faid hereditary, and other rc- 

N a venues. 



,?;••* 



i8o 



ENGLAND. 



venues, are now carried into, and made a part of, the aggregate fur J; 
and the aggregate fund is charged with the payment of the whole nii- 
"nuity to the crown of 800,000 1. per amuan. Hereby the revenues tlicm- 
felves, being put under the fame care and management astheotiui- 
branches of the pu'olic patrimony, will produce more, and be better tol- 
ledled than heretofore ; and the public is a gainer of upward of ioo,oool. 
fer anniivi, by this difintcrefted bounty of his majelly. The civil lifl' 
thus liquidated, together with the four millions and three quarters, in! 
tereft of the national debt, and the two millions and a quarter produced 
from the finking fund, make up the feven millions and three quarters 
per annum, neat money, which were before ftated to be the annual pro- 
duce of our perpetual taxes : befide the immenfe, though uncertain fums, 
arifing from the annual taxes on land and malt, but which, at an ave- 
rage, may be calculated at more than two millions and a quarter; and 
which, added to the preceding fum, make the clear produce of the taxes, 
cxclufive of the charge of colleding, which are raifed yearly on the pco- 
pie of ihis country, amount to upward often million fterling. 

The expences defrayed by the civil lillj.are thofe that in any fhapc ;c. 
late to civil government ; as the expences of the houfhold, ali falariesto 
officers of ftate, to the judges, and every of the king's feirants ; the ap- 
pointments to foreign ambaH'adors, the maintenance oi the queen and 
royal family, the king's private expences, or privy purfe, and other 
very numerous outgoings ; as fecret fervice-money, penfions, and ctbcr 
bounties. Thcfe fometinies have fo far exceeded tlie revenues appointed 
for that purpofe, that application has been made to parliament, to dif- 
charge the debts contraded on tlie civil lift ; as particularly in 1724, 
when one million was granted for that purpofe by the ftatute xi Geo. I. 
c. 17. 

The civil lift is indeed properly the whole of the king's revenue in hij 
own diftinvl capacity ; the reft being rather the revenue of the public, or 
its creditors, though ccllefted, and diftributed again, in the name, and 
by the ofriccrs of tlio crown ; it now ftanding in the fame place, as the 
hereditary income did formerly ; and, as that has gradually diminillied, 
the parliamentary appointments have encreafed. 

Military A^KD MAR IKE 1 The military ftate includes the whole 
STRCNGTH OF Great- > of the foldicry ; or, fuch perfons as are 
Britain. j peculiarly appointed among the reft of 

tlie people, for the fafcguard and defence of the realm. 

In a land of liberty it is extremely dangerous to make a diftinft order 
of the profeftion of arms. In fuch, no man fliould take up arms, but 
■with a view to defend his country and its laws : he puts not off the citi- 
zen when he enters the camp j but it is becaufe he is a citizen, and would 
wifti to continue fo, tliat he makes himfelf for a while a foldicr. The 
laws, therefore, and conftitution of thefe kingdoms know no fuch ftate, j 
as that of a perpetual ftanding foldier, bred up to no other profeffiou 
■than that of war : and it was not till the reign of Henry VII. that tL' 
kings of Eiigland had fo much as a guard about their perfons. 

It feems univcrfally af^reed by all hiftorians, that king Alfred firftj 
fettled a national militia in tliis kingdom, and by his prudent difcipline, ' 
made all the fubjeits of his dominions foldiers. 

In the mean time we are not to imagine that the kingdom was leftj 
>vli.uliy without defence, in cafe of domeftic infurreftions, or the profpect 
«i lur.^gn iavallons. iiciide thole, who by th«ir military tenures, were] 
, . J ■' bounds 



ENGLAND. 



i8i 



limiml to perform forty days fervice in the field, tlic flatute of Wln- 
cheller obliged every man, according to his eltate and degree, to pro- 
viJc a determinate quantity of fnch arms as were then in ufc, in order 
lokeep the peace: and conltablcs were appointed in all hundreds, to fee 
ti,it fuch arms wae provided. Thefe weapons were cliangc! by the fta- 
liiC 4 and 5 Ph. and M. c. 2. into others of more modern ..rvice ; but 
Ikith this aad the former provifion were repealed in the reign of James I. 
Hhile thefe continued in force, it was ufual from time to time, for our 
irinces tc iflue commiflions of array, and fend into every county oiiiccrs 
i] whom they could confide, to mufter and array (or fct in military or- 
ier) the inhabitants of every diftri<ft ; and the form of the commiflion of 
;riay was fet in parliament in the 5 Hen. IV. But at the fame time it 
as provided, that no man fliould be compelled to go out of the king- 
iom at any rate, nor out of his fliirc, but in cafes of urgent ncceflity j 
lor fhould provide foldiers unlefs by confcnt of parliament. About the 
reign of king Henry VIII. and his children, lord lieutenants began to 
be introduced, as Handing reprefentatives of the crown, to keep the 
counties in military order ; for we find them mentioned as known of- 
fers in the ftatute 4 and 5 Ph. and M. c. 3. tho' they had not been then 
long in ufe ; for Camden fpeaks of them in the time of cjueen Elizabeth, 
ns extraordinary magiftrates, conftituted only in times of difficulty and 
danger. 

Soon after the reftoration of king Charles II. when the military te- 
nures were abolifhed, it was thought proper to afccrtain the power of 
the militia, to recognize the fole right of the crown to govern and com- 
mand them, and to put the whole into a more regular method of mili- 
tary fiibordination : and the order in which the militia now ftands by 
law, is principally built upon the ftatutes which were then enafted. It is 
true, the two lalt of them are apparently repealed; but many of their 
provifions are re-enadled, with the addition of fome new regulations, by 
theprefent militia laws ; the general fcheme cf which is to difcipline a 
certain number of the inhabitants of every county, cholen by lot for 
three years, and officered by the lord lieutenant, the deputy lieutenants, 
:!id other principal landholders, under a commiflion from the crown. 
They are not compellable to march out of their counties, unlefs in cafe 
cfinvafion, or aiSual rebellion, nor in any cafe compellable to march 
ojt of the kingdom. They are to be exercifed at ftated times ; and their 
liifcipline in general is liberal and eafy ; but, when drawn out into ac- 
al fe.s'ice, they are fubjeft to the rigours of martial law, as necefTary 
!okeep them in order. This is the conftitutional fecurity which our 
ks have provided for the public peace, and for protecting the realm 
:jainil foreign or domeftic violence ; and which the ftatutes declare, is 
dtntially neceflary to the fafety and profperity of the kingdom. 

But, as the fafhion cf keeping llandipg armies has univerlklly pre- 
uiled over all Europe of late years (though ibme of its potentates, be- 
ing unable themfelvcs to maintain them, are obliged to have refource to 
richer powers, and receive fubfidiary penfions for that purpofe) it has 
a!fo for many years paft been annually judged necefTary by our legifla- 
tiire, for the fafety of the kingdom, the defence of the pofTeffions of 
tk crown of Great-Britain, and the prcfervation of the balance of 
pwer in Europe, to maintain, even in time of peace, a ftanding body 
of troops, under the command of the crown ; who , arc however, i^o 
Wo, difbanded at the expiration of every year, unlefs continued by 

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:82 



ENGLAND. 



parliament. The land forces * of thcfc kingdoms, in time of peace, amount 
to about 40,000 men, including troops and garrifons in Ireland, Gi- 
braltar, Minorca, and America ; but in time of war, there have been 
in Britifli pay, natives and foreigners, above 150,000!. The rcgiftered 
militia in England confifts of near aoo.ooo. To keep this body of I 
troops in order, an annual aft of parliament paHes, *• to punilh mutiny 
^nd defertion, and for the better payment of the army and their quar- 
ters." This regulates the manner in which they are to be difperfed 
among the feveral innkeepers and viftu^llers throughout the kingdom ; 
and eftablifhes a law martial for their government. By this, among other 
things, it is enafted, that if any officer and foldier ihall excite, or join 
^ny mutiny, or, knowing of it, ihall not give notice to the commanding 
officer J or (hall defert, or lift in any other regiment, or fleep upon his 
f oft, or leave it before he is relieved, or hold correfpondence with a 

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ENGLAND. 



183 



^j^J or enemy, or ftrike or ufe violence to his fupcj lor officer, or (hall 
^jfobcy his lawful command ; fuch offender Ihall fuffer fuch punilhment 
as a court martial (hall inflicl, though it extend to death itfelf. 

Officers and foldiers that have been in the king's fei-vice, are by feve- 
ral ftatutes, enafted, at the clofe of feveral wars, at liberty to ufe any 
uade or occupation they are fit for, in any town of the kingdom (ex- 
tent the two univerfities) notwithllanding any ftatuto, cullom or charter 
•0 the contrary. And foldiers in actual military fervice, may make ver- 
lial wills, and difpofe of their goods, wages, and other perfonal chattels, 
without thofe forms, folenuiities, and expences, which the law requires 
in other cafes. 

The maritime ftate is nearly related to the former ; though much more 
igreeable to the principles of our free conilitution. The royal navy of 
England hath ever been its greateft defence and ornament ; it is its an- 
cient and natural ftrength ; the floating bulwark of the idand ; an ar- 
my, from which, however Itrong and powerful, no danger can ever be 
apprehended to liberty : and accordingly it has been aifiduoufly culti- 
vated, even from the earlieft ages. To fo much perfedion was our naval 
reputation arrived in the twelfth century, that the code of maritime 
laws, which are called the laws of Oleron, and are received by all na- 
tions in Europe, as the ground and fubftruftion of all their marine con- 
iHtutions, was confefledly compiled by our king Richard I. at the ifle of 
Oleron, on the coaft of France, then part of the poffeflions of the crown 
of England. And yet, fo vaftly inferior were our anceftors in this point, 
to the prefent age, that even in the maritime reign of queen Elizabeth, 
Sir Edward Coke thinks it matter of boall, that the royal navy of Eng- 
land then confided of thirty-three fhips. The prefent condition of our 
marine is in great meafure owing to the falutaiy provifions of the fta- 
tutes, called the navigation afts ; whereby the conftant increafe of Eng- 
ijlh fhipping and feamen, was not only encouraged, but rendered una- 
yoidably neceffary. The moll beneficial ftatute for the trade and com- 
merce of thefe kingdoms, is that navigation-aft, the rudiments of which 
were firft framed in 1650, with a narrow partial view: being intended 
to mortify the fugar iflands, which were difaffedled to the parliament, 
and ftill held out for Charles II. by flopping the gainful trade which 
they then carried ou with the Dutch ; and at the fame time to clip 
(he wings of thofe our opulent and afpiring neighbours. This prohi- 
bited all Ihips of foreign nations from trading with any Englilh planta- 
tions without licence from the council of ftate. In 1 65 1 , the prohibition 
was extended alfo to the mother country ; and no goods were fuffered to 
be imported into England, or any of its dependencies, in any other 
than Englifh bottoms; or in the fhips of that European nation, of which 
the merchandize imported was the genuine growth or manufaiSlure. At 
thereftoration, the former provifions were continued, by ftatute 12 Car. II. 
c. 18. with this very material improvement, that the mafter, and 
three fourths of the mariners fhall alio be Englilh fubjedls. 

The coniplement of feamen, in time of peace, ufually amounts to 
twelve or fifteen thoufand. In time of war, they have amounted to no 
lefs than fixty thoufand men. 

This navy is commonly divided into three fqnadrons, namely, the red, 
white, and blue, which are fo termed from the difference of their co- 
lours. Each fquadron has its admiral ; but tlie admiral of the red fqua- 
dron has the principal cpmmapd of the whole, and is ftiled vice-adnii- 

N 4 ral 



0WM * 



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1|? I ! 



i84 



ENGLAND. 




U? 



ml of Great Britain. Subject to each admiral is alfo a vice ainl a renr- 
rdmiral. But the fupreme command of our naval force is, next to the 
king, in the lords commiirioni-Ts of the admiralty. Notwithlhndinp 
our favourable fituation for a maritime power, it was not until the v.-iR 
armament fent to fubdue this nation by Spain, in 1588, thpc the na- 
tion, by a vigorous effort, became fully fenfible of its true ir tcrcll and 
natural llrength, which it has fmcc fo happily cultivated. 

We may venture to affirm that the Britifh navy, during the late war 
was able to cope w'th all the other fleets in Europe. In the cnurfe ol" 
a few years it entirely vr.nquiihed the whole naval power of France, dif, 
ablcd Spain, and kept the Dutch in .-hvc. 

For the proteftion of the Britifli empire, and the annoyance of oiir 
enemies, it was then divided into feveral powerful fquadronr, and fo 
judicioufly ftatloned, that while one fleet was Aiccefsfully battering walls 
hitherto reckoned impregnable, others were employed in frullrating the 
defigns of France, and efcorting home the riches of the eallcrn and wef- 
tern worlds. 

Many laws have been made for tJie fupply of the royal ua\y with 
feamen ; for their regulation when on board ; and to confer privileoej 
and rewards on them, during, and after their fervice. 

1. For thcLr fupply. The power of imprefling men, for the fea-fer- 
vlce, by the king's commifllon, has been a matter of fome difpute, and 
fubmitted to with great rcludlance ; though it hath very clearly and learn- 
edly been fliewn by Sir Michael Foflcr, that the prn/'ice of imprefling, 
and granting powers to the admiralty for that purpoi. is of very anticut 
date, and hath been uniformly continued by a regular feries of prece- 
dents to the prefent time; whence he concludes it to be a part of the 
common law. The difficulty arifes from hence, that no ftatute, or ad 
of parliament, has exprefsly declared this power to be in the crown, 
though many of them verv ftrongly imply it. 

But befides this method of impreffing, (which \a only defenfible from 
public neceffity, to which all private confiderations mull give wav) there 
are other Vv-ays that tend to the increaf* of feamen, and manning the 
royal navy, great advantages in point of wages are given to volunteer 
feamen, in order to induce them to enter into his majefly's fervice; and 
every foreign feaman, who, during a war Ihall ferve two years in any 
man of war, merchantman, or privateer, is naturalized ///o fuSii, 

2. The method of ordering feamen in the royal fleet, aud keepinir 
up a regular difcipline there, is diredled by certain cxprefs rules, arti- 
cles, and orders, firft enafted by the authority of parliament, foou af- 
ter the refl:oration ; but fince new modelled and altered, after the peace 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, to remedy fome dcfcdts which were of fatal confe- 
quence in conduding the preceding war. In thefe articles of the navy, 
almoll every poffible offence is fct down, and the punifliment thereof an- 
nexed, in which refpeft the feamen have much the advantage over t'.clr 
brethren in the land fervice ; whofe articles of war are not enafted by 
parliament ; but framed from time to time at the pleafurc of the crown. 

3. With regard to the privileges conferred on failors, they are pretty 
much the fame with thofe conferred on foldiers ; with regard to relief, 
when maimed, or wounded, or fuperannuated, either by county rates, 
or the royal hofpital at Greenwich; with regard alfo to the exercife of 
trades, and the power of making teftamcnts ; and, farther, no feaman 
aboard his majeity's flaips can be arrefted for any debt, unlefs tlie fame 

be 



ENGLAND. 



i8. 



jicfiv'nrn to amount to at leaft twenty pounds ; though by the annual mu- 
tiny act, a fuldier may be arrefted for a debt which extends to half that 
vaJae, but not to lefs amount. 

I ihall clofe this account of the military and maritime ftrength of Eng;- 
i-nJ, or rather of Great Britain, by obfcrving, that though fea ofiicers 
::d jailors, arc fubjedl to a perpetual at\ of parliament, which anfwera 
lie annual military aft, which is palled for the government of the army, 
,.t neither of thofe bodies arc exempted from legal jurifdidlion in civil 
(' criminal cafes, but in a few inllances of no great moment. The fol- 
Jcrs, particularly, may be called upon by a eivil magillrate, to enable 

im to preferve tlic peace, againft all attempts to break it. The milita- 
i\ol»cer, who commands the foldiers on thofe occafions, is to take his 
iireclions from the magirtrate, and both he and they, if their proceedings 
;a' ic(Tular, are indemnified againll all confequences, be they ever fo fa- 
;r.!, The civil magiilrate, however, is extremely cautious in calling 
tor tiie military on thefe occafions, upon any commotion, whatever*. 

Coins.] 



TlieRoy^l Navy of Great Britain, as it ftood at the clofc of the Year 176a* 
iV. B. Thofe in Ita/ics were taken from the French or Spaniards* 



Fin:? Ratks. 


Guns 


Guns 


Guns 




70 Chichcftcr 


74 Superb 


Co Lion 


Cnns 


74 Cornwall 


70 Swiftlure 


60 Medway 


jao Britannia 


74 CuUodcn 


74 'Icvicratre 


60 Montague 


100 Royjl George 


64 Defiance 


70 Temple 


50 Norwich 


I.) R. Suvertign 


66 Devonfhire 


74 Terrible 


6u Nottingham 




70 Dorfetfhirc 


74 Thunderer 


50 Orijiame 


Second Rates. 


74 Dragon 


74 Torbay 


60 Panther 




74 Dublin 


64 Tiidcnt 


60 Pembroke 


no Blenlicim 


64 Elizabeth 


74 Valiant 


50 Portland 


;u Duke 


64 ?:ilcx 


70 Vanguard 


50 Prefton 


CO St. George 


74 Fame 


74 Warfpight 


60 Prince of Oranjft 


« Namur 


80 Foudroyant 




60 Rippon 


u Nfptuna 


70 Grafton 


Fourth Rates. 


50 Romney 


a Ocwn 


64 Hampton-Court 




50 Rochcfter 


0) Prince 


74 Hercules 


60 Achilles 


50 Salifbury 


s: Princcfs Roval 


74 Hero 


60 America 


50 Sutherland 


- Royil William 


74 Kent 


60 Anfon 


60 Weymouth 


Sandwich 


74 Lenox 


50 Antelope 


50 Winchcfter 


;; Union 


74 Magiiariime 


50 Afliftancc 


60 Windfor 




68 Marlborough 


50 Centurion 


60 York 


Third Rates. 


74 Mars 


50 Chatham 






64 Midcfle 


50 Chefter 


Fifth Ratss^ 


(1 Africa 


64 Monmouth 


Dreadnought 




t, Jliide 


64 Naffau 


50 Deptford 


31 Adventur* 


•1 Airotjant 


80 Newark 


60 Dunkirk 


32 Alarm 


(; Beiiford 


74 Norfolk 


60 Edgar 


32 Aetbvfa 


L Bclliqucux 


70 Northumberland 


50 Falkland 


32 ^olus 


-: Bdlona 


70 Or ford 


50 Falmouth 


32 Bokgne 


qBelleifls 


64 Pr. Frederick 


60 Firme 


32 Bofton 


i\Bki:f.,lf.v:t 


80 Princel'8 Amelia 


60 Fhciiritie 


32 Blonde 


7: Buckingham 


60 Princefs Mary 


50 Guernfqy 


36 Brilliant 


pKiirl'-rd 


64 Revenge 


50 Hamplhire 


32 Ci-cfceiit 


h Cambridge 


74 Slirewlbury 


60 Jerfey 


38 Danae 


^4 Ciipt.'.in 


70 Somcrfjt 


60 ifiUrcynfg 


32 Dlnaa 


7<! ic/.tauf , 


7'4 Sicrling-Calilq 


no IJii 


^4 Do»er 



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ENGLAND. 



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Coins.] In Great Britain money is computed by pounds, (liillinm, 
«ind pence, twelve pence making a fliiliing, and twenty Ihillings one I 
pound, which is only an imaginary coin. The gold pieces confut only 
of guineas, halves, and quarters : the filver, ot' crowns, half-crownj 
Ihillings, Jixpcnccs, groats, and even down to a diver penny ; and the 
copper money, only of half-pence, and furthings. In a country like Eng. 
land, where the intrinfic value of the filver is very near equal, and in 
fomc coins, crown pieces particularly, fupcrior to the nominal; the 
coinage of fjlver money is a matter of great confequence, and yet the 
prcfent ftate of the national currency, icems to demand a new coinage of 
ihillings and fix-pences, the intrinfic value of the latter being many of 
them worn down to half their nominal value. This can only be done 

by 



Cuns. 
32 Emerald 
44 Enterprire 
jz Flora 
44 Gofport 
3* TinQ 
3» Lark 
44 Launceftoii. 

30 Looe 
44 Lynn 
36 Mil^ir^e 
32 Miijcrva 

• 3s Montreal 

3* Niger 

36 Fallal 

44 Penzance 

44 Phoenix 

44 Prince Edw, 

32 Quebec 

44 Rainbovt 

36 Reaoiun 

|X Repulfe 

3« Richmond 

32 Saphire 
' 32 Southampton 

32 Stagg 

31 Thames 

33 Thetis 

30 Torringtofl 

31 Tweed 
36 Venus 

32 V^pl 

44 Woolwich 

Sixth Rates. 

28 AAaeon 
»8 Aiiive 
20 Aldborough 
24 Amazon 
aS Aqu'ilon 
1% Argo 
24 Arundel 
28 Boreal 
28 Cerberus 
24 Coventry 



Guns. 

20 Dcal-Caftic 

24 Dolphin 

24 Eebn 

20 Flamborough 

24 Fowey 

24 Garland 

zo Gibraltar 

ao Glafgow 

zo Greyhound 

24 Hind 

Z4 Kennington 

28 Levant 

24 Lively 

28 Liverpool 

z8 Lizard 

24 Ludlow-Caftle 

28 Maidftone 

24 Mercury 

z8 Milford 

24 Nightifigale 

24 Portmahon 

zo Rofe 

24 Rye 

2o Scarborough 

20 Seaford 

20 Seahorte 

28 Shannon 

24 Sheerners 

24 Solebay 

20 Syreit 

24 Surprize 

28 Tartar 

24 ttrpfichort 

28 Trent 

28 Valeur 

28 Unicorn 

24 Wager 

Sloops. 

14 Albany 
10 Alderney 
|o Antigua 
12 Badger 
16 Baltimore 



Guns. 

10 RarbaHocs 

;o Bonctta 

8 Cruzicr 
18 Cygnet 
10 Diligence 
14 Difpatch 
lo Druid 
14 Efcortc 
16 Favourite 
1 8 Ferret 

8 Flambio't Prime. 

8 Fly 
14 Fortune 
14 Grampus 
10 Granado 

8 Goree 

8 Happy 

8 Hazard 
14 Hornet 
14 Hound 
10 Hunter 
14 Jamaica 
10 King's Fiiher 

8 Laurel 

6 Lurcher 
18 Merlin 
16 Mortar 
18 Nautilus 

8 Peggy 
10 Pomona 
10 Otter 
14 Pelican 
14 Porcupine 
18 PoftillioQ 

8 Ranger 

Racehorfe 
14 Saltafli 

8 Savage 
14 Senegal 
14 Sardome 

8 Speedwell 
10 Spy 
14 Swallow 
14 Swift 
1^ Swaj) 



jlites. 



Guns. 


f" — 
1 74 


1^ Tamer 


J «4 


Terror 


4 60 


10 Thunder 


( 44 


i;|-Trial 


3 ^T 

J 3* 


14 Vulture 


I 90 


8 Wafp 


Ditto, 


16 Weazle 


a 80 


.8 Wolf 


4 5° 


10 Zepbir 


6 24 




90 


Bo Ml VefTcls. 






3 74 


Bafiiifk 


j 60 


Blaft 


3 74 


Carcais 


4 5° 


Fired rake 


7 ** 

3 74 


Furnace 


\ 24 


Infernal 


4 60 


Fire-Sh, no Gum. 
/Etna 


3 <4 

4 60 


C 


Cormorant 


s 


Grampus 


Guns. A 


Lightning 


100 


Pluto 


I 


Raven 


Roman Emperor 




Proferpine 


80 74 


Salamander 


70 


Strombolo 


68 Di 


Vefuvius 


66 Di 




64 


Yachtj. 


Whenafli 




aother, wh 


10 Dorfet 


i:p remains 


8 Fubbs 


I 


8 Katharine 


!he Pay of 


Augufta 


Admira 


Stozbshijs. 


An Ad 
Vice A 


20 Crown 


TLtix A 


24 South-Sea-Caftle, 


Firft C 



Shipi 



I?. N G L A N D. 



187 



\fitn aft of parltamfnt, and by the public lofing the difference between 

{he bullion of the new and the old money. Befides the coins already 

mentioned, five and two guinea pieces are coined at the Tower of Lon- 

con, but they are not generally current, nor is any filver coin that is 

lower than fix-pence. The coins of the famous Simon, in the time 

(f Cromwell, and in the beginning of Charles II. 's reign, are remarlc- 

jble for their beauty. 

Antk^uities AND CURIOSITIES, 1 Thc anticjuitics of England 

NATURAL AND A RT I [• 1 CI AL. 3 are either Britifli, Roman, Sax- 

I on, or Daniih, and Anglo Normannic, but thefe, excepting the Roman, 

throw 



I I 



Sb, noGutii* 



ORISHIiSSi 







Ships ovit of Comniiflion and building. 






Hates. 

3 
J 


Guns. 


Namet. ' 


Rates. 


Guns. 


Names. 


Rates. 


Guns. 


Names. 


74 


Albion. 




44 


Elthani 


3 


84 


Ramillies 


€4 


Afia 




44 


Expedition 


3 


64 


Roynl Oak 


4 


60 


Augufta 




«o 


FnnmdMe 


4 


60 


Rupert 


5 


44 


Anglefea 




5^ 


Gloucefter 


4 


50 


Ruby 


( 


3» 


Aurora 




44 


Glory 






R. Charlotte 




90 


BarJIettr 
npw /hip 




aS 


Guadalupe 






Yacht 


Ditto, a 




44 


Haftings 


3 


«4 


Suffolk 


] 


80 


Boyne 




44 


Heftor 


% 


60 


St. Alban*$ 


3 

4 


50 


Briftol 




30 


Jnfon 


»+ 


Sphinx 


6 


44 


Blandford 




90 


London 


3 


74 


Triumph 




90 


Blenheim 
PiofpitaUlhip 




^ 


Mary Galley 
Martin Sloop 




28 
JO 


Vengeance 
Viper 


1 


74 


Canada 






Mary Yacht 


z 


100 


Viftory 


4 


60 


Canterbury 




74 


Monarcl) 






VultureSloop 


3 


74 


Courageux 




50 


Nonfuch 


4 




Warwick 


4 


50 


Cokheftcr 




80 


I'r. Carolina 


s 




Winchelfca 


1 


74 


Defiance 




60 


Pr, Lou i fa 


4 


€0 


Worctfter 


« 


*4 


Experiment 




60 


Plymouth 






William and 


4 


60 


Eagle 




44 


Poole 






Mary Yacht 


3 


«4 


Edinburgh 




90 


Queen 


3 


64 


Yarmouth 


4 


60 


Exeter 




loo 


Royal Anne 









Guns. 

joo 

90 

80 



Complement of Men, and Weight of Metal, in the Royal Navy, 
Ships of three Decks. 
Men* Metal. 

850 4x 24 iz 

7JO 31 j8 IX 



80 74 650 
70 5«o 
68 Ditto 
!S6 Ditto 
64 480 



600 3a 18 

Ships of two Decks. 

3* 18 
3« iS 



24 12 



Guns. 
60 
60 
50 
50 



Men. 

420 

4C0 

350 

300 



Metal. 
S4 12 



44 40 250 



•24 
24 
18 
18 



9 

IZ 

9 
9 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



36 

3» 
28 
20 



Frigates of one Deck* 



240 
210 
200 
160 



12 
It 

9 

9 



6 
6 

4- 
4 



When afllip of war becomes old or imfit for fervice, the fame name is transferred t«» 
iiother, which is built, as it is calleH, upon her bottom, while a fingle beam of the old 
';:p remains, :he name cannot be chanired unlefs by aft of parliament. 



!he Pay of the Officers of the Royal Navy in each Rate. 
Captains to Flags. 
Admiral and Commanders in Chief of the Fleet 
An Admiral — — i _— — 

Vice Admiral — ' ■ " ■ ' ' ' ■ 

Rear Admjral — — — _ _ — 

Firft Captain to the Commander in Chief — — 
Second ditto, and Captain to other Admirals 



Flag OrricERs, and the 
per day. 



»-- to V. Admirals 7 if firft or fccond Rates, to 
—to R. Admirals 5 have thc pay of fuch Rates. 






5 
3 

2 
I 

I 
t 
o 
o 



o 
lo 

JO 

»5 

'S 

o 

16 

13 



O 

o 
o 
o 

o 

o 
o 

6 




m^\' 



i8J 



ENGLAND. 



throw no great light upon anticnt hi/lury. The chief Eritirh anuqui. 
tics, are thofe circles of flones, particuI.irJy tliat called Stouchcii"c in 
Wilifliire, which probably were plaecs of facred worlliip in the diius oi 



ills 



the Druids. Sto'nehenge is, by Inigo Jones, Dr. Stiikeley, and otluis 
tlefcribed as a regular circu]:ir liriifturc. The body of the work conh 
cf two circles, and two ovals, which arc thus compofcd. The upn-li; 
ftoncs are placed at three feet and a half diilance fiom each other, and 
joined at top by over-thwart flones, with tendons (;iLcd to the mortik, 
in the uprights, for keeping them in their div: pofition. Some of th:;c 



i" I 



i'Vi ri 






iK 





fbmes, or over-thwart flones, are quite plain. 'I'he outlide circle is near 
cnc hundred and eighty feet in ''•''meter ; between which, and the r.e.vt 
circle, there is a walk of three hundred feet in circumference, v.hai 



haj 



OFFICERS. 



Captain f-cr (Jr.y 
Liciitenant per </<'_y 
Mafier/>f'- moiiih 
aJ maftcr & pilots of 

yatchtscnch 3/ los 
Maftcr'E mate 
Midiliipinan 
Schoolmafter 
Captain's clerl* 
Qiiarter-niaftcr 
CJ^iar. .Tiafter's mate 

F'l'alfvViin 

Boiitfwain's mate 
\('oman of the llicetr 
Coxi'waiii 
Waiter (ail maker 
Sail laker's inate 
Sail n.akfr's crew 
* Gunner 
dinner''.; matc 
Yeo. of pin^ dcr room 
QiKi-i't/r gunner * 
Armourer 
/-vnmurcr's mate 
Cunfiiiith 
Carpentor 
< .irpciuer's mate 
Cirpcntcr's crew 
Purfer 

Steward — • 
Steward's mate 
Cook — 

Surgeon f 
Sur^^enii'!. firft mate 
1 — ' — fccond niatc 

' third mate 

' — — fourili and fifth 
Chaplain \ 



I 


^Irft. 


I. 


s. d. 


I 








5 


9 


a . 


3 


6 


2 


5 








2 


■; 


I 


IS 


I 


10 


4 





I 


'5 


I 


12 


I 


12 


T 


IS 


I 


S 


I 


5 


4 





I 


J 5 


I 


IS 


I 


6 


« 


5 


I 


10 


I 


5 


4 





2 





I 


6 c, 


4 


G 


I 


5 


I 


% 


I 


5 


5 





3 





2 


10 


2 





I 


10 





19 



Second 



I. s. d. 
o 16 o 
050 
S 8 o 



77 \rd 



I, s. d. 
o 13 6 
040 
760 



o 
o 
o 
o 

15 
10 
10 

15 

10 

10 

'5 
8 



a 2 



o 
2 
I 
I 

3 
I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 5 

3 10 

1 IS 
I IS 

1 6 

2 o 
10 

5 

10 

o 

6 

:o 

5 
o 

S 
o 

o 

10 

o 
10 



I 
I 

3 

I 

3 
I 
I 
I 
5 
3 

2 
I 

o 19 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

Q 

o 
o 

o 
o 
a 
o 
S 
c I 

o 5 
03 
o I z 
o \z 

o;. 

o jO 



16 

17 

17 
17 
12 

o 
O 

17, 

8 
S 

IS 
8 

5 
o 

12 

12 

5 

17 
8 



Fourth 



L I. </. 

O ID O 
040 
6 12 c 



7 
13 
13 
13 
10 
8 

10 
10 



002 
16 01 
S o, I 
o\z 
o I 
8 : 
ojf 

05 
0,3 
o 
o 



o 

5 
o 

S 

o 
o 

10 
o 



'O 

9 

y 

9 

o 

o 

o 

o 

8 o 

S o 

14 o 

8 o 

5 P 
10 o 
10 o 
lO o 

5 o 

13 9 
8 o 

10 

14 c 

S ° 
10 o 

3 4 
o 8 
5 o 
o o 
o o 
10 o 



10 r> 

19 0,0 19 c 



Fifth 



r. d. 

8 o 
2 S 



2 o 
10 o 
10 u 

3 o 
C o 

5 o 
8 o 
f) o 

6 o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



8 

S 
5 
8 
8 

,S 

10 

6 



5 o 
12 o 

5 o 
S o 
o 8 

5 ° 

o o 

o o 

10 o 



Sixth 



.'. s. J. 
080 
040 
500 



220 



6 

5 
o 

6 

6 

6 

10 

8 

5 

o o 

6 o 

6 o 

5 o 

10 o 

5 o 



200 

I ID O 

I J O 

? 00 

I o o 

I 4 
500 

3 « U 



* One to every four ^uns, f Fujides zd, a nuntb fiom cub matt^ 

J^ I'lJiJ^ ^d, attiCMi'bficm tacl> rauM^ 



E N G L A N n; 



I'll antiijui- 

tllC tillK!, ot' 

and otlur.s, 
work confiils 
The upiv.j,. 
» otlicr, ;'i„d 
the moniie, 
^iine of th'.'i;; 
HI t]iickn..i., 
The uprial.t 
but the trer, 
circle is near 
nd the ne.vt 



Sixth 

.'. 77. 
080 
040 
500 



[§9 





6 




5 ^ 









6 




6 




6 




30 




8 rj 




.5 









6 




6 




5 




10 




5 









10 




, 












I 


4 


s 





3 


y 



j!^ a furpiizlng and awful cflecl on the beholders. After nil the de- 
fjiptions of, and diifertations upon, this celebrated antiquity, by inge- 
v.ms writers, it is not to be denied, that it has given rife to many ex- 
i;av;i?ani ridiculous conjefturcs, from t!ic time of Leland, who has beea 
very particular on the fubjeft, down to Stukeley, who, on a favourita. 
noint of antiquity, fometimcs formed the moft entliuiialHc conjeftuues. 
The harrows that are near this monument, were certainly graves of per- 
fins of both fexcs, eminent in peace or war, fome of tliem leaving been 
oneneil, and bones, arms and anticnt trinkets, found within them. 
'Moiiun'ents of the fame kind as that of Stonehcnge, are to be met 
v.ith in Cumberland, Oxfordfliire, Cornwall, Devonlhire, and marty 
other part.'! of England, as well as in Scotland, and the ifles, which have 
been already mentioned. 

The Pvoman antiquities in Rnglnnd, confifl chiefly of alta" and mo- 
mimcntal infcriptions, which inllruft us as to the legionary ftatlons of the 
Romnns in Britain, and the names of fome of their commanders. The 
Roman military ways give us the hioheft idea of the civil as well as mi- 
litarv policy of thofe conquerors. Their velliges are numerous ; one i» 
mentioned by Leland, as beginning at Dover^ and pafling through Kent 
M London, from thence to St. Alhnn's, Dun (table, Stratford, Towcef- 
tn-, Liitleburn, St. Gilliert's hill near Shrcv/ibury, then by Stratton, and 
i.> through the middle of Wales to Cardigan. The great Via Militaris 
called Hermen-ilreet, pafll'd fmm Lom^on through Lincoln, where a 
b:n ;ch of it, from Pomfrct to ]')onrailer, ftrikcs out to the wcllward, 
pa':ing through Tadcafter to York, and from thence to Aidby, where 
ir;u;ain joined Hermcn ftrcct. There wotdd however be no end of d«- 
I'cribing the vciliges of ,he Roman roads in England, many of which 
i'crve as foundations to our prcient liighways. The great earl of Arundel, 
i]x (elchrated PLngliih antiquary, had formed a noble plan for defcribing 
iiiofe which pais through Suiiex and Surrv towards f,ondon, but the civil 
..;r breaking out, pur an end to the undertaking. The remains of ma- 
!;/ Roman camps are difcornible all over England. Their fituations arc 
[cnciaHy fo v.'cll chofen, mid their fortiiications appear to have been fo 
nmplete, that there is fome reafnn to believe, that they were the con- 
:'ant habitations of tlic Roman fokiiers in Englanjl, though it is certain 
;i(^m the baths ard teflerated pavements, that have been found in diffc- 
rint parts, that u.eir chief officers and magiftrates, lived in towns or vil- 
l.s. Roman avails have likewife been found in England ; and, perhaps, 
y-'pn die borders of Wales, many remains of their fortifications and 
t.ililes, arc blended with thoie of a later date, and it is diHicult for the 
r:!C)il expert architeft to pronounce that fome halls and courts arc not en- 
tivly Roman. The private cabinets of noblemen, and gentlemo-.i, as 
\^ell as the public rcpofitories, contain vail number of Roman ;u-ms, 
tuns, fibul.x', trinkets, and the like, that have been found in England, 
bt the moll amazing monument of the Roman power in England, is 
i^e pr.etenture, or wall of Severus, comtnonly called the Picl's ua)l, 
tinning through Northumberland and Cumberland, beginning at Tii'- 
riuth, and ending at Solway Frith, being about eighty miles in length. 
T!ie wall at firll confided only of ilnkes, and turf, with a ditch, but 
'^events built it with llonc forts, and turrets, at projx'r dillances, fo 
tii:.l each might have -1 fpeedy communication with the other, and il: 
^^15 attended all along by a deep ditclij-'or ViiUum, to the north, and a 

militurv 




fit .I'-i ■' 






I,' 



ll*?, 



^|*^^1'l!i 

\^'i 






Ef i 



fiff^: 




igo 



fi N G L A N 15. 



military high way to the foutii. This prodigious work, however, wjj 
better calculated to ftrike the Scotch and Pifts, with terror, than 
to give any real fecurity to the Roman pofleffions. In feme places 
the wall; the vallum, and the road, are plainly difcernible, and the 
latter fer 'f s as a foundation for a modern work of the fame kind, carri- 
ed on at L.'-e public expence. A critical account of the Roman antiqui- 
ties in England, is among the defiderata of hillory, but perhaps it is too 
great a defign for any one man to execute, as it cannot be done without 
vifiting every place, and every objed in pcjfon. 

The Saxon antiquities in England confift chiefly in ecdefiaftical edi- 
fices, and places of ftrength. At Winchefter is Ihewn the round table 
of king Arthur, with the names of his knights. The antiquity of thi: 
table has been difputed by Cambden, and later writers, perhaps with 
reafon, but if it is not Britilh, it certainly is Saxon. The cathedral of 
Winchefter, ferved as the burying place of feveral Saxon kings, whole 
bones were colleftcd together by bifliop Fox, in fix large wooden cheft^. 
Many monuments of Saxon antiquity, prefent themfelves all over the 
kingdom, though they are often not to be difcerned from the Norman- 
nic ; and the Britilh Mufeum contains feveral llriking original fpecimens 
of their learning. Many Saxon charters figned by the king, and his no- 
bles, with a plain crofs inftead of their names, are Hill to be met with. 
The writing is neat and legible, and v/as always performed by a clergy- 
man, who affixed the name and quality of every donor, or witnefs, to 
his refpeftive crofs. The Danilh ereftions in England, are hardly dif- 
cernible from the Saxon. The form of their camps are round, and ge- 
nerally built upon eminences, but their forts ?»re fquare. 

All England is full of Anglo Normannic monuments, whi.h I chufe 
to call fo, becaufe, though the princes, under whom they were raifed, 
were of Norman original, yet the expence was defrayed by Englifhmen, 
with Englilh money. York-minfter, and Wellminfter-hall, and abbey, 
are perhaps the fineft fpecimens to be found in Europe, of that Gothic 
manner, which prevailed in building, before the recovery of the Greek 
and Roman architecture. All the cathedrals, and old churches in the 
kingdom, are more or lefs in the fame tafte, if we except St. Paul's. In 
fhort, thofe ereftions are fo common, that they fcarcely deferve the name 
of curiofities. It is uncertain, whether the artificial excavations, found 
in fome parts of England, are Britilh, Saxon, or Norman. That un- 
der the old caftle of Ryegate in Surry, is very remarkable, and feems 
to have been defigned for fecreting the cattle and effcAs of the nativcj, 
in times of war and invaiion. It contains an oblong fquare hall, round 
which runs a bench, cut out of the fame rock, for fitting upon ; and 
tradition fays, that it was the room in which tlic barons of England 
met, during their wars v/ith king John. The rock itfclf is foft, and 
Ver) prafticable ; but it is hard to fay, where the excavation, which i: 
continued in a f juare paffage, about fix feet hij^h, and four wide, ter- 
minates, becaufe the work is fallen in in fome places. 

The natural curiofities of England are fo various, that I can touch 
upon them only i". gencrul, as there is no end of defcribing the feve- 
ral medicinal waters and fprings, which are to be found in every part 
of the country. They have been analyfed with great accuracy and care, 
by feveral learned naturalills, who, as their interefts, or inclinations led 
them, have not been fparing in recommending their falubrious quali- 



ENGLAND. 



tgt 



tifs. England however is not fmgular In its medicinal waters, though 
is fciTiC countries the difcovering and examining them is fcarce worth 
while. In England, a well frequented well or fpring, is a certain eflate 
to its proprietor. The moft remarkable of thefe wells have been di- 
vided into thofe for bathing, and thofe for purging. The chief of the 
former lie in Somerfetfhirc ; and the Bath waters are famous through all 
[jie world, both for drinking and bathing. Spaws of the fame kind are 
found at Scarborough, and other parts of Yorkftiire ; at Tunbridge in 
Kent ; Epfom and Dulwich in Surry ; Afton and Ifli igton in Middle- 
fex. Here alfo are many remarkable fprings ; whereof onie are impreg- 
nated either with fait, as that at Droitwich in WorceKer ; or fulphur, 
as the famous well of Wigan in Lancafliirc, or bituminous matter, as 
fhat at Pitchford in Shropfhire. Others have a petrifying quality, as 
that near Lutterworth in Leiccllerfliire, and a dropping well in the well 
riding of Yorkfhire. And finally, fome ebb and flow, as thofe of the 
Peak in Derbylhire, and Laywell near Torbay, whofe waters 'ife and 
fall feveral times in an hour. To thefe we may add that remarkable 
fountain near Richard's caftle in Herefordfhire, commonly called Bone- 
well, which is generally full of fmall bones, like thofe of frogs or fi(h, 
though often cleared out. At AnclifF, near Wigan in Lancalhirc, is the 
famous burning well ; the water is cold, neither has it any fmcU ; yet 
there is fo ftrong a vapou/ of fulphur ifl'uing out with the ftream, that 
upon applying a light to it, the top of the water is covered with a flame, 
like that of bi'ia.ng fpirits, which laits feveral hours, and emits fo fierce 
a heat that mcai. may be boiled over it. The fluid itfclf will not burn 
when taken out of the well. 

Derbyfliire is celebrated for many natural curlofities. The Mam Tor, 
or Mother Tower, is faid to be continually mouldering away, but never 
diminifhes. The Elden Hole, about four miles from the fame place. 
This is a chafm in the fide of a mountain, near feven yards wide, and 
fourteen long, diminilhing in extent within the rock, but of what depth 
is not known. A plummet once drew eight hundred and eighty- 
four yards of line after it, whereof the lall eighty were wet, without 
finding a bottom. The entrance of Poole's Hole near Buxton, for fe- 
veral paces, is very low, but foon opens into a very lofty vault, like 
the infide of a Gothic cathedral. The height is certainly very great, 
jet much fhort of what fome have afierted, who reckon it a quarter of a 
mile perpendicular, though in length it exceeds that dimcniion. A 
current of water, which ru!is along the middle, adds, by its founding 
ilream, re-ecchoed on all fides, very much to the allonifhment of all 
who vifit this vaft concave. The drops of water which hang from the 
fcoi", and on the fides, have an amufing effcft ; for tliey not only refledl 
lamberlefs rays from the candles carried by the guides, but as they are 
of a petrifying quality, they harden in feveral places into various forms, 
Khicti, with the help of a ftrong imagination, may pafs for lions, fonts, 
organs, and the like. The entrance into that natural wonder, which 
iifrom its hideoufnefs, named the Devil's Arfe, is wide at firlt, and i'^ - 
nrds of thirty feet perpendicular. Several cottagers dwell under itj who 
(eem in a great meafure to fubfill by guiding ftrangcrs into the cavern, 
wiiich is crofl'ed by four itream? of water, and then is thought impafl*a* 
ble. The vault, in feveral places, rr kes a noble appearance, which 
ii particularly beautiful, by being chequered by various coloured ftones. 
Tkk aic ihc mvU celebrated natural cAcavatioiis in Ljigland, where 

they 







fei 



ENGL A N D. 



km' *i- * • 






■'!« 



m 



ft 



||; t ; 



they are beheld with- great wonder, but are nothing comparable (o tho/i' 
that exill in Germany, and other parts, both of Europe and Afia. 

Some fpots of England are faid to have a petrifying quality. Wc are 
told, that near Whitby in Yorkfhire, are foun-.I certain ftones, refem- 
bHng the folds and wreaths of a ferpent ; aUb other ftones of fevcral 
fizes, and fo exaftly round, as if artificially made for cannon balls 
which being broke, do commonly contain the form and likenefs of fer- 
ments, wreathed in circles, but generally without heads. In fomc parts 
cf Glouceflerfhire ftones are found, refembling cockles, oifters, and 
other teftaceous marine animals. Thofe curiofities, however, in oth?r 
countries, would, as fuch, make but a poor appearance, and even ia 
England they are often magnified by ignorance and credulity. 

Universities.] I have already mentioned the two univerfitics 
cf Cambridge and Oxford, which have been the fenixnaries of more 
learned men than any in Europe, and fome have ventured to fay, thai; 
all other literary inftitutions. It is certain that their magnificent build- 
ings, which of late years, in fplendour and archilefture, rival the mo;t 
fuperb royal edifices, the rich endowments, the liberal eafe and tran- 
ejuillity enjoyed by thofe who inhabit them, furp.js all the ideas which 
foreigners, who vifit them, conceive of literary focieties. So refpectable 
are they in their foundations, that each univerfity fends two members to 
the Britifti parliamerif, and their chancellors and ofiicers have ever a ci- 
vil jurifdiction over theii ftudcnts, the better to fecure their indepen- 
dency. Their colleges, in their revenues and buildings, exceed thofe 
of many other univerfities. In Oxford there are twenty, befides 
jive halls, that are not endowed, and where the ftudents maintain them- 
felvcs. The colleges of Oxford are Univerfity, founded as fome fay by 
Alfred the Great. Baliol, founded by John Baliol, king of Scots, in 
1262. Merton, founded by Walter of Merton, biihop of Rochefter, 
•and high chancellor of England, in 1267. Exeter, founded in 13 16, 
l)y Walter Stapleton, biftiop of Exeter, and lord treafurer of England. 
. Oriel, founded by Edward II. in the year 1324. Queen's, founded by 
Robert Eglesfield, chaplain to queen Philippa, confort to Edward III. 
in her honour. New college, founded in 1386, by William of Wick- 
ham, billinp of Wincheft.'r, but finilhed by Thomas de Rothcram, arch- 
biftiop of York, and lord high chancellor, in the year 1475. All 
Souls, founded by Henry Chichley, archbiftiop of Canterbury, in 1437, 
Magdalen, was founded by William Patten, alias Wainfleet, biihop of 
Winchefter, and lord chancellor, in the year 14^8. Brazen Nofe, 
fjunded in 1509, by William Smith, biftiop of Lincoln. Corpus Chrilti, 
founded in 15 16, by R'chard Fox, biftiop of Winchefter. Chrift Church, 
founded by cardinal Wolfcy, in 15 15, but completed by others, aad is 
now the cathedral cf the dioccfe. Trinity, founded by Sir Thomas 
pope, foon after the reformation. St. John iaqjC" was founded io 1555, 
by Sir Thojnas White, lord mayor of London, jefus, was Dcgiin by 
Hugh Price, prebendary of Rochefter, :ii:d appropriated to the Welch. 
Wadham, fo called from its founder Nicholas Wadham, cf Somerfet- 
Jliire, Efq. It was begun by him in the year i6ijy, but finiihcd after 
his death, by his lady, in 161 3. Pembroke, fo called in honour of the 
earl of Pembroke, then lord high chancellor, was founded by Thomas 
Tefdale, Efq; Richard Wrightwick, B. D. in 16^4. Worccllcr, was 
eredcd into a college, by Sir Thomas Couke cf Aftley, in Worceftcr- 
ftiire. 



E N (> L A N D. 



' n3 



'IV) thell' nineteen niny be added IJertrord college, fnrn:erly H;'-t- 
\\;\\ : Imt a patent h.iviriT; p.-ilu'.l the gr'j.Tt fra] in tiic year 17^0, for 
, , u!'" 't into n collej?;e, that do{lr;-n is now carrying :pto execution. 

Th-' live hrdls are tlicfe follo'vini^ : AIl^-iii hall, RclmunJ hall, St. 
Mary's hrdi, New-inn hall, fi'"! St. Mary Magdalen hall. 

'liic colleges of Cambridge are Peter-h'vjfe, founded by ITugh iJnl- 
;:,;un, prior of Ely. in icq-?, \vho v/r.,s afterwards bifliop of that iec. 
Chii-c hnll, founded in 1140, by a benefaclion of lady Elizabeth Cbue, 
coiin'icis of AHlor. Pembroke hall, founded C^vcn ycara af'cr, by a 
coiintcfj of Pembrclie. St. Bennet's, or Corpus CJi.riiti, fonndvjd about 
•he fiimc time, by the united guilds, or frntcrnitic.s of Corpus Chi'iil:!, 
;ind tiie Bielfed Virgin. Trinity hall, fc.iiuied by Kat'-man, biiliop of 
N'orwich, about the year ii;4S. Gonvil and Caius, founded by Ed- 
mund dc (jonvil in 1348, cnnplered by biihop IjHteman, and additiona!- 
!v cnd'AVcd two hundred years afier, by Jo'in Ci'ius, ,. phyficiau. King's 
college, founded by Henry \ I. and completed I)y hh fuccefibrs. Queen's 
colk'x;, wa.-i founded by the fame king's conforr, biit finiilied bv Ktiza- 
kth, wife to Edw.ard JV. Catherine Indl, fciunded by Richard Wood- 
lari^. in 1475. }^^'^^ college, founded by John Alcock, bifliop of Ely, 
i:ithe reign of Henry VJI. Chrill college was founded about the fame 
tine, by that king's jiinther, Margnret, countes of PJchmond. St. 
John's college was founded by the fame lady. M.K/dalen college was 
founded by Thomas Audley, baron of Warden, in the reign of Henry 
Vili. Trinity college, was found'.d by Henry Vlll. Emanuel college, 
by Sir Walter MilJ'nav, in 1584. Sidney college was founded by 
Thomas Raicliif, e;'.ri of Suifex, in 158S, and luid its name from his 
■ '.a FrruiCi!s Sidntv. 

Ar e H c I s H o ]• I", c « A N n p r s :r T" :i t c s .] To the following lid, I have 

uibioined the fiirn earh fee is charged in the king's boc»ks ; for thougli 

t'h.iU;m is far from being the real annual value of the fee, yet it afTnb 

ill forming a comparative ciiiniHte bi'tweeii the revenues of each fe* v.'lth 

tiiofc of another. 

Archbifnoprics, Canterbury, 26:^2 : 12 : 2. '^'ork, 1640 ; o o. 

Bilhoprics, London, loool. Durham, 1821 : i : 3. Winch jfler, 

'.•*73 : 18 : /. Thofe tb.ree biflioprics take precedency of all ct'icrs in 

England, and the others according to the feniority of their confec.-ations. 

Ely, 2134 '• '-^ ■ 6' ^''^^^ ^^'^ Wells, 533 : i • 3. H 'reford, 

•08 : li : o. Rociieiler, 358 14:0. Litchneld and Coventry, 

]].) : 17 : 3. Chcller, 420 : i : H. Worccfter^ 92a : 13:3. Chi- 

tkiler, 6j-j : i : 3. St. Ai'aplj, 187 : 11 : 8. Saliflvary, 13^5 : 

5:9. ilangor, 131 : 16 : 3. Norwich, S34 : 11 : 7. Gloucef- 

'■■' 3'? • 7 • 3- Lundaff, 144 : 14 : 2. Lincoln, S2 : 4 : 9. 

Srilbi, 294 : 11 : o. Cirjillc, 531 : 4 : 9. Exeter, 500. P:ter- 

IroiiHi, 41,). : 17 : 8. 0::ford, 3S1 : u : o. David's, 426: j. : i. 

Vac. hilhop of Sodor and Pvlan docs n it fit in tiie lioufc of pcerr. 

PvOYAL TITTIES, ARM:;,) Tlic titlc of the king of Englind, is, 

Avn OKDERs. j By tlie Grace of God* of Great-Britain, 

Fnna-, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. The flefigaation of 

ili kings of England, war formerly his ot her Grace, or Highnels, till 

H'nry VIIL to put himfelf on a footing with the emperor Charlts V. af- 

I'j-cd that of niajelty, but the old deugnatiou was not abobihed, till to- 

^«h the cud of tjuceii Eliiabeth's icign. 



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194 



E N G L A N D. 



Since the acCclTion of the prefent royal family of Great-Britain, anfio 
1714, the royal atchicvcmcnt is niarlhalled as follows: quarterly, in the 
firll grand quarter, Man, three lions pajfnnt guardant, in pale, Sol, the 
imperial enfi.Hni of England, impaled with the royal arms of Scotland, 
which are, Scl, a lisn ramptvit within a duuble trej/uie Jioiucfcd and court' 
terfiovjercd, 'i.'ith JJturs-dj-lis, Mars. The fecond quarter is the roval 
arm-i of France, viz. 'Jupiter, three fleurs-de-lis^ Sol. The third, the 
cnligns of Ireland ; which is, 'Jupiter, an harps Sol, Jlringed Luna. And 
the fourth jjrand quarter is his prefent majelly's own coat, viz. Man, 
ti'jo lioTis pajfant guardant, Sol, for Brunfwick, impaled with Lmienburc, 
t.i'hich is, SoJ, femee of hearts^ proper, a I on, rampant., Jupiter, havino- 
anticnt Saxony, viz. Mars, an horfe cu< rant Luna ente (or grafted) /, 
haje ; and, in a Jhield furtout. Mars, the diadem, or crown of Chcirlc- 
viagne ; the whole, within a garter, as fovereign of that moll noble or- 
der of knighthood. 

'I'he motto of Dieu et man Droits that is, God atid my Right, is as olj 
as the reign of Richard I. who aflumed it to Ihew his independency up- 
on all earthly powers. It was afterwards revived by Edward III. when 
he laid claim to the crown of France. Almolt every king of England 
had a particular badge or cognizance : fometimes a white hart, fonie- 
times a fetlock with a falcon, by which it is faid Edward TV. alludad to 
the infidelity of one of his millreftes, and fometimes a portcullis, which 
was that of th<i hcHife of L.ancaller ; many of the princes of which were 
born in the callle of Beaufort. The white rofe was the bearing of the 
houfe of York, and that of Lancafter,. by way of co\itra-Jillindioii 
adopted the red. The thiftle, which is now part of the royal armorial 
bearings, belonged to Scotland, and was very fignificant whsi joined to 
its motto, 'Nemo me iinftine lacefpt. None fhall fafely provoke me. The 
titles of the king's eldeft fon are, prince of Wales, duke of Corn- 
wall and Rothfay, earl of Cheiler, e'lertoral prince of Brunfwick and Lu- 
nenburg, earl of Carrick, baron of Renfreu, lord of the illes, great 
lleward of Scotland, and captain general of the artillery company. The 
order of the garter, the moll honourable of any in the world, was inlU- 
tuted by Edsvard 111. It conhlls of the fovereign, who is always the 
king or queen of England, of twenty-five coinpanions, called Knights 
of the Oarter, wl'.o wear a medal of St, George killing the dragon, iup- 
pofed to be the tutelar faint of England, commonly '.'uameDed on goid, 
fufpendod f'-om a blue rlbbmid, which was formerly worn about their 
necks, hut now ctafies the'r bodies from the (lioulder. The garter, how- 
ever, v/hich i^ buckled unds: the left knee, give* the name f;o the order, 
and on it '.va.-. embroidered tlic word^, Honi joi: qui •*uil v p.-ii:'e. Evil to 
him who e^il thinks. Aiuhor,-> are divided as t*") the viriginal of that 
motto, but ir ccrtainlv jiluded to the bad faith of the rVcnch kini^ 
John, I'.dward't coiuenipor.'H)-. This order i> fo rdpe«ilabl<v, that it lia;; 
a prelate, who i- the biihop nt U'inchelter, and a chancellor, who i^ 
the bifliop of Saiii'bury, for the tin\e being. It has likewife a regilter, who 
is- dean of Windfor, and a principal king at arm:., called garter, wholr 
rmite is to marflial and manage the folemuitit;s at the inlbihitioii, and 
fealls of tlie knights. The place of inilallation i-; Edward II I. 'i chapel, 
at Windfor, ou which occaJion the krights appear in magniiicent robes, 
appropriated to their order, aad in their collars of SS. 

Knights of the Bath, fo culled from tlieir bathing at liie time of their 
Creadoji, are fuppofcd to have b'.'cu iwiiitutcd by ihn\\ IV. aboui fl''' 



England. 

but the order feems to be more ancient. 



19^ 



VSifl3W' i^ut tne oraer leems to oe more ancient. For many reigns 
tliev were created at the coronation of a king or queen, or other folemm 
occafions, and they wear a fcarlct ribband iianging from the left fhoulder, 
uh an enamelled medal of thrc:* crowns, and the motto, Triajun'Ha in 
ujum. Three joined in one. This order being diicontiniied, was revived 
iiv king George I. on the 17th of June, 172J, when eighteen noblemen, 
and as many commoners of the firll: rank, were indallcd knights of the 
order, with great ceremony, at Wfllminller, wliere the place of iiillall- 
tient is Henry VII. 's chapel. Their robes arc fplcndid and flicwy, and 
:he number of the knights is undftermined. The bilhop of Rocheller \i 
perpetual dean of the order, which has likewife a rcgillcr and other 
otiicers. 

Baronets can fcarce be fald to belong to an crd.r, having no other 
badge than a bloody hand in a iield, argent, in tiieir arms. They are 
the only hereditary honour under the peerage, and would take place :'ea 
of the knights of the garter, were it not that the latter are always privy 
counfellors, there being no intermediate honour between them and the 
parliamentary barons of England. They were inllitutcd by James f,, 
about the year 1615. Their number was then two hundred, and each 
paid about 1000 1. on pretence of reducing and planting the province 
of Ullier in Ireland : but, at prefent, the number ot' thefe knights 
amount to feven hundred. 

A knight is a term ufed almoft in every nation in F/urope, and in ge- 
neral fignifies a foldier ferving on horfeback, a rank of no mean eilima- 
tion in antient armies, and entitling the pnrty liimftlf to tl)0 appellatinrf 
of Sir. In the common laws tlicy are called milites or fokiicrs, and 
they are made by the king laying a fword upon their fl>oulders, and de- 
firing them to rife by the title of Sir. It is a mark of pcrfonal regard 
from the crown, and therefore the titlf ones not defccnd to po'ierity. 
Other knighthoods formerly took place in l^nclnnd, fuch as thofe of baii- 
herets, batchelors, knights of tlie carpet, and the like, but they arc now* 
difufcd. 

It is fomewhat difficult to account for the original of the word efqulre, 
which formerly fignified a perf )n bearing the arms of a nobleman or 
knight, and they were therefore called armigeri. This title denoted any 
perfon, who, by his birth or property, wah entitled to bear arms ; but 
itis at prefent applied promifcuoully to any man, v.ho can afi'ord to livc_ 
in the charadl:er of a gentleman v/ithout trade, arv! oven a tradefman, if 
lie is a jullice of peace, (icniiinds the appellation. This dcgr?c, fo late as 
ill the reign of Henry IV . v<,ai an ordi^-. :,nd conierrcd by the king, by 
patting about the party's necic, a collar of hS. ar.d g'Ving him a pair pf 
iJver fpurs. Gower thi* po»ji. appears froni hi? eiligii.'; on his tomb ire 
Southwark, to have been ;^ii efquiie by creation. Scijeants-at-biw, nnd? 
other ferjeants belonging to the king's houihold, jultices of the peace, 
ioclors in divinity, la.v and phyfic, take place of other efquire>, and 
i'is remarkable, that all the fon? of duke;;, marquifes, carls, vifcoiint';, " 
snJ barons, arc in the eye of the law, no more than efquires, though 
commonly defigned by noble titles. The appellation of gentleman, tho* 
now confounded with tliC mean ranks of pcopic, is the root gf all Knglilh 
honour, for every nob'Lm.r! i': prcllimcd 10 bo a gentleman, though eve- 
ry gontlcmari is not .■• '.I'Mcmnn. 



ii2 



Cities, 







m 



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li'' 









Si!, 






196" 



E N G L A N T>. 



Cities, towns, forts, andI This head is fo very evtenfiv?, 
OTHER EDIFICES, p u B L I c > tli.Tt I c.in Only touch upoii objed! 
AND PRivATK. J t'l^t Can aflill in giving the reader 

fome idea of its importance, grandeur, or utility. 

* London naturally takes the lead in this divifion ; it appears to have 
been founded between the rei>jns of Julius L\xfar and Nero, but by whom 
is uncertain ; f«)r we are told hy I'acitus, that it was a place of great 
trade in Nero's time, and foon after became the capital of the illand. It 
was firft walled about with hewn Hones, and Britifli bricks, by Conftan- 
tfir.e the Great, and the walls formed an oblong fquarc, in compafs about 
three miles, with feven principal gate-;. The fame emperor made it a 
b'fliop's fee ; for it appears, that the blfhop of London was at the coun- 
cil of Aries, in the year 314 : he alfo fettled a mint in it, as is plain 
from fome of his coins. 

London, in its large fcnfe, is the metropolis of Great Britain, includ- 
ing Wcilminlk'-, Souvhwark, and part of Middlefex, it is a city of a ve./ 
furprizing exten', of prodigious wealth, and of the moft extenfive trade. 
This city, when ':onfidered with all its ;'.;lvantages, is now what ancient 
Rome once was; the feat of liberty, the encourager of arts,, and the 
admiration of the whole world. 

It is fituatcd on the banks of the Th::mes^ a river, which, thou<fIi 
not the largclr, is the richcft and moil conimodious for commerce of any 
iff the world. It being continually filled with fleets, failing to or from 
the moil diilant climates ; and its banks being from London-bridge to 
Jjlackwall, almoll one continued great magazine of naval ftores, con- 
taining three large v.-ct docks, thirty-two dry docks, and thirty-three 
yards for the building of Hiip;-, for t!\e ufe of the merchants, befide the 
places allotted for the building of boats and lighters j and the king's 
yards lower down the river for building uien of war. As this city is 
yhout -Ixty miles diilant from the fea, it enjoys, by means of this beau- 
tiful river, .dl the benefits of navigation, without the danger of being 
iurpri/cd by foreign Ileets, orcf being annoyed by the moiit vapours of tlie 
lea. It rifc.'i regularly from the v/atcr-fide, and extending itlelf on both 
fides along its bank.-, reaches a prodigious length from eail to well: in a 
kind of amphitheatre towards the north, and is continued for near twen- 
ty miles on all fide;!, in a fuccclTion of magnificent villas, and populous 
village?, the country feats of gentlemen and tradefmen ; whitiier the 
latter retire for the benefit of the frelli air, and to relax their minds 
from the hurry of bufinefs. The regard paid by the legiflature to the 
property of the fubjccl, has hitherto prevented any bounds being fixed 
for its extenfion. 

The irregular form of this city ina':e,> it diflicult to afcertain its ex- 
tent. However, its length from call to welt, is generally allowed to be 
above fcVi'.n miles from Hyde-park corner to Poplar, and its breadth, in 
fome places, three, in otlier two ; and in other agaia not much above 
lialf a mile. Hence the circumtisrer.cc of the whole i.-: almoll eigh- 
teen miles. Eut it is mucli eaucr to form an idea of the large ex- 
icnt of a tity I'o irregularly built, by the number of the people, who 






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* London is fitup.fcd in 51° 30' novtii latitude, 400 miles fouth of Edii\b:ireii, and 
:i70 fout!i-ea<i of Dublin ; 200 nirth-wefl of I ."vis, iSo miles weft 6f AmfteiHan,, 500 
f. urh-uclt of Copciih:'.i;cn, 600 north-wslt of Vienna, 1360 norih-weft of Confh.'it iiu- 
fi' , 2co north-eikft of Madrid, ^50 narth-cntl of Lifljon, and 8io north-weft of Rome. 

I are 



ENGLAND. 



197 



ere computed to be near a million ; and from the number of edifices de- 
voted to the fcrvice of religion. 

Of theft', befideSt. Paul's cathedral, and the collcp;iatc churchat Wcft- 
;:i:nller, there are 102 parifli-churches, and 69 chapels of the ellabliflied 
^iimm; 21 French protellant chapels; 11 chapel-; belonging to the 
Germans, Dutch, Danes, ice. 33 baptill meetings ; 26 independent 
:;ieetings ; 28 prefljyterian meetings ; 19 popilh chapels, and 
nteting-houfes for the ufc of foreign ambafladors, and people of various 
fccls ; and 3 Jews fynagogues. So that there are 37.6 places devo:ed to 
rcli<nous worlhip, in the compafs of this vafl; pile of buildings, without 
reckoning the 21 out-parilhes, ufu:;i!y included within the bills of 
mortality. 

There arf; alfo in and near this city 100 alms houfes, about twenty 
hofpitals and infirmaries, 3 colleges, 10 public prifons, 15 flefh-mar- 
l(cts ; I market for live cattle, 2 oiher markets more particularly for 
herbs; and 23 other markets for corn, coals, hay, Sec. 15 inns of court, 
2- public fquares, befide thofe within any fingle buildings, as the Tem- 
pie, SiC. 3 bridges, 49 halls for companies., 8 public fchools, called 
t'ree-fchools ; and 131 charity-fchools, v/hich provide education for 
ro34 poor children; 207 inns, 447 taverns, 551 coffec-houfes, 5975 
aklioulcs ; 800 hackney coaches, 400 ditto chairs ; 7000 ftreetS; lanes, 
courts, and alleys, and 130,000 dwclling-houfes, containing, as has 
been already obferved, about 1,000,000 '-ihabitants, who, according to 
a late eltimate, confunie annually the following articles of provilions. 



B!:ck cattle — — — _- - 

Sheep and lambs — — — 

Poultry, and wild fowl innumerable 
Mack.'irel fold at Biliingfgate — 

Oyllers, bulliels — — — — 

J;n;i!l boats with cod, haddock, whiting, Sic. over and 
above thole brought by laud-carriage, and great quan- 
tities of river :ind lalt hih 
Butter, pounds weight, about — — 

Ciieeie, ditto, about _ — i — 

Giillons of milk, about — •« 'mm 

Barrels of ftrong beer — — — . — . 

Ecrrels of fmall beer — — — 

Tons of foreign wines — — — 

Gallons of rum, brandy, and other dillilled waters, above 
Pounds weight of candles, above — 



I 



98,244 
711,123 

194,760 

186,932 

52,000 

14,740,003 



1,398 

16,000,000 

20,000,000 

5,000,000 

1,172,494 

798,495 

30,044 

M, 000, 000 
J 1,000,000 



London bridge confifts of 19 ftonc arches, 20 feet between each ; it 
!■ 900 feet Jong, 30 wide, and 60 feet high ; and has a draw-bridge in 
Lh: middle. The Thames in this part is 915 feet broi.d. 

uellminllcr-bridge is xeckoned one of the moft compleat and elegant 
ftiuclures of the kind in the known world. It is built entirely of rtone, 
ruiQ extended over the river at a place where it is 1,223 feet broad; 
whcii is above 300 feet broader than at London-bridge. On each fid^ 
'liif.ne ballultrade of Hone, with places of fhelter from the rain. Tkc 

P 3 ividtb 



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198 



ENGLAND. 



width of the bridj^e is 44 fc-'t, lir.\i))p; on each fide a fine fontwav for 
pnfi'cngcrs. It cDiifid'. of 14 pilars and 13 large, and two fmall arches, 
ihiit in the ccnttr btine 76 feat wKlc, and the rell dccreafinrr four fct\. 
t'acli from the other; io that the two lead arches of the 13 groat ones 
a;e each 52 feot. It i.s computed th.u the value of 40,000!. in Hone and 
other niateriali is always under water. This magnihcent (Irudlure wa.? 
built in II years and nine months, ;Mid cod about 389,500!. 

The bridge building at Blaclc-fviav.s, falls notliing ihort of that of 
Weilminfler, either in maj^nificence or workmanfhip ; but the fituation 
of the ground on the two ihore«, obliged the architeft to employ ellipti. 
cal arches ; which, however hv.vc a very fine cfteft ; and many unquef. 
tional judges, prefer it to Weflminiler-bridge. Blacic-friars-bridge ij 
c, building at the expence of the city of London, which being near the 
center cf this metropolis, will be of the utmoft convenience to town and 
country. 

The cathedral of St. Paul's js the moll capacious, magnificent, .nnd 
regular Proteftant church in the world. The length within is five hun- 
dred feet ; and its height, frojn the marble pavement to the crofs, on 
the top of the cupola, is three hundred and forty. It is built of Port- 
land Itone, according to the Greek and Roman orders, in the form of a 
crofs, after the mod.'! of St. Peter's at Rome, to which in fome refpefts 
it is luperior. St. Paul's church is the principal work of Sir Chrifto. 
pher Wren, and undoubtedly the only work of the fame magnitude, that 
ever was compleatcd by one man. He lived to a great age, and 
finithcd the building thirty-feven years after he himfelf laid the full 
ilore. It t:ikes up fix acres of ground, though the whole length of this 
church meafurer. no more than the width of St. Peter's. The expence 
of rebuilding it after the fire of London, was defrayed by a duty on 
coals, and ib computed at a million fleiling. 

Weftminiler-Abbcy, or the collegiate church of Wcflminfter, is a ve- 
ncrable pile (^f buildini^, in the Gothic tafte. It was firft built by Ed- 
ward the Confeilbr ; king Henry III. rebuilt it from the ground, and 
Henry \'II. added a fine chapel to the call end of it : this is the repo. 
fitory c{ the decealed Brit.ih kings and nobility ; and here are alfo mo- 
numents eretSled to the memory of many great and illullrious perfonages, 
commanders by Tea and land, philoiophers, poets, Sec. In the reign of 
queen Anne, 4000I. a year, out of the coal duty, was granted by par- 
liament fur keeping it in repair. 

The infide of the church of St. Stephen's Walbrook, is admired for 
its lightnefs and elegance, and does h(mour to the memory of Sir Chri^ 
topher W ren. The fame may be faid of the fteeples of St. Mary-le-Bow, 
and St. Bride's, which are fuppofcd to be the mofl complete in their 
kind of any in Europe, though architedure has laid down po rules for 
fuch eredions. Few churches in or about London are without fome 
Reality. The fimplicity of the portico in Covent Garden is worthy the 
purert ages of antient architedure. That of St. Martin's in the Fields 
would be noble and llriking, could it be leen from a proper point ot 
view. Several' of the new churches are built in an elegant talte, and 
^ven fome of the chapels have gracefulnefs and proportion to recommend 
them. ' The Banquetting-houfe at Whitehall, is but a very fmall part of 
a noble palace, deflgned by Iiiigo Jones, for the royal refidence, and a^ 
it now flands, under all its difadvantages, its fymetry, and ornaments, 
^re in the highelt llile and execution of architedtur-% ' 



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ENGLAND. 



^99 



\Vc(lm'inftcr-1iall, tlmtigh on the outfidf it makes a mean, and no 
verv advantageous appearance, is a noble (jothic l)uilding, and is laid to 
be the laigcrt room in tl\c world, it being 220 feet long, and 70 broad. 
It; root' is the linell of its kind that can be fecn. Here is held the co- 
nnation fealls of our kings and queens ; alf) the courts of cliancery, 
;;ini'Vbench, and common pitas, and above Ihiirs, that of the ex- 

vhi-quer. 

That beautiful column, called tlvc Monument *, crciflcd at the charge 
,'f the city, to perpetuate the memory of its brinj»; dcflroyed by (ire, is 
lulliv worthv of notice. This column, which is of the Doric order, 
cxceedi aJI the obelifks and pillars of the ancients, it being icz feet high, 
with H Hair c:.fe in the middle to afccnd to the balcony, which is 
ibout ^0 feet fliort of rive top, from whence there are other Heps, made 
for ncrVons to look out at the top of all, u'hicli is fafluoned like an urn, 
ivith a ll.ime ifi'uing froi;) it. On the bafe of the Monument, next the 
ilrcc't, t!ie dcllrudion of the ciiv, and the relief given to the fuflerers 
hv Clinrles n. and his hrothi.v, is emblem.itically renreftnred in has re- 
lief. The north and (outh fides of tiie bale hr.ve each a Latin infcrip- 
tion, the one defcribing it.; dreadful dcfoJation, and tlie other its fplen- 
tiiJ ri-'fiu'redion ; and on tlie tait lidei. an inlcr pti-ni, iliewing when 
{'.iC oillar 'N'as begun aiid liuiihed. The charge of ere'Jting this monu- 
ff.cr.t amounicd to upward of 13,000). 

The Koy"d Exchange is a kirge noble builJi-.i^, and is fald to have 
collahove 80,000 1. 

W'l.: might here give a dcfcription of the Tower |, Bank of F.iigianJ, 
the Vew-treafurv, the AdmiraJty-oJlice, and the Ilorfe-guiu-ds at White- 
hall, 



* It k cre,(5cd very near tlie fpnt where vIib fire '.-.toko cut in 1 660. 

■j- In examining the luriolitlcv; of th,* Tms'i-r or !.)nJ.vi, it \\'\U Ik; f'^fur tn bejin 
with thole on the ouri'ide tbo (iriiicip il aiU' ; ttic rir-.t i..ui\^ a ftianj'or iiiaally g"i:s To 
tilil is the wild hearts ; wiiich, ficin their fitiKiridn, hd\ prcfi.-nt llicnilVhoi : ioi- luving 
i;iiicre(l tlie outer {;atc, and pad'cd wliat is t;illed the rjUH-[j,v,.\rcl, the kp''ncr's h.MUb pre- 
•mts itfclt" hctoie you, \\hi(.li is known by a paiiitcd lion on 'lit wull, and anoilicr over 
ihi! door wfeich leads Ut /heir (k-ni). ]?y rin;;inj; a bell, and paying; (Ix-p.-iKC each i^erfon, 
sou may ealily gain admittaiia'. 

The next place worthy of obiervation is the Vint, which ci)m;-reh: nJs P.e.xr oi\--third 
if tlie TcHvcr, and contains hoiiles for all the cfticjrr. iielon^inp to the i"in,^i;v'. On pal- 
ling the principal gate you lee the White Tdver, built ly Wiiliam the Con^iieror. This 
is a large, fqiiare, irregular ilone huildijii!, fana.ul iilmoll in the icnler, ni) one fide an- 
"vering Jto anothcTj nor art any of i\i watch l^iweij, of which there arc four at the top, 
Imik iJike. One of thel'c tmvers is now converted itito an obfervatory. In the fir.1: llory 
jfi; two noble room^, one ci which is a fni.iU armmny for the fca-tervice, it having vari- 
Mo forts of .irms, very (urioully laid up, for above 10,000 le.imi.n. In the other rooin 
tK m.iny dofets and prelVes, all filled with ^^ariike enj^incs and Inilruments of death, 
O'cr this are two other floors, one principally filled with arms ; the oilier with arms and 
iiliLT warlike inftruments, as fp.vdcF, fliovel?, tM\k-axe?, and chcveaux de frize. In the 
u;>er llory, are kept match, flieep-fkinf, tanrifd hidcF, A'c. and in a little room, called 
luiiiis Cicfar's chapel, arc depofiied fome r, couls, w.ntaininp perhaps the ancient ufages 
vA cullnms of the place. In ths Imildiiiu; , n* nl'b i,reler\ed the models of the new iii- 
vtiitcd engines of dellruilion, that have fvorr t'mo o time bien prefented to the go\;;rn- 
in.'nt. Near the fouth-wcft anjflc- of the Vv'i. ft. Tower, is the Sp.-.niHi arniuuiv, in 
v.hich arc depofited the fpoils of what was v.'inly called the Inviiu'.Me Ainuda; in order 
So perpetuate to latelt pofterity, the memory of that fignal vitt't), obt.iined b\ the Eng- 
li.liover the whole naval power of Spain, in the reii-tn of I'hilip II. 

Vou now come to the /jrand lloie-houfe, a noble huildinp, to the north.v.ird of the 
Wiute Tower, tiiat fxlcnds 245 feet in ii'fi'fih, ami 60 in Irea.Itii, It was bey'.in Vy 

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\\;M, the Mc\V3, where t'.'.c land's liorfcs arc kept ; tlie Manfion-houfeoF 
thu lord mayor, ti;c Cullom-Jioufe, India-houfc, and u vail uumlKi- (4' 



Lipj ynmi". II. wh-J built it to the fiiil fiv.ni ; iuit it was finiilcJ by king V/i!li.im IIJ. 
uho i'ic'ftrd th it jnrgnificcrt roiiio called tl^i- New, "r SmBll Armours, its which Tl._t 
pnu.:e, with c,ui:tn M.iry, iii's coiifcit, I'iiicd in i-rcat Uimi, having all the- w.iirinl work- 
inu-nar.d labour; ik to aKi;i.J tht.ni, drcfTt".! in whir? jlrvcr and aiiron":, the ufuai luJj;t,of 
tiic ordt-r of rn .foiuy. To this nobt.; room y-^u r.rJ ltd by a tulding donr, ^dioinint', tn 
tiic C'lt riid (it tl;e I'l \^e'• tlupc), ui.icli ki'.ds to a frapii tlaircalc of 50 cafy fti-p'. 'o,, 
the le!t fide ot" tlif ujiitrmn;* l;'.n.!ing-p!ire i* the wor'c-fl-.i )>, in which arc ccn'.hiv.ly 
cn'.j.ioycd abo'.'.r h.LittvCn furbinitr', in clc.Tiirir, repiiir'nu', . i.d new placing the ;irm-. 
On enteriTig the armiuiry, you foe what th.y Ci'.ll ■.'. wihK-ini'h of arms, fojani'i.Hy ii;!". 
pofcd, that at one view you beheld .;rms fi-r i-.;riv ?c,ccoincn, :''! bright, and fit fn- fvr- 
vicc : a fiv;ht w'licli it is imrofiVidc t.> l-hokl without alVonilbpicr.t ; and bclMie thoi'e cx- 
pol'ed to ViCW, there were, l-efoic tu- Ltt war, f.-t- •- 11 il.dli flait up, ea. h clicfl boWin' 
xbcui I, see r.'i.:1i'.if. 'i he arms were eri(^lii..ily diriiofed b\ Mi. liarris, who comrivcii 
to t-!:ice them Jn tl-.is bcaut'hil c rJ.er, both hete and in \lie (iiurd chamber ff HjiTir'.iin- 
co'jrt. Hi; was a cvnimcn [:iin-: liih 5 1 ui aiur he ha.i perfi i iv .:d this work, v S'th Is 
the admiration of people of all n.'.rions, he w.is allow td a penl'ion In ni the i-rv.wn itr h'.i 
Ii.gJiuiity. 

I'pwn the ground floor rni^.jr the fmall armoury, h a larcc r'iom of ca_ual dicienror.j 
vithiliat, riipncried by 7,c pillar;:, ainning roc.nd with implements of war. Thisnom, 
which i' 24 iLet liieh, has .. ].a(!j.c in il.e middle 16 feet x'.ii'--. At the flight of fuch a 
v.irirty of ll'e iiKMr dj-e;'dful erujines of denniilion, bc'bre w hofe tluir.dcr the moil hipcrb 
fc.ifice?, the nublef}- works- of art, and number of the human fpecic?, f;-!l roeethcr in 
cr,j ecmmoii and ur.diiiipjiuiil.'-d ruin; one lani'.ot help wifi.in^ that thnfe horrible in- 
\-entions had fijll lain, like a I'aife turiteptlon, in the v.omb of r.aiare, never to have lwn 
ripened into hirrh. 

'Ihc hor!'c arn^oury is a plain bv-cic bi'iilirr, a little to the r.'ftsvr.rd of the Vtly.'x 
Tower ; and is an cdifiee rutner tonve:''cnt th.v.i decant, where the f( eJlator is entcrt.-in- 
cd with a re^v/Lieiiti n of thole kinc.n and lieroes of our own nation, with v.hcfc ^zU 
Lint anions it is tu be fuppnfjj hi; i^ well acquainted ; f 'mc c f them Cfji'-ipicd and 
/ittinp, on hurlibiuk, iii ilu: fame brigb.t and fhining armour they were ufjd to wear when 
they peif^irmed ihofe glorious afliciis ib.at give them a diiliiijjuillied place in the Biiti.1i 
annaib. 

You now eome to ''\e line of kings, wliicli your cor.d\iftor berins Iiy rcvtifirii; tli; 
order uf thronobn^y j lo that in foil; wing them ve ir.uil pl.u e the V.i} fivlb. 

Jn .1 dark, ftron^, ftone room, about ic yards to trie c.'.ltw"..id of the '^riud (Itre-lnnife, 
or njw a'm.oury, t!ie crown jewels are depofitcd. I. The imperial crown, wuli wiiitii 
it is pretended that ail the b.in;.;s of fr 'land have been crowned fincc Edward ihe Coiilcf- 
Jor, in J0i2. It is cf g:dd, enriched with diamonds, rubie-:, emcr.ilJF, I'apliircs and 
pearls : the Cip wiihin is of purple velvet, lined witli while laifeVy, tv.rned up w ih 
tliice rows of crm.inc. They .ire however miftaken in fliiwiu^ tliis as the ancient im- 
perial di.idem of Si. Edv/ard J for ih ;t, with tiie other molt aneient reg, lia ot this kinj- 
tiom, wa: kept in the ar^hr.d rnim is '.he clcliit/s in VVeilunnllcr Abbey till tl;e ^r.;ad 
rebellion i whenir: 642, Iia; ry -Mcrtin, by order tif th.e parlianiei;t, bicl.e open the iro:i 
c;k<1 in which it wt3 feeured, tcok it thente, and lidd it, logeiher wiih the whc., I'word, 
and feepicr of Si.lidv.arJ. ilowcvci', af'.er the rcftor-nivui, king Cliulei II. h.»d o'le 
made in imitttion I'f it, which is ihaV nowfliewn. II. The i-.ilden orb or ^'lobe, pal in- 
to the I'.ing's ri|jht hand before h: i'i crowned ; and boriie in his left with the feepler i;i 
his rigj't, upon his veti'.rn into Wcltrninitcr Hall, alter he is crowr.ed. It is abtuit f>x 
jnthes in diamet , cd^'.ed wiili pe .rl, and enriched with pieeions lioiics. (Jnthet. pij 
:in amjthyi>, of ,1 vioiet eilour, near an inch and a half in heignt, fet with a rich cioi's 
of gold, adorned with dii'mun.i!;, pejrls, and precious l*^cne''. 1 he wliole heiiht of the 
ball and cup is eleven inrhc^. HI. The golden fcepter, with h ; crofs fet upon a l.iiT.e jm^'- 
thyd of great value, garniflied round with table diamonds. The h.andlcof the fccpicr io 
plain; but il.c pu.rmel is fet round with rubier, emeralds, ;.nd fmall diamonds. »'l'hct>;) 
rifes into a Jhs'r dc In oi fix leave:, all enriched with precious lloiics, from whence ilViic"; a 
rnound or fall, made of tlie amcthyft alre.idy mintionid. Tiie crols is quite covtrLil 
\vi'-l. precioi.s tionef. IV. The fcepter with the dove, tlie einblcin of peace, pcrcbeJ 
pn th'j tc-' of a fmall Jerufulem trols, finely crnannjnUd with taWe diamoiids and jeweli 

el 



ENGLAND. 



201 



,t1,fr public buildings ; bcfidc the magnificent edifices ruiCcd by our no- 
vi] V • 'Ti Charltun-houfe, Marlborough-houfe, and Buckingham-houfe, 
''jjj'janKs's park; tlie duke of Montague's, and the duke of Riclv- 
-ond's in tlu Privy-garden :, the earl of Chellerfield's houfe, near 
H.Jc-p'aik; lac duke of Devonfhire's, and the late cail of Bath's, 

ia 



lit 5 



r crcat v.iUic. This emblem was firft ufed by Edward the Confeffor, as af pears hy hia 

\- but the ancient iccf tcrand dove was fold with the reft of the regalia, and thiijiow 

• the Tower was made after the rcftoration. V. St. Edward's ftaff, four foot fevca 

and a half iu lcnp,th, and three iichcs three quarters in circumference, all of 

, toKi, which ia carried before the Ving at his coronatim. VI. The rich crowa 

, llatt" Ns'irn by his majcfiy in parliament; in which is a krge emerald feven inchei 

, ,,n.v a peail efteemed the fineft in the world, and a ruby of inelHmable value. VIT. 

he irown belonging to his royal highnefs the prince of Wales. The king wears Jiis 

,'i",vn on his head while he fits upon the throne ; but that of the prince of W aljs is 

;;-A.;d before him, to lliew that he is not yet come to it. VIU. The late queen Ma- 

, , iTJWii, c;l(ibe, and fceptcr, with the diadem flic wore at her coronation with licr 

,f;.;t king William III. IX. An ivory fccpve;-, with a dove on the top, made for 

,;n; I.imes II. 's qiKvn, whofe garniture is gold, and the dove on the top E>)ld, ciuuncll- 

Juiiih vvUltc. X. The curtana, or fword of mercy, which has a bl.ide ihirty-tvvo 

ir.clirt long, and near two broad, is without a point, and is borne naked bcfoie 'he king 

,-: hiicornnation, between the two fwords of juftiec, ('[intual and tem;'oral. XI. The 

. i'cn fpiirs, and the annillas, which are bracelets for t.ie wrifts. Theic, thnujh very 

jT/':v.p, are worn at the coronation, XII. The aii:piillit, rr eaule of ijoid^ finely en- 

"•:;y;i) which liolds the holy oil the kings and qu.-ens of England arc anointed with; 

■ r.d the polden fpnon that ihe bifhop pours the nil inio. 'Ihefe are two pieces of 

"T.-ir sntiqiiity. The golden eagle, including the pcdeftal, is about nine inches high, 

:"ithe WHIPS expand about (t\cn inches. Th*- whole weiilis about ten ounces. I'hc 

htjJi'l" the eai:le t'.rews off about the middle of the neck, which is made hollow, for 

lu: ling the holy oil; and when the king is anointed by the bifliop, tlie oil is poured 

'•„o*he fpoon out of the bird's bi}l. Xlll. A rich falt-feller of (Kite, inform like the 

Viire White Tower, and h exquifinly wrought, that the workmanfliip of modern 

•.i".:', is in no degree equal to it. it is of gold, and ufed only on the kind's table at 

\:.". c'.cnaticn. XIV. A noble filvcr font, double gilt, and elegantly wrought, in 

hich the royal f.Miiily are chriftened. XV. A large filver fountain, prcfentcd to king 

(.Irrks JI. by the town .li Plymouth, very curioufly wrought ; but much inferior in 

mi:) to the above. Befide thefe, which are commonly fhewn, there are in the jewel 

■'..::, all the crown jewels worn by the prince and princefl'es at coronations, and a 

jA .t variety of curious old plate. 

Tae Record Of.itc tonfiltj of three rooms, one above another, and a large round room, 
'-';:e the rolls arc kept. Thefe are all handfomely wainfcoted, the wainfcot being 
', icd into prcll'M round each room, within which are (helves, and repofitories for tjic 
. ii; and for the ealier finding of them, the year of each reign is infcribcd on the 
'.'\; of thofc prefies, and the records p!.u;ed accordingly. Within tlicfe prelle?, which 
.■; 'nt to fifty-fix in number, are depofited all the rolls, from the firft year of the 
'un of king John, to the beginning of the reign of Richard III. but thofe after this 
iu:renod are kept in the rolls chapel. The records in the Tower, among other 
;.";', con'-ain, the foundation of abbies, .■'nd other religio is houfes ; the ancient te- 
;:! of all the lands in England, with a furvey of the manors; the m-'einal of laws 
:t. iiiUiitef i proceedings ot the courts of common law and equity ; the rights of Eng- 
l.'Jto the domi)'.ion of the Brilifh feas ; leagues and treaties '.vith <"iTign princes; 
!'c otchiivcnients uf England in foreign wurs ; the iciilemcnt of Irol nd, as to law 
i'lv! iDminicn ; the forms of fubinillion of !f>me Siottith kings, for ten aories held ia 
iii.'iid; ancient 2;rants of our kinjs to thiir fubk'iis ; privileges and immuniliei 
\:.i::.K.i to cities and corporitions during the pericd above-mentioned ; enrollments of 
i-'.rsand deeds made before the conquvll ; the hounds of all the forefts in F.nij.b.nd, 
yii.iihe feveral rcfj^e£tive rights of the inhabitants I o common pafture, and many other 
inV.rt;',nt records, all regularly difpofed, and referred ti> in near a tlioufand folio in- 
c-u', This Oihce i': kept open, and attendance conftantly given, from feven o'clock 
i^'l ore, except in the months of December, January and Erbruary, when it is open 
f':yiiom cifht to one, Sundays and holidays excepted, A feuich here is half a guinea, 
j.rwhic]) you ijaay pcrufc any one fubjcit a year, 



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ENGLAND. 



5n Piccadilly ; Northumberland houfc, in ihe Strand ; tlic houfc of th? 
dukes of NewcalHc and Queenlberry ; of lord liatcman ; of I'tntral 
Wade, in Saville-row ; the earl of Granville's, Mr. Pelham's, the uuke 
nf Bedford's, and Montague hovirf" *, in liloonilbury ; with n great num. 
ber of others of the ncbjlity and gentry ; but thele would be foflicii-nt 
to fill a large volume. 

No place in tlie world is bcttjr fupplied v.iih water from the Thames 
•nnd the New River; which is not only of inconceivable Ifrvice to every 
family, but, by means of fire-plugs every v here difpcrftd, the keys oV 
which are depoiited with the parifii ofijcers, tl'c city is, in a great inc;i- 
fure, fecured from the fpreading of lire; for thefe i'lii(;s yre no Iooikt 
opened than there is valt quantities of water to fupply the i urines. 

This plenty of water has been attended with anoth«" advantaj;**, ithw 
given rife to feveral companies, who infure houfes aiul goods, tr(>n\ fiiv; 
an advantage, that is not to be met with in any other nation on earth ; 
ihe premium is ihiall t, and the recovery, in cafe of loA, is eafy and 

• '''he Rritilh Mufiuin is drpofited in Montagne lioufc. Sir Han; Sloine, h.r", 
(who died in 17^)) w-'y iwt improperly be called the founder of thi* Briiifli M:il'ci!in 
tor if- bciinj cHabliflied by parliament, wjs only in confciiucni c of" hi:i K-uving by wiji 
Jiis noble collection of" f> itural hifVory, his large library, and his niini!.ro\is curiofitics 
wliich coii him (;o,ocol. to the ufe of the public on eomlitioti thjt tl>e narliimrntwoiH 
pay 20,cco 1. to his cxeciitorii. To lhi» collection wire idded 'iic Cottottiiin iibtsr)', tiic 
Harlcian nunufcripls, collected by the Oxford family, and pnnlmed likewile Vy rh; 
parliament, and a collection of book!: given by the Idle major Edwardi. His Ijtc tri- 
jefty, in confulcration of its great nlfulnefs, was gracioully pleiifed to :ul(l thereto, the 
royal libraries of books and manufcripts coUedled by the feveral kings of Erg! ind. 

The Sloanian colledtion confiils of an amazing number of curiofitit-o j ;imong whicli 
are, the library, including books of drawings, mdnufcnpts, and prints amounting t^ 
about 50,occ volumes. Medals and coins, ancient and modem, 2-,occ;. Cameos .ml 
intaglios, about 700. Seals i68. Veffels, Arc. of agate, jafper, &c. 542. Antiqui. 
ties, 1,125. I'retious ftones, agates, jafpers, &c. 2,256. Metal?, minerals, ores, ir. 
3,715. Cryllals, fpars, &c. 1,864. F«)llils, flints, ftones, 1,275. Earths, fands, lalti, 
1,035. Bitumens, iulphurs, ambers, &c. 29')- Talcs, miciP, jiec. 38S, Corals, fpiingc^, 
Ace. 1,431. Tcftacea, or HicUs, &c. 5,843. Echini, echinitx, Sic. 659. Allerix, 
trochi, cntrovlii, &c. 241. Cruftacev, crabs, lobfters, Stc. 363. Slcllie, marine, 
Itar-fifhes, &c. 173. Fi(h, and their parts, &c. 1,555. Birds and their parts, eggs and 
nerts, of different fpecies, 1,172. Quadrupeds, &c. 1,886. Vipers, ferpents, &c, 511. 
Jnfe£ts, Sec, 5,439. Vegetables, 12,506. Hortus liccus, or volumes of dried plant, 
334. Humana, as calculi, aiutomicai preparations, 756. A^ifcellaneous things, natu- 
ral, 2,098. Mathematical inftruments, 55. A catalogue of all the above is written in 
a number of i.irge volumes. 

f The terms of infurance are as follows, vu. every perfon infuring, fliali 
pay for every 100 1. infurcd on goods, indofed in brick or ftone — — 
If half ha2ardous, as to fituation, or kind of goods -_— _ 

It" hazardous — — —« — — 

If hazardous, and half haiardous — • -«__-_ — 

If hazardous, and hazardous _^ _ ►_. — — __ 

For every lool. infurcd on goods, in'lofed in pait brick, and part tiinbcr 
If half hazardous, as to fjtuation, or kind of goods — — — 

If hazardous — _ _ __ __ — . 

If hazardous, and half hazardous »- — . — — 

if hazardous and hazardous -_ — _ _ ._ 

For every 100 1, infurcd on goods, inrlofcd in timber — . — . ~. 

If half haiardous, as to filuation, or kind of goods «« — — . 

1/ hazardous — — __ — .... — . 

If hazardous, and half hazardous — — — — 

J( haxardouf:, and h<izar()ous — — — • 

The premium is double upon any f»im between one and two ihoiM 'n-i, and triMi 
between two and three thouuiid pounds. 



!• 



I 



4 

s 

6 

1 

1; 
6 

7 
3 
4 
6 

7 




ccrt.rr.| 



ENGLAND. 



203 



rfftaln. Every one of thcfe offices, keep a fct of men in pay, who are 
ready at all hours to give their aflittance in cafe of fire ; and who are on 
2II occalions extremely bold, dexterous, and diligent ; but though all 
thrir labours (hould prove unfucccfsful, the perfon who fuffcrs by this 
devouring element, has the comfort that muil arife from a certainty of 
being paid the value (upon oath) of what he has infuied. 

If the ufe and advantage of public magnificence is confidered as a na- 
tions) concern, it will be found to be of the utmoll confequence, in promot- 
jii'T the welfare of mankind, as that attention to it, wliich encouragement 
*i\\ produce, muft neceflarily ftimulate the powers of invention and in- 
rtnuity, and «)f courfe create employment for great numbers of artills, 
^ho, exclufivc of the reward of their abilities, cannot fail of ftriking 
cut many things which will do honour t thcmfelvcs, and to their coun- 
try. This coiilideration alone, is without doubt highly worthy of a com- 
aitrciiil people ; it is this, which gives the prclcrernje to one country, ia 
cor.ip:.. i'5'i ^vith another, and it is this which dilUnguifhca the genius of 
a iKopu", in the mod ftriking manner. 

iomlon, before the conflagration in 1666, when that great city (which 
111. ; moll others had arifcn from fmall beginnings) was totally inelegant, 
inconvenient, and unhealthy, of which latter tnibfortune, many melan- 
choly proofs are authenticated in hilh)ry, and whicli without doubt, pro- 
ceeillil from the narrownefs of the llrects, and the unaccountable projec- 
tions ol the buildings, which confined the putrid air, and joined with 
ptiiir circumlhnnces Uich as the wan: of water, rendered the city fcarce 
evLi free from pclUlential dcvallation. 1'he iire which confumed the 
greatert part of the city, dreadful as it was to tlie inliabitants at tJiat 
time, \v;is produ^livc of confequences, which made ample amends for 
thelofles fiillained by individuals ; a new city aro'c on the ruius of the 
old, but, though more regular, open, convenient, and healthful ilian 
the former, yet by no means anfvvered to the charadtrs of magnifictnce 
or elegance, in fome particulars, as lliall be hereafter mentioned, and 
it is ever to be lamented (fuch was the infatuation of thofe times; 
(hat the magnificent, elegant and ufcful plan of the great Sir Chril- 
topher Wren, was totally difregarded and facrificed to the mean 
and felfifh views of private property ; views which did irreparable 
injury to the citizens thcmi«;lves, and to the nation in general, for had 
iat great archited's plan been followed, what has often been aflerted, 
rauii have been the 1 fult, the metropolis of this kingdom, would incon- 
tdlably h:ivc been the moll magniticcnt, and elegant city in the uni- 
vtrfc, and of confequence mull from tiie prodigious refort of foreign- 
fli of diit'ndion, and tallc, who would havo vilited it, have become an 
[ iiixhaultible Ajnd of riches to this nation. But as the deplorable blind- 
Ictfi of that age, has deprived us uf fo valuable an acquifition, }. is 
Ixcomc ublbhitely neceffary, that fome efforts Ihould be made to ren- 
j, (kr the prcl'ent plan in a greater degree anfwerable to the charatler of 
^t richelt, aijd moll powerful people in the world. 

The plan of London in its pretent fta|;e, will, in many inftances ap- 
ip', to very moderate judges, to be as injudicious a difpofition^ as 
canpoflibly be conceived tor a city of tracle and commerce, on the bor- 
ders of fo noble a river as the Thamcf ; the wharfs an4 quays on its 
||ianks are defpicaile and inconveiuciit |)eyond couception. Let any one 
Iwho has a tolerable talle, and (bme idea of public magnificence, give 
Ijiimklf the trouble of confidering the ftate of the.buildings, quays, and 
mvis on botli fides the river T.vmcs, from Chglfea to BLukwall, 

on 



204 



E N G L A K D. 



' 



I 



cn tlic nne hnpd, nnd from rAtterfca to Grrrrv :ch en t^f othfr; arc] }"• 
VJII be imnudiatcly convinced that llitre i^ not rnc cn-ivenicnt, vvcl!, 
rfp;'i I ;!{■'• ! (jot (:"s the h'.iih'.ir'rs tl'crern rrs at prcfVrt HiTr^fcd) cirhrr fit 
bn/inc; o; defiance, in thnc ^s hole f. vent. After he hai confidered ti,..- 
iinte of the banks of tbr river, he rr.r.y crntinur hi* chfjr.atinn ir^n 
the iiitc:; ■;• p.'iit; of tilt* i-\vn, nnd r-.'iirnlly tun his res upon ihf.ie 
iifefiil p'rcc's to the tvridir<r p:;rt of the v/cild, Wappipp, Rr.chtrliitl.i- 
tnd Soiithwark, ali a>nti^'UO.us to the Thamef, and zil cntiiifv di-ftitu'-: 
ci ih;'.t li'ifui rcruhirin, cnnvcnicocc, and utillly, Co vtr)- defnr.hlc in 
tommncial cities. 'J hj obferv.i may Irnm thirrcc direct his view t^ 
1'ov>c;-liiM, the Cunoivi-houfe, Tiiaines-rrretrt, Watling-firctt, and the 
pairaci's to Li ndon bricj'gc ; thcnre to the miferab'y ccntriicd :ivcni:;i 
into J^pittalficlds, Whilrchapel, and Moorfieldi. He may conilder the 
Situation of St. Faiil's, and other clrdichci, that of the Mor.uir.enr, th* 
Compnnies )ialls, and other public buildinjr, that sre ihrul up in cor- 
Tiers, and pL.^ed in fuch a manner as muil tempt fr.-ery r.'CTjncr to [c- 
lieve that they were de.'if^ncd to be concealed. The obfe.-'.er miy next 
take in all thofe wretched parts which he will fnd on both fidts ilie 
i'leet-maiket ; necefiity will oblige him to proceed late ilmi'.hf.eld, frr 
the fake of breathing a frefher air; and when he ha5 conridcred a fpor, 
capable of the preateft advantages, but deftitutc nf gny, he rray plunge 
into the deplorable avenues and horrid pafTagcs in thiit neigiibcurhood. 
He m:iy thence proceed to Baldwin's Garc'tn^, through the ruir.s rt" 
which iihe cfcapcs without hurt, he may reach GrayVInn-lane ; whicS 
thouj^ii one of the principal avenues to this rr.etropoli.*, is deipic^bi: 
beyond conception. From thence he iray trivc! into Hrll)ora, v.hcre 
thic firit objetit that prefcnts itfelf to view, is Middlc-ra*-, a ni-iiance 
iinivcrii'.Ily detelkd, but fuffcrcd to remain a public difgrzcs to the f.r.d 
llrect in l.ondon. He may hobble on with fome fiti'-facUon, until he 
arrives at Dread St. Giles's, where, if he can bear to fee a fir.c rituati,;n 
rovercd v. ith ruinous buildings, and inhabited by the moil deplotablt 
oi;j.'c1-j that human nature can furniih ; he may vifir the environ;. Ficm 
hv-ntv lie riiay proceed along Oxford-road, and firiking into the town oa 
uhich hand he jleafes, he will obfene the f.neft fituaticn covtred with a 
yrofiifion (M defimity, tliat has been obtruded cn the public, for want 
of a gcner;'.!, ■. vll regulated, limited plan, which fhcdd have been 
enforced hy connr.iruoners appointed by authority', men of found jutlg- 
xnent, tatlc*, and activity ; had that happily been the ca^e, all the ghring 
{jiiii'ifiities, whii h are perpetually llaring in the facei^, and infulting the 
vincicrilancings of pcrlcns of icicr.cc and taile, would revtr have had exif- 
tence. But private property', and pitiful, mean underilandings, fuited to 
the capnciticf. of the projcdtors, ha\c taken plarc of that regularity and 
clegan'.e, which a «^eneral pla:i would have profluced ; and nothing ic^ms 
to have been confidered for tv.enty yecrs j^all, but the intcrcJl cf a t'cw 
tallclcls builders, v.ho have entered into a combination, p<ith no other 
view than fleecing the public, and of extending ar^ddiilortiiig the town, 
till they have rendered it cojnpliiely ridicidous. From hence the oh- 
ferver, in his road to the city of Wellminflcr, may have a peep r.t St. 
lainc.i's, the refidcnce of the mod powerful and refpe^table monarch !;i 
the univerfe; a prince, who ir. himfelf a lover of the art--, and umier 
xshofe happy auipiccs artiils of real merit and ingcnaitjr can never doubt 
of obtaining patronage and cnroi ragtment. The ohfener will not lie 
better f.uisficd wlien he has rcaclicd Wciruiih.ler, when he conuders v.h:.: 
... . . mi;;!".; 



ENGLAND. 



lO' 



Ti^nht h "C been done, and how little has lieen done, wlicn fo fine an 
lippurtunity pivfcnted itfclf. From \\>i'.inliiller bridge he may conduct 
i:;n{t;If into St. George's Fields ; one nt the lew fpotaljoiit London which 
1,1; not yet fallen a flKrihce to the dep.v.vcJ talle of" modern builders ; licre 
v^iiiav indulp^c himfelF with the contemplation of" what aJvuntageou* 
.-;nffs may yet be done for th!s hitlierto m-glecied metropolis. 

Irom what ha:, been laid jf the cities of London and Wcilminfler, 
f',eic cannot remain the leaft doubt but that their Hate, vvi;h regard t» 
racnil^cence, elegance, and convcnicncy. is in fuch places very dclpi- 
cjiiic ; but we have the pleaiure to find, that the neccfilty of rendering 
Km otherwife is now become a miittcr of ferious concern to p?rfons in 
puiver ; and that fome general pl.m is likely to be fornicd and obferved 
}3; their improvement. In the citi-s of Paris, Edinburgh, Rotterdam, 
aJ other placfo, the government take* cognisance of ail pui.iic build- 
ws, both ufeful and ornamental. 

We might in this place take notice of the very elegant, iifcri:!, and 
rcu'lTary improvement, by the prefent method of paving atud ei-.'.i^'Juning; 
tr.elhect.s upon thtr plan of thi; Higii-Hieet oi" Edinburcdi ; an improve- 
neiu which is felt in the moil il-nfibie manner by all ranks and degrtx-s 
cf people. The ro:v.'£ arc continued f'r federal mi!c:> round upon the 
UiC plan ; and, evclulivi; of Iamp.^ regularly placed «)» each fide, at 
ib;t (iillancss, arc rendered more fafe by watchmen placed wiihiu a 
ullof eaci' oihei', who are protected from the weather liy proper boxes. 
Nothing can appear more brilliant th:.n taofe lights when vic\,ed at a 
(i'ilar.cc, cfpi'cially where the road:, run ccrofs ; ar.d even the principal 
i'.'.ccti, fucli as i*aIl-MaIl, New Bond-ftreet, Sec. convey an idea of ele- 
tanc." and magnificence ; upon the whole, tlicrc never was, in any age 
ir country, a public feheme adopted which reikcb more gl ;:y upon go- 
TC.Tiir.ciir, cr does greater honour to the perfon vviio originiuly propolijj. 
i:;a fapport'.'d it. 
Tiie new bridge and new ftrcets, the embanldii^ the river, "and many 
cur improvements now in ngitation, added to the fuccefs and utility of 
kh..! has hctn done, are llrong demonftraticns of tlic good fetife, taile^ 
;:.l public fpirit of feme ruling men ; and we have die greaieJt reaf iit 
D bi;licve that this hitherto nrglcilcd metropolis will become, in 
; :t cf bti^uty, convcnicncy, and elegance, what it is in we ilth and 
C'.v.erce, the glory of the iihuid, the admiration of every llranger. an J 
i'Uil c'ly Oil caith. London i-> the centre of tr::de ; '". has :'.n intimate 
<j!r.eclion with all the countries in tlie kingdom ; it is the giMud mart. 
c;ie nation, to which every part fend their commodities, lr;.'n wliencc 
r;a^-ain arc fent back into every town in the nation, and to every part 
is the world. From hence innumerable carriages, by land and water, 
it conflantly employed; and from hence arifcs that circulation in the 
riiional boJy, vvjiich renders every part healthful, vigorous, and m a. 
psfpcious condition ; a circulation tliat is equally Ijeneficial to the head,. 
iMthe moll iliftant mtmbers. Merchants aic here as rich as noblemen; 
litefs their incredible loans to government ; and tliere is n'J place ia 
lit world where the Ihops of iradefmen make fuch a .loble u.. clcgaat. 
ipptarance. 

Wiiidfor caftlc is the only fabric that defer\es the name of a royal. 
palace in luigland ; and that chiefly through its beautiful and command- 
^? l:tuation ; which, with the form of its conllrudion, lejidcrcd it,. 
Ittvre the iutrodueUofl of artillery, impregnable. Hampton Court was- 












f 



m^' 



i 



I 



206 



ENGLAND. 



the favourite relidence of king William. It is built in the Dutch ta(!c 
and has feme good apartments, and like Windfor lies near the Thames! 
Both thofe palaces have fome good piftures ; but nothing equal to the 
magnificent colledlion made by Charles I. and diiTipnted in the time of 
the civil wars. The cartoons of Raphael, which, for defign and expref. 
fton, are reckoned the mailer-pieces of painting, have by his prefcnt 
majefty been removed from the gallery built for them at Hampton Court 
to the queen's palace, formerly fiuckingham-houfe in St. James's Park. 
The palace of St. James's is commodious, but has the air of a convent ; 
.ind that of Kenfmgton, which was purchafcd from the Fincij family by 
king William, is remark.ible only for its gardens, which are laid out in 
a grand taftc. Other houfes, though belonging to the king, arc far from 
deftrving the name of royal. 

Foreigners have been puzzled to account how it happcn<; that the mo- 
narchs of the richell nation in Europe fhould be (o indifferently lodged, 
eipecially as Charles I. whofe finances were but low, compared to feme 
of his fucceflors, had he lived undifturbed, would more than probably 
have completed the auguft plan which Inigo Jones drew for a royal pa- 
lace, and which would have been every way fuitable to an Engliih mo- 
narch's dignity. The truth is, his fon Charles II. though he had a fine 
tarte for architefture, dilfipated his revenues upon his plcafurcs. The 
reign of his brother was too fhort for fuch an undertaking. Perpetual 
warn during the reigns of king William and queen Ann, left the parlia- 
ment no money to fpare for a palace. The two fucceeding monarchs 
were indifferent as to fuch a piece of grandeur in England ; and though 
feveral fchcmes were drawn up for that purpofe, yet they came to nothing, 
efpecially as three millions of money were neceflary for carrying It into 
execution. We have, however, every thing to expcft during the prefent 
reign, when architecture and magnificence fhine oiit in their full 
luftre. 

It would be necdlefs, and, indeed, cndlefs, to attempt even a catalogue 
of the houfes of the nobility and gentry in London and its peighbour> 
hood, and all over the kingdom. They are by far more fuperb and ele- 
gant than the fubjefts of any other nation can difplay ; witnefs thofe of j 
the duke of Devonlhire, the countefs of Leiceller, lord Scarfdalc, the [ 
earl Temple, and earl Pembroke, where more remains of antiquity I 
are to be found than are in the poiieinon of any fubjefl in tlie world. 
Sir Gregory Page, the earl of Tilney, and hundreds of others equallv 
gr.ind and fumptuous. But thofe capital houfes of tl.e Engliih nobility 
and gentry have an excellency diftinA from what is to be met with ini 
any other part of the globe, which is, that all of them are completej 
without and within, all the apartments and members bcini^ fuitable tai 
each other, both in conftruftion and furniture, and all kept in thchigheiM 
prefervation. It often happens, that thcboufe, however elegant .ind cotllyj 
is not the principal objed of the feat, which confills :.i its hortulan? andT 
rural decorations. Viftas, opening landfcapes, temples, all of them thd 
lefult of that enchanting art of imitating nature, and uniting beauty witil 
magnificence. j 

It cannot be cxpefted that I fhould here enter iuto a dct.iil of the cliidi 
towns of England ; which, to fay the truth, have little Icides their comj 
iherce, and the conveniency of their fituation, to rcc( mmend themj 
though fome of them have noble public buildings and bridg s. Brillo! i 
thooght to be the largefl citj' in the firitilh dominions, after Loiulon ;>n^ 



E N G I. A N D. 



207 



HuWln, to coiitnin about loo.oco inhabitants. No nalion in the wnrM 

inihevv Tach dock-yardi, and all convcniciicics for the Kintlruvtion anJ 

'jjrs of the royal navy, as Fortrmnuth, which is the moll rcijular tor- 

lincation in Enyland, Plymouth, Chatham, Woolwich, and l)c>gtt'ord. 

The roy-il hofpital at Greenwich for fiipcrannuateii feamen, is Icarcely 

fvcefdcd by any royal palace for its magnificence and rypL-nce. In (lioit, 

^Jrv town in Kneland is noted for Ibnie particular production or manu- 

tadure, to which its building and appearance arc jh neully fitted, and 

tliouch Kngland contains many excellent and c jninuidiuus lea-ports yet. 

.]| of them have an immediate connection with London, which is th« 

common centre of national commerce. 

H;jTORV.] In the account I have yivtn of the laws and conftitutiony 
j,ay be found great part of the hittorv of England, which i fliall not 
here repeat, but confine myfelf to the difi^ercnt j^-radatjons of events, in ft 
clironulogical order, connected with the improvement of arts, fcienccs, 
commerce, and manufactures, at their pri»pcr periods, and that in ai 
manner fuitable to the propnfed brevity of this work. 

When lulius C:efar, about fifty-two years before the birth of Chrift, 
meditated a conqucft of Britain, the natives, undoubtedly, had great 
connections with the Gauls, and other people of the continent, in go- 
verntiient, religion and commerce, rude as the latter was. C;vfar wiote 
ihcliillorv of his two expeditions, which he pretended were accompanied 
with vail diHicultics, and attended by fuch adv.antages over the illandcr^-, 
that tlicv agreed to pay tribute. From contemporary, and other author>, 
15 well .as Ca'far's own n.irrative, it plainly appears, that his victories 
nere incomplete and indecifive ; nor did the Romans rf,.eive the lealk 
idvar.tagc from his expedition, but a better knowledge of the iiland than 
•Jiey had before. The Britons, at the time of Cxfar's dcfcciit, wcr^*; 
»overned, in time of w-tr, by a political confederacy, of which Canil)e- 
ian, whofe territories lay in Hertfordiliire, and lime of the adjacent 
nunties, was the head; and this form of government continued among 
cem tor fome time. 

The Britons lived, during the long reign of Auguftus Cx'far, rather 
lithe allies than the tributaries of the Romans ; but the communications 
bttwecn Rome and Great Britain being then extended, the emperor 
Uiudiiis Cufar, about forty-two years after the birth of Chrift, under- 
took an expedition in perfon, in which he feems to have been fucceisful 
ijiinll Britain. Hh conqueih, however, were imperfect ; Caradacus 
uiBoadicia, though a woman, made noble Hands againll the Romans. 
The former was taken prifoner, after a defperate battle, and carried to 
Koine, where his undaunted behaviour before Clau^ius gained him the 
iliiiiration of the victors, and is celebrated in the hillories of the times. 
Boiiicia being opprcfTed in a manner that difgracc* the Roman name, 
ai defeated, dildained to furvive the liberties ot her country; and 
Ajncola, general toDomitian, after fubduing South Britain, carried hi« 
iraii, as has been already feen in the hiftory of Scotland, northwards, into 
Caledonia, where his fuccelTors had no reafon to boaft of their progrefs, 
ten' inch of ground being bravely defended. During the time the 
oraans remained in Britain, they were proteftcd from the invafions of 
iitC.ledonians, Scots, and Pifts, by the pr.-stentiires or walls I have (o 
:cii mentioned ; and we are told that the Roman language, learning, 
Icttihv.ns, became familiar in Britain. There feems, however, to be 
t<at i'ouiidution ibr this aderti^n ; and it ii> more j^rpbaUe, rh it the 

Romans 



w 



i 



i'l. ! 



11 



I ' 



20S 



E N G LAND. 



I' 



Romans confidcrcd Britain chiefly as a nurfery for tiiclr armie«, on « •• 
count of the nipcrior (Ircn^th of" body and cournge oi'thc inhnbiijuta, wjici. 
dilciplined. '1 hat this vvai tlio calf, appears plainly cnuuph Iroin \.\h- ,;,. 
fcncflcCs ftate ot the Briton?, when the government of Pvomc recalled he- 
lorcri from th:.t illand about the year 40S. J have nlready t.ikcn nutici; 
that during the abode of the ]\oinans in Britain, tJicy iiitr.';duicd ir.to it;]! 
the luxuries of Ituly ; but it is certain, that under them the South liri. 
tons were moll abjeit ilavcj, and that thegtnius of liberty retreated nortu- 
ward?, where the native:) had made a brave renilance ai^ainll the tynuu, 
of the worlil. 

With regard to tiie Briton?, in their manner of life, as defcrihcd by 
Cxfar, and the belt authors, they differed little from the rudeinhabitiiPi, 
of the northern climates that have been ahraJy jnciuioned ; bit tucv 
certainly lowed corn, though, perhaps, they chiefly iubniU'd upon ani. 
mal food and milk. Their cloathing was (liins, and their lortilicatiorj 
beams of wood. 'I'hey were dexterous in the managemi'nt ot their cha- 
riot;,. beyond credibility, and they fought with lanceii, darts, and iworj^. 
V/omen ibmetimes led their armies to the held, and were recognized ..^ 
fovercigns of their parti>.r.lar uiflrids. They favoured a pi imogeniturc 
in their fucccilion to roy.dty, but fet it ahde on the finallell incor.vi.-- 
riency attending it. '1 hey painted their bodies with woad, wliich t?ave 
thciu a bluilli or grcenitli call; and they arc faid to have had h(,'urcs of 
animals, and heavenly bodies on their fkins. In their marriages iliev we;; 
not very delicate, for they formed themlelves into what v.c may call ma- 
trimonial clubs. 'I'vvelve or fourlern men married as m;uiy wives, ami 
each wife was in common to them all, but her children belonged to tne 
original hufl)and. 

'I'hough the Britons were unqucflicnably very brave, when iiicrr- 
porated with the Roman legions abroad, yet we i<now of no itni^. 
gle they made for their independency at home, notwithflanding tne 
many favourable opportunities that prcfented themlelves. 'i'he leat of 
the Roman arms during their abode in the ifland, was near their pre- 
tcntures. Their emperors and generals were entirely employed in repel- 
ling the attacks of the Caledonians and Picls, (the latter are thoiigiit 
to have been the foutliern Britons retired northwards) and tliey appeared 
to have been in no pain about the fouthern provinces. The withdrawing 
the Romans from Britain to the continent, was iu order to repel ik 
attacks of the barbarians upon the empire. I'he iouthern Britons, upon 
tlieir departure were fo habituated to flavery, that they again and again 
implored the return of their tyrants, but to no purpofe ; and we have 
from Gilda?, v/ho was himfelf a Briton, but very dark confuld 
hints of their ofticers, and the names of fome of their icings, parti- 
cularly one Vortigcrn, who llruck a bargain with two Saxon chicti, 
Hengilt and Horfa, to proted them from the nations beyond the preten- 
ture. The Saxons were in thofe days mailers of the fea, their native 
countries, comprehending the northern parts of Germany and ticandina- 
via, were overllocked with inhabitants, and after relieving the Britoni, I 
partly by force, and partly by treachery, they either fabdued or uro\e 
them into Wales, where their language and defcendants itill remain. J 

Literature at this time in England was fo rude, that we know but! 
little of its hiftory. The Saxons were ignorant of letters, and publicj 
tranfaclions were recorded only by their bards and poets, a Ipccies o!J 
men whom they lield in great veneration. Nenmus, wltu lccm:> lu h.v.:| 

Lci.n 



ENGLAND. 



209 



tkorKS 

upon 



u^n contcmpornry with GilJa.';, mention*, indeed, a few fu^ls, but 
rothing that c;iii be relied on, or that can form a conneclcd hiilory. 
V'ecan, therefore, only lucnticn the names of Merlin, a reputed prince 
snd prophet; Pen.lragon, the celebrated Arthur, and Thali'.'ffin, whofe 
are faid to be extant, with others of lefs note. All we know 
the whole is, that after repeated bloody wars, in which the 
Jritons were fonietimcs the enemies, and fonietimcs the allies of the 
Scots, and other northern nations ; the Saxons became mailers of all 
Enjbnd, to the fouth of Adrian's, or rather, Scvcrus's wall ; but the 
Sects and Ti'^s feem to have been matters of all the territory to ihc north 
tfthat, thougli they fuffcrcd the Briton?, wiio had been driven mrth- 
«rds, to be governed by thrir own iribiirsry kin^^s ; an iniiTmixture 
that has created gre..t doubts and ccnfufions in hillory, which I fliall not 
htre pretend to iiniavcl. 

Ihivc already givL-n a fkctch of the onftitution and government which 
t'j: Saxons imported into Enghmd, and which form by far the mofl va- 
lable part of their anticnt hiitory. 

We have no accr.jnt of the Anwlo-Sax'ons convcrficn to Chriftianity bat 
fromPopilh writers, v. hogenerally endeavour to magnify the merits of their' 
fjpwiori. Accoiding to them, Ethelbcrt kini^ of Kent, who claimed prc- 
tmincnce in the heptarchy, as being defcended from Hcngilt, married the 
king of France's daughter, and (he being a Chrifiian, Pope Gregory tJie 
Great feizcd that opportunity to enforce t^e converfion of ner hulband to 
Chrillianity, or rather to Popery. For that purpofe, about the ye.-rr 596, he 
fentovcr to England the famous Auftin, the monk, who probably found no 
great difficulty in converting the king and his people, and alfo Sebert, 
Icir- of the Eaft Saxons, who wa'i baptized, and founded the cathedral 
of St. Paul in London. The monk then l)yhis iMaftcr*s order attempted 
to bring the churches of the Britons in Walt, to a conformity with that 
of Rome; particularly as to the celebration of Eallcr, but finding a ftout 
lefilbnce on the part of the biihops and clergy, he perfuaded his Chrif- 
lian converts to mafiacre them, which they did to the number of 1 200 
priells and monks, and reduced the Britons, who were found in the hep- 
urcliy, to a ftate of flavery, which fomc think gave rife to the antient 
villenage in England. Aullin is accounted the firft archbilhop of Can- 
terbury, and died in 605, as his convert Ethelbert did foon after. 

it docs not f;dl within my defign :o relate the feparate hiftory of every 
particular nation that form.cd the heptarchy. It is fufficient to fay, that 
the Pope, in Auftin's time, fupplied England with about 400 hundred 
monks, and that the popilh clergy took care to keep their kings and 
lai:v under the mod deplorable ignorance, but always magnifying the 
power and fanftity of his holinefs. Hence it was, that the Anglo-Saxons, 
(iuring their heptarchy, were governed by priefts and monks ; and as they 
iw; convenient, perfuaded their kings cither to fhut themfelves up in 
cloi!lers,or to undc.take pilgrimages to Rome, where they finilhed their 
Jays; no lefs than thirty Anglo-Saxon kings, during the heptarchy, re- 
figncii their crowns in that manner, and among them was Ina, king of 
the Weft Saxons, though in other rcfpefls he was a wife and brave 
prJBCC. The bounty of thofe Anglo-Saxon kings to the fee of Rome, 
tt'2s therefore unlimited; and EthcKvald, king of Mercia, whom I have 
already mentioned, impofed an annual tax of a penny, upon evexy 
Iwufc, which v.as aflervvards known by the name of Peter's pence. 



U\ 






11 



Th« 



510 



ENGLAND. 



I 



III 



The AiM;!c-').ixon Icin;»s cl'tiri'; flie hcptarcliy, commonly rlmfe r,r« 
who w.i» to be the hc.ul of lluir political confec'.c'racy, tor reguKuin 
their cni.ctriis, but witliout any jiirirdi»nion in the dominions of otlar' 
The clergy, wc may cauly fiippofc, had great influence on thofc »,cc.: 
Anns ; and ihc hillory of" the Sa.;on heptarchy is little more than that of 
crLncs, treaPms, and murdf-rs conunittcd by the infligations of priciK and 
monks. Even their criminal law, as 1 have already inferred, aJmittd 
of a pecuniary compeufatiou for murder, and regicide itfelf. 

Under all thofe difad vantages of bigotry and barbarity, the Anrlo. 
Saxons were happy in coiuparifon of the nations on the continent; [,c. 
caufc they were free from the Saracens, who had overun Spain, Ita!", 
and the finell countries in l''i:rope. London was then a place of v<r\ 
confiderable trade ; and, if we are to believe the Saxon chronicles, quoted './,• 
Tynel, Withreii, king of Kent, p.iid at one ti-.^e to !na, king ot Wefllw, 
a ium in filver equal to 90,000!. flerling, in the year 694. England, thiic- 
fore, we may fuppofe to have been about this time a relume for the people 
of the continent. The venerable Bcde then compofcd his ol'.urch hiltorv 
of Britain. The Saxon Chronicle is one of the oldelt .iiid lucll autlic-iitic 
monuments of hillory iliat anv nation can produce. An ajthitciluic, 
fttch as it was, with llone and glafs working, was iiitro-' iced into Ed< - 
land ; and wo read, in 709, of a Northumbrian pichitc who \'.as fcrvd 
in filver plate. It mull, howcver,^ be owned, tliat the Saxon coins, 
which are generally of copper, are manv of them ill>rgiblc, and all of 
them mean. Ale and alehoufcs are mentioned in the laws of Ina, about 
the year 728; and in this flate was the Saxon heptarchy in Englanii, 
when, about the year 800, the .Anglo-Saxons, tired out with the t\ranny 
of their petty kings, united in calling to the government cf the hep. 
tarchy, Egbert, who was the eldcfi remaining branch of the race of 
Cerdic. 

Charles the great, otherwlfe Charlcmaigne, w?.« then kin; of France, 
and emperor of Germany ; and 1 have, in a former part of this work, 
mentioned the commercial treaty between him and OjTu, king of Mtrcia, 
to whom he fent in a prefent, a Hungarian fword, a belt, and two filkcn 
vefts. Egbert had been obliged, by llatc jcnlouf.cs, to fly to the cour: 
of Charles for protcclion from the perfecutions of Eadburga, daughter of I 
Offa, wife to jUrithric, king cf the Weft Saxons. Egl)ert acquired at 
the court of Charles the arts both of war and government, and fc.al 
united the Saxon I'.eptarcliy i»i his own perfni, but without fubduiii« 
Wales. He changed the name of his kingdnin into that of Engle-lonJ.j 
or Englaiul ; but there is reafon to believe th;:t forae part of Engl:inil| 
continued ilill to be governed by independent princes of the blood w| 
Cerdic, though they pa;d, pcihips, a fmall trlbu:e to Egbert. His pro;'- 
perity excited the envy of tiie noriiiern nations, who, under the name '^i 
Danes, then intefted the fcuS, and were no llrangers to the coaih of] 
England; for about the year S32 tl\cy made defcL-.ds u^trn Kent aiidj 
Dorfetlhire, where they defeated Egbert in pcrfon, nnd cairicd off abua-i 
dance of booty to tiicir fli'ps. yibout two year-s after ihey landed inj 
Cornwall, and, though they v.-cre j^in-d by tiie Ccrnifli Britons, th^vj 
were driven out of England by Egbert, v, Jio died in the year 838, aCj 
Wincheftcr, his chief refidcnce. 

Egbert was fucccedcd by his Ton Ethehvoif, who divided his pov.-cij 
with his eldell Ton Atlielilan. By this rime England h.^d become a fceiiS 
•f blood and rav«gcs, thro' the r'snev.al of iLe Dauilh iDvalions ; ani 

EdichvoIfJ 



ENGLAND. 



211 



th the t\ rann; 



iv.iiions ; .ml 



f,;i,;!w'oIf after fomc lime bravely nppnfino; them, retired in a fit of <le- 
wiion v» Rome, to which he carried with him his yoiinc^ell I'on, aftcr- 
,v:rd<thc famous Alfred, the fntlicr of the F.nglilh cmilitution. Thccift? 
wiiich Kt!icl'.vo!f made to the clergy on this occafion (copies of wnick 
3,-cllil] rcmaiwiii'?,) arc fo prodigious that they fliew hi? uruin to have 
Ij-cn toiiclifd by his devotion. Upon his death, after his return from 
Rome, he divided hi:, dominions amonjr his fons (Athclllan being then 
(icaJ) Kthclbald and Kthelbert, but we know of no patrimony that wa« 
ifftto ycung Alfred. Ktbelbert, who was thw furvivir.g (on, left his 
LinqJt""; in ^'^6, to his brother f'.thn'd ; in whrfi* tiine, notwithftand- 
.o'the couno;e and cnnduft of Alfred, the Danes l»ccamc maftcrs of the 
l,j-coal^, .lid tlie finelt counties in Knr;l:ind. ilithred being killed, his 
hrother Alfred mounted the throne in 87;. He was one of the grcatelt 
princes, hoih in peace and war, mentioned in hiftory. He fought feven 
[Mttie^ wiih the Danes, with various fncccfs, and when dcfeatedi he 
fiwnJ refourcrs that rendered him as terrible as before. He was, how- 
ever, atone time, reduced to an uncommon llatcof mifery, being forced 
t) live in the diiguife of a cowherd. He ftill, however, kept up a fccfct 
cirrefnondencc with his brave friends, whom he colle^cd together, and 
by their aJfirtance he gave the Danes many ficnal overthrov.s, till at laft 
he recovered the kingdom of England, and obliged the Dane?, who had 
been fettled in it, to fwear obedience to his government ; even part of 
Vvalcj courted his protection ; fo th.i^ v is thouglit to have been the moll 
powerful monarch that before his time ever reigned in England. 

Among the other glories r *" Alfred's reign, was that or raifing a marl- 
linic power in England, by which he fecured her coafls from future in.- 
vafions. He rebuilt the city of London, which h:id been burnt down by 
tijeD.^nes, and founded the univcrfity of Oxford about the year 895. 
He divided England into counties, haiidrcds and tythings ; or rather he 
revived thofe divilions, and the ufc of juries which had fallen into de- 
luctudc by the ravages of the Danes. Having been educated at Rom-, he 
*ai himfelf not only a fcholar, but an author, and he tcjls us himfeifi 
tut upon his acceiTion to the throne he hr^J fcarcdy a lay fubjcdt who 
could rt-ad Engliih, or an ecclefialiic who unJerllood L.^tin. He intro- 
uced Hone and brick buildings to general ufe in palaces as well as 
odiches, thougji it is certain that his ful)je»ib for many years after his 
(l;.tii were fond of limber buildings. His encouragement to commerce 
and navi<i;ation may feem in-jredible to modern timefi, but he had jner- 
cbits who traded in Eall-India jewels ; and William of Mnlmlbury 
(iivi, th.ic foine of ihcir gems were repofitcd in the church oi' Shcrbcrna 
ill liis time. He received from one Ociher, about the year 890, a full 
dilcovery of the coaic'. of Norway and L 'pland, as far as Ruifia ; and he 
tell) the king, in his memorial printed by Hiikluyt, •* that he failed along 
"ilie Norway coall, fo far nouh as commonly the whnle hunters ufe to 
"travel." He invited numbers of learned men into his dominions, and 
kiid faithful and ufcful allies in the two Scotch kings his contcmpora- 
rif, Gregory and Donald, againlb the Danes. He ib faid to have fought 
noltfs than fifty-fix pitched battles with thole barbarians. He was incxora*- 
bleagainit his corrupt judges, whom he ufed tc hang up on public hi^dnvay.-, 
asaterror to evil doers. He died in the year 900, and his charattci: is fo 
wrapletcly amiable and heroic, that he is jultiy dignified with the epithet 
6iu Great, I hav« jccn the more diifui'e on the hiltcry of Alhcd's iw'ign, 

F 2 a6 



212 



ENGLAND. 



'■! 



% 



ir 



as it is the mod glorious of any in the Englifli annals, though it did r.a 
extend to foreign conqucfts. 

AMred was iiiccccded by his fon Edward the Elder, under whom 
though a brave prince, the D?acs renewed their barbarities and invafions' 
He died in the year 927, and was fucccedcd by his eldcft fon Athelftan*. 
This prince was fuch an encourager of commerce as to make a law, that 
every merchant who made three voyages, '^n his own account, to the 
Mediterranean, ihould be put upon a tooting with a thane, or nobleman 
of the firft rank. He encouraged coinage, and wc find by his laws that 
archbilhops, bilhops, and even abbots, had then the privilege of mintinc 
money. His dominions appear, however, to have been confined to- 
wards the north by the Danes, although his vafials itill kept a f )otinij in 
thofe counties. He was engaged in perpetual wars with his neighbours 
the Scots in particular, and died in 941. The reigns of his fucceflbrs 
Edmund, Edred, and Edwy, were weak and inglorious, beinw either 
engaged in wars with the Danes, or difgraced by the influence of priells. 
EJgar, who mounted the throne about the yeiir 959, revived the naval 
gbry of England, but, like his prcdcceflbrs^ he was the flave of prielh, 
particularly St. Dunftan. His reign, however, was pacific and gloriou:- 
though he was obliged to cede to the Scots all the territory to the north of 
Severus's wall. He was fucccedcd, in 975, by his cldell fon Edward, 
who was barbtroufly murdered by his ftep-mother, whofe fon Ethelred 
mounted the throne in 978. The Englifh nation, at that time, by the 
help of priells, was over- run with barbarians, and the Danes by degrees 
became pofrefled of the finell part of the country, while their country- 
men made fometimes dreadful dsfcents in the weftern parts. In the yetr 
1.002 they had made fuch fettlemcnts in England, that Etlielred was 
obliged, to give way to a general maflacre of them by the Englifh, but it 
is improbable that it was ever put into execution. Some attempts of 
that kind, however, were undoubtedly made in particular counties, but 
they ferved only to enrage theDanifh king, Swem, who,, in 1013, '^ovc 
Ethelred, his queen, and two (ons, out of England into Normandy. 
Swein being killed, was fucceeded by his fon Canute the Great, whom I 
have already mentioned, but Ethelred retuniing to England, forced 
Canute to retire to Denmark,, from wlience he invaded England with a 
Viilt arm;.-, and obliged Edmund Ironfidc, Ethelred's fon, to di\ide with 
him the kingdom.. Upon ivJmuiur.s being aflafTinatcd, Canute fucccedcd 
to the undivided kiagdom J and uyi;ig in 1039, his {on, Harold Hare- 
loot, did nothing memorable, anJ his fi^cceflbr, Hardicanute, was lb 
degenerate a prince that the Daulfn royalty ended with him in Eng- 
land. 

The family of Etheljed was new called to the throne ; and Edward, 
who is commonly called the Confcuor, mounted it, though Edgar Ethe- 
ling, by being dcfcended from an t'ldcr brancli, had the lineal right, 
and was allvf. Edv/ard tb.e CGnferi')r was a fnft, good-natured prince, 
a great bencfador to the cJuuch, and cxcclTivcly fond of the Normans, 
with whom he liad refided. He v.'ae: ^'/jverned by his minifler, earl God- 
win, and his fons, the eldefl of whom v/as Harold. He durft not rcfcnt, 
though he felt, their ignominious treatment i. and perceiving his kinfman 
Edgar Ethellng t.o be of a fbft difpofition, neither he nor the Englifh 
paid much reg.ird to Etheling'.? hejcditar>' rlglit ; fo that the ConfefTor, 
as is faid, devifed the fucccfiion of hi.^ crown upon ids death to Willian 
«luke of Nonna:idy. Be thut as i: will, it is certain, that upon the 

death 



ENGLAND. 



215 



(jtjtljofthe Cnnfeflbr, in the year 1066, Harold, fon to Godwin earl of 
Kent, mounted the throne of England. 

William duke of Normandy, though a ballard, was then in the un- 
rivalled poirefi'on of that great datchy, and refolved to aflert his right 
to the crown of England. For that purpofe he invited the ncighbourmg 
princes, as well as nis own vafTxIs, to join him, and by way of antici- 
pation, he parcelled out the territory of England to each in proportica 
to the number of men he brought into the field, making it thereby their 
ir.tereil to afTill hira eflcclaally. By thcfe means he collefted 40,000 
oftlij bravcll and mod regular troops in Europe, and while Harold wa» 
esibarrafled with frefli inv.ifionr. from the Danes, William landed in Eng- 
land without oppofitioij, Harold returning from the north, encountered 
William at Huntings in Sufil-x, witli a fiiperior army, but Harold being 
iiilled, the crown of Eiij^land devolved upon William, in the year 1066. 

I cannot fnd any gre.it improvements, either in arts or arms, which 
ae Saxons had made in England fi nee the firll invafion of the Dane.i, 
Tliofe barbarians feem to h^vc carried off with thjm almoft all the bul- 
lion and ready money of the: A'^^glo-Saxons, for I perceive that Alfred 
ihe Great left no more to Ids two daughters for their portions than 100 1. 
acli. The rcturii of the Danes to Enj;l:ind, and the vitflories which had 
been gained over the:.!, !;:id undoubtedly brought back great part of th« 
money and bullion tiicy liad carried ou; for wc are told that Harold, iit 
his laft viftory over tlu' Danes, j-e;Ta'nt'd as much treafure as twelve lully 
rncncauld carry ofr". V/e iiave, ind.ed, very particular accounts of the 
wilueof provliions and mani!!;.c\v:rcs in tl. >fe days ; a palfrey coft loj. 
Ill acre of land (according to biiliop Fleetwood in his Chronicon Pre- 
tiofura) !!■•. a!)d abide of land, containing 120 acres, 100 s. but thc/e 
ii great diiiicuky in forming tic pio^^oiticm of value which thofe niillin^s 
bore t'l the pr^fent rtand.ird oi' rn-.iiiey, ti'.ough many ingenious trpatifes 
il.ive been written on that head. A Tacep v.-as efliniated at is. an ox 
ui computed at 6;. a cow at 4s.- a man at three pounds. The board 
jages of a child, the fird year, wa". eight Ihillings. The tenants of 
!«hircbnrne were obliged at their choice to p.ay cither fix pence or four 
h.tis. Silk and cotton were quite iinknov/n. Linen was not much ufed. 
In tiie Saxon times land was divided among all the male childrtn of the 
keaffd. Entails were fometimes praflifed in thofe times. 

With regard to the manners of the Anglo-Saxons, we can fay little, 
htthat diey were in general a rude, uncultivated people, ignorant of 
letters, un(kilful in the mechanical arts, untamed to fubmiflion under 
law ai:d gn-ernmcnt, addicted to intemperance, riot, and diforder. 
r.en fo ](Hv as the reign of Canute, they fold their clvildren and kin- 
crcd into foreign part.s. Their be!l finality was their military courage, 
w.iidi yet wa.- not fupported by difcipliiu; or condudt. Even the Norman 
hiilori;;ns, nct.vithlhuuiing t.ie low Itatt of the arts in their own country, 
fptik of ih.'m as barbarians, when they mention the invafion made upon 
tiicm by the duke of Normar.dy. Conqueil put the people in a fituation 
(t'recv'iving flowly from abroad the rudiments of fcience and cultivation, 
tiiiiof corrcdins: their rourh and licentious manners. Their uncultivated 
lute might be owing to the clergy, who always di.couraged manufafiures. 

V\'e ;ire, however, to diltingaifli between the fecular clergy, and tiie 
regulars or monks. Many of the former, among the Anglo-Saxons, were 
mcnofexeniplary lives, and t cellent magiftiates. The latter depended 
upon the li^e of Rome, and dirciited the confcienccs rf the kin^ and 
t*ie great men, and were generally ignorant, and often a bloody let. 



i' 3 



A 



1 


1 m 


\l 


f m 


!'■ 


i 'Wau 


(k 






\ ffi 


1 


1 



t.l 









1- 



n 



t^A- 



ENGLAND. 



i: ■ 



3.; 



■I' 
ill 



li^ 



I 



? 



A great deal of the Saxon barbarifm was likewife owing to tlr.ir conti- 
nual intCTCourfe with the continent: and the Danilh .invafions, which 
Jcft little lOom for civil or literary improvements. Amidft all thofc de- 
feds, public and pcrfonal liberty were well undcrllood and guarded by 
the Saxon inftituticns ; and we owe to them, at this day, the moll valua- 
ble privileges of Engliih fubjedts. The lofs which both fides fuiTered at 
the battle of Haftines' is uncertain. Anglo Saxon authors {v.y, that 
Harold was fo impatient to fight, that he aitacked William v;ith half 
rf his army, fo that the advantage of numbers was on the fide of the 
Norman ; and, indeed, the death of Harold foems to have decided the 
day, and William with very little further diliicuky took po/Teflion of the 
throne, and new jnodelled the whole conftituiion of England in the 
manner I have already dclcribed, by converting all the lands into 
knights fees, which are faid to have amounted to 62,000, which were 
held of the great pcrfons who had afliited him in his conqueft, and who 
were bound to .ittend him with their knights and their foliovvers in his 
wars. V.'illiam found it no eafy matter to keep poficflion of his crown. 
Edgar Etheling, and his fifk-r, the next Anglo-Saxon heirs, were affec- 
tionately received in Scotland, and many of the Saxon lords took arms 
and formed confpiracies in England. William got the better of all dif- 
ficulties, efpecially after he had made a peace with Malcolin, king cf 
Scotland, who married Etheling's filler ; but not v.'i'Jiout exercifing hor- 
rible cruelties upon the Anglo-Saxons, whom he obliged to put out their 
candles and fires every evening at eight o'clock, at the found of the cur- 
few bell. He introduced Norman laws and language ; he bridled the coun- 
try with fort?, and difarmed the old inhabitants ; in iliort, he did every thing 
poflible to obliterate every trace of the Anglo-Saxon conilitution. Whiie 
he was thus employed, his eldcll fon Rotert rebelled againfl: him, but 
without fiiccefs ; and William, before his death, caufed a g'.'ncral lurvcy 
^of all the lands of England to ..e made, or rather to he ciinpleted, (fr 
it was begun in Edward the Confeflbr's time) and an account to he taken 
of the villains, ilaves, and live flock upon each ellate, all wiiich was 
recorded in a book called Doomfday-book, which is now kc^pt in the 
Exchequer. He died in the fixty-firft year of his age, and the twenty-liul 
cf his reign, and was buried in his own abbey at Caen in Nojmanay. 

The fucceffion to the crown of England was difputed between iiis fons 
Robert and William, (commonly called Rufus) but it was carried in 
favour of the latter. He was a brave and intrepid prince, bu'. no frienJ 
to the clergy, who have, therefore, been unfavourable to his memoiy. 
He was Jilcewife hated by the Normans, wlio loved his elder brother, 
and confequently was engaged in perpetua' wars witli his brothers, and 
rebellions of his people. About this time the crufades to tlie Holy Land 
began, and in 899, R.obert, who was among the firll to engage, ac 
commodated matters with William for a fum of money, which he levied 
from tiic cicrgy. William behaved with gre:it gepcrofity towards Edgar 
Etheling and the court of Scotland, notwithllanding all the provocatloni 
he had received from that quarter, but was accidentally killed as he wa. 
hunting in New Foreft, in the year iioo, and the Ibrty-tburth year of 
his age. He is ch.iofly accufed of rapacioufhefs and opprelfion j but th.' 
circi'.mllaucrs of his reign had great demands for money, which he \v.<l 
no other mean: of raifmg but from a luxurious, over-grown clergy, wlio 
hnd cngrcflbd all the riches of ^he kingdom. 

The monuments which remain of this prince in England, are tk 

Tower, and Vr'elbniailcr-Huil, v.'hich he built. In the year 1 100 hr,p- 

1 pcnvil 



ENGLAND. 



215 



pjr,:d that Inundation of the fea, which overflowed great part of earl 
GoiivvinV eftate in Kent, and formed thofe fhallows in the Downs, now 
called the Goodwin Sands. 

He was fucceeded by his brother Henry I. furnamcd JBeaucIerc, on 
account of his learning, though his brother Robert was returning from 
the Hcly Land. Henry may be faid to have purchafed the throne, firft 
by his brother'^ treafures, wliich he feized at Winchefter ; and, fecondly, 
tj' a charter, in which he reftored his fubje£ts to the rights and privi- 
leTcsthey had enjoyed under the Anglo-Saxon kings. Tliirdly, by hismaf? 
liagc with Matilda, daughter of Malcolm 111. king of Scotland, and niecp 
to Edgar Atheling, of the ancient Saxon line. His reign in a great 
mealure reftored the clergy to their influence in the Hate, and they 
formed as it were a feparate body dependent upon, the Pope, which 
iftcrwards created great convulfions in lingland. Henry, partly by 
force, and partly by ftratagem, made hiiilelf mailer of his brother 
Robert's perfan, and dutchy of Normandy; and, with a moll ungene- 
rous nieannefs detained him a prifoner for twenty-eight years, till tiie 
time of his deaih ; and in the mean while Henry quieted his confcience 
by founding .:n abbey. He was afterwards engaged in a bloody but fuc- 
cefiul war .vith France ; and before his death he fettled the fucccfHon 
upon his daughter the emprefs Matilda, widow to Henry IV. emperor 
ofGerniiiny, and jier fon Henry, by her iccondhufband Geoffrey Planta> 
gcntt, earl of Anjou. Henry died of a furfeit, in the feventy-cighth 
ye:;- of his age, in 1 135. 

Notwithltanding the late fettlement of fuccefT:<jn, the crown of 
England was claimed, and feized by Stephen, earl of Blois, the fon of 
Ad^ia, fourth (laughter to William the Conqueror. Matilda and her 
fi>n v.cre tlien abroad ; and Stephen was aflifled in his ufurpation by his 
br vtiu-r tlic billiop of VVinchcIlcr, and the other great prelates, that he 
it hold his crown dependent, as it were upon them. Matilda, how- 



niig 



ever, found a generous protector in her uncle, David, king of Scotlandj(|* '' 
and :i worthy lubjed in her natural brother Robert, earl of Gloucefter, 
who headed her party before her fon grew up. A long and bloody war 
enik'd, the clergy having abfolved Stephen and all his friends from their 
juilt of breaking the a£l of fucceffion ; but at length the barons, who 
Jrcadc'd the power of the clergy, inclined towards Matilda j and Stephen, 
who depended chiefly ou foreign mercenaries, having been abandoned 
by the clergy, was defeated and taken prifoner in 1141 ; and being car- 
ried before IViatilda, fhe impotently upbraided him, and ordered him to 
be put in chains. 

Matilda was proud and weak ; the clergy were bold and ambitious ; 
and when joined with the nobility, who were fiidlious and turbulent, 
they were an overmatch for the crown. Being now matters of the foil of 
England, they forgot the principles of their Normannic conftitution, becaufc 
it rendered them dependent upon the crown. They demanded to be govern- 
ed by the Saxon laws, according to the charter that had been granted by 
Hchry I. upon his acccHion ; and finding Matilda refratilory, they drove 
her »wt of England in 1142. Stephen having been exchr.nge.l for the earl 
of Glouccller, who had been taken prifoner likewife, upon his obtaining 
his liberty, found that his clergy and nobility had, in fail, excluded him 
from the government, by building eleven hundred callles (tho' they owe 
.".11 their rights to the king) wliere each owner lived as an independent 
prince. We do not, however^ find that this alleviated the feudal I'ub- 

1* 4 jecliQa 



2l5 



ENGLAND. 



jeftion of the inferior ranlrs. Stephen was ill enough advifed to attempt 
to fcrcc them into a compliance with his will, by declarinjj his ion 
puftace lieir apparent to the kingdom ; and cxafperated the clcr<»y fo 
much, that they invited over young Henry of Anjou, who had "been 
acknowledged duke of Normandy, and v/as fon to the emprefs; and he 
accordingly landed in England with an army ftf foreigners. 

This meafure divided the clergy from the barons, who were appre- 
hcnfive of a fecond conquell ; and the earl of Arundel, with the heads of 
the lay arillocracy, propofed an accommodation, to which both parties 
agreed. Stephen, who about that time loll his fon Euftacc, was to re- 
tain the name and ofcce of king ; but Henry, who was in facl inverted 
with the chief executive power, was acknowledged his fucceffor. 
Though this accommodation was only precarious and impeifed, vet it 
was received by the Englifh, who had bled at every pore during the late 
civil wars, with raptures cf joy; and Stephen dying ver/ opportunely, 
Henry mounted the throne without a rival m 1154. 

Henry II. furnamed Plantagenct, was by far the grcateft prince of his time. 
It is true he owed his crown to the arms and valour of his great grand uncle, 
David king of Scotland, and the virtues and wifdom of the earl of Gloucef. 
ter ; but Henry, as he grew up, difcovered amazing abilities for government, 
having performed, in the fixteenth year of his age, aftions that would 
liave dignified the moft experienced warriors. At his acceffion to the 




Jty. Henry perceived the good policy of this, and brough 
boroughs to fuch a height, that if a bondman or fervant remained in a 
borouzh a year and a day, he was by fuch refidence made free. He 
eredled Waliingford, Winchefter, and Oxford, into free boroughs, for 
the fervices the inhabitants had done to his mother and himlelf ; by 
jdifcharging them from every burden, excepting the fixed fee-farm rcntcf 
%uch town ; and this throughout all England, excepting London. This 
gave .1 vail acceffion of povver to the crown, becaufe the crown alone 
could fupport the boroughs againft their feudal tyrants, and enabled 
Henry to reduce his overgrown nobility. 

Without being very fc-upulous in adhering to bis former engagements, 
he lefume I the exceffive grants of crown lands by Stephen, on pretence 
of his being a ufiirper. He demoliflied the rebellious calHes that hiid 
been built ; but when he came to touch the dergy, he found the 1 
iifurpations not to be fliaken. He perceived that the root of all their enor- 
mous diforders lay in Rome, where the Popes had exempted churchmen^ 
not only from lay courts, but civil taxi's. The bloody cruelties and 
ciilbrders, occafioned by thofe exemptions, all over the kingdom, would 
be incredible were they not att'.'fted by the moil unexceptionable evi- 
dences. Unfortunately for Henry, the h.'ad of the Englilti church, and 
chancellor of the kingdom, was the celebrated Thomas Becket. Tliii 
man, powerful from his offices, and llill more fo by his popularity, ariiing 
from a pretended fandity, was violent, intrepid, and a determined 
enemy to temporal power of every kind, but withal, cool and politic. 
The king affembled his nobility at Clarendon, the name of which place 
is ilill famous for the conftitutions there enadled ; which, in fait, aho- 
lilhed the authority of the Romilh fee over the linglilh clergy. Becket 
finding it in v..in to reiift the itream, figned thofe conftitutions, till they 



could be ratified by the Pope ; who, as he forefaw, 



rejected them. 



ENGLAND. 



217 



Hcnr>', though a prince of the moft determined fpirit at any of his time, 
ivastkii tinbruil d with all his neighbour' : and the fee of Rome was 
at the lame time in its meridian grandeur. 'Ihough Bccket was arraigned 
Slid convicted of public peculation, while he was chancellor, yet he fled 
10 France, where the Pope and the French king cfpoufed his quarrel. 
The cfrcci \v;is, that all the Euolilh clergy who were on the king's fide 
ivere excommunicated, and the fubjcifts ablolvei from their allegiance. 
This dilconccrtcd Henry i'o much, that he lubmitted to treat, and even 
(0 be in fill tfd by his rebel prelate, who rcturneJ triumphantly through 
the threes of London in 11 70. His return (welled his pride, and cn- 
crealed his infolence, till both became iniupportable to Henry, who was 
then in Normandy. Finding tliat he was in fad only the firlt fubjedl ol 
hii own dominions, he v/as heard to fay, in the anguilh of his heart, 
*' h tiiere none wiio will revenge his monarch's caufe upon this auda- 
" cious pricll?" Thefe words reached the ears of four knights, Hugh 
Norvii, William Tracy, Hugh Brito, and Richard Fitzwifej and, 
without acquainting Henry of their intentions, they went over to Eng* 
land, where they beat out Becket's brains before the altar of his own 
church at Canterbury. Henry was in no condition to fecond the blind 
obedience of his knights; and the public rclcntmcnt rofe fo high, on the 
fuppofition that he \sas privy to tlie murder, that he fubmitted to be 
fcourged by monks at the tomb of the pretended martyr. 

Henry, in confcquence of his well i'.nv)\vn maxim, endeavoured to 
cancel all the grunts wliich had been made by Stephen to the royal 
family of Scotland, and adlually rcfumcd their moft valuable poUefTions 
in the north of England. I'his occajioned a war between the two king- 
doms, in which William king of Scotland was taken priiuner, and 
forced to pay for his ranfom ioo,ocol. As the money and coins of 
Scotland were at that time of the fame intrinfic value, and as one half 
of the ranfom was paid in ready money, and the other at a time ap- 
pointed, it has been obferved by bilhop Nicholion, and other very accu- 
rate authors ; that, confidcring the valt diiticulti^^s which England in the 
next reign had, to pay the ranfom of Icing Richard, Scotland mult iiave 
then poll'ciTed more ready money than England, a fuit, which liiough 
undoubted, is not eafily accounted for upon any hiilorical fyltem hitherto 
formed. 

Henry likewife diftinguifhed his reign by the conqueft of Ireland, 
which 1 fhall have t)ccaiion to mention when 1 treat of that ifland ; 
and by marrying Eleanor, the divorced queen of France, but the heirefs 
of Guienne and Foidou, he became almoll as powerful as the French 
king himielf in his own « - Inions, and the greateft prince in ChriJlen- 
doni. Henry, however, in his old age was far from being fortun..te. 
He had u turn for plcafure, and cmbarrafled himfelf in intrigues with 
women, particularly the fair Rofamond, which were relented by hisqueeii 
Eleanor, by her feducing her fons Henry, (wliom his father had uuad- 
vifedly cauicd to be crowned in his own lile-tin-e) Richard and John, 
into repe;;ted rebellions, which at laft broke the old man's fpirit, and he 
died obicurely at Chinou, in i'i;fnce, iu the 56th year of his age. 
In 1 1 89. . 

During the reign of Henry, corporation charters were eftablilhcd all 
over England, by which, as I have already hinted, the power of the 
|)arons was greatly reduced. Thole corporations encouraged trade ; but 
maiiufadures, cfpcciuUy tnoie of hik, lecm iliii to luvc" been confined 
' ■ ' • a to 



h 



i 



2l8 



E ivr G L A N D. 



to Spain and Tuly ; for the filk coronation mbc5, made ate of by yr.im* 
Henry and his queen, coft 87I. los. Ad. in t}»e C;enff of London j 
account, primed by Mr. Madox ; a vail lura in thcfc tiays. Henry in, 
troduccd the ufe of glafs in windows into Cngiaml, zr.d Aone arches in 
building. M^lmibury, and other hirtorians who livai under him, are 
remarkable for their Latin iliJe, Hnich in fome places is bc:h pure and 
elegant. Durino the thirty- five years of his reign he had fuch vail re- 
fourccs in his Englifli demcfne lands, and his French dcminicns, that he 
never once demanded a luljfidy or aid from his people; though, hel-drs 
Iiis carrying on alnioft continual wars wiiji 'cciiand, Fr«.-. :e, and Wulej 
he maintained his conquell of Ireland. 'I he fum he left in ready money, 
at his death, has, perhaps, been exaggci ated, but the moll moderate 
accounts make it amount to 200,000!. of cur money. 

In this reign, and in thofe barbarous ages, h wa? r caitom In Lon- 
don for great nniTxbers, to the u.v.cu-l >.;' .; >;uiiar?d or more, of the 
fons and relations of eminent citizens, to form thcmfclvcs into a licenllou', 
confederacy, to break into rich houfes, and plunder them, to rob and 
murder pniTfengers, and to coniirit v.ith impunity a>'l forts of diforders. 

Henry fo far abolifhed the barbarous and abfurd praclicc of forfeitin? 
Iliips, wliich had been wrerJ-cd on the coafl, that if one man or aaimil 
was alive in the fliip, the veficl and gooJs were reitored to the owners. 
This prince was alfo the firii. who levied a tax on the ir.o\'t;able or per- 
fonal eftatcs of his fubje»5l.';, nobles as well as people. Their zeal for 
the holy wars made them fubmit to this innova:J',R ; and a precedent 
being once cbtiiined, this taxation became, in follcwing reigns, the 
ufual inetho-1 of fiipplying the neceilitics of the cro;*-c. It was a uiual 
praftice of the kings of .England to repeat the Cfremony of their coro- 
nation thrice a year, on afll'iiibling tl:c llates at the three great feiilval;. 
Henry, after the firit years of his reign, never rzRe\v:d this ceremosiv, 
which was found to be veiy expcr.uve and very ufe-It:'^, None of ins 
fucceflbrs ever revived it. 6ince we are here coilciting fome detached 
inilances, which fhov/ the fcniua of thefe ?.ges, it may no: hi i;nproperto 



mention tlie quTrrel between Rocer, 



arclibiinop ct 



YtrJ", and Richar.1 



archbifiiop of C:intcrbury. We may j'.icige of the violence of military 
men and Ir.ymen, v/hcn eccicllauics could ppxeed to fuch extremities. 
The Tone's Jo; ate havin;4 fiimmoned an aiiemblv of the cler?v at 
London ; and as both the aichbilhops pretended to fit on his right kind, 
tliis quellion of p-ecedency h?got a controveriy "bt-twceri them. The 
jnonks and retainers of arehhiihop Richard fell upon Roger in the pre- 
fence of tlie cardinal and of the fynod, th:cw him on the ground, 
trampled him under foot, and lo bruifed him v»-ith blows, that he w.s 
taken up half dejid, and his life was with diSicalty (av^d from *' eir 
violence. • 

Richard f. furnamed Coeur dc Lion, was the third, hat clJell furviv- 
ing fon of Henry ir. The clergy had found me^ns to gain him over, 
and for their own ends they pcriua>k'd him to ni:ike a moil mn.gniiicent 
ruinous crufadc to the Holy Lrnd, where he took Afcslon, and perform- 
ed actions of valour that give countenance even to the faMcs of antiquity, 
After feveral glorious, but fr'.iitlefs campaigns, he made 2 truce of thn-c 
years ; and in his return to f'ngland he was treachen>cf!y farpriztd by 
the duke of Auitria ; who, in 1193, fent him prifoner to the cmperrr 
liCnry \'L His ranfom was hxcd by the C^'rdid eirpeior at 70,000 marli 
pf l^ilver ; but the particular weight of a German and Engliili niajk i> 

nc; 



E N G L A N" D. 



ii^ 



rot afccrtaineil, though it is by fome computed at ;500,oool. of our 
money- According to contemporary authors, the raifinj:; of this ranfoTU 

roved to be a matter of fo much difficulty, that all the church plate 

J, melted dov/n, and a tax was laid on all perfons, both cccleilaitical 
,„J fcctilir, of one fourth part of their income, for one year ; and 
l\:ntv (hillings on every knight*s-fee ; alfo one year's wool borrowed of 
the Cift^Tcians, befides money railed upon the clergy of the king's French 
iiiiinions ; and 2000 marks, which were fnrnilhed by William king of 
Scotland, in gratitude for Richard's generous behaviour to him before his 
Jeparture. Though all thofe fums are well authenticated, yet it is not 
eafy to reconcile them with certain other money tranfaiilions of this reign, 
bat by fuppoAng that Richard carried off with him, and expended 
abroad, all the vifible fpecie in the kingdom ; and that the people had 
referved vail hoards, which they afterwards produced, when commerce 
:oo'< a brifker turn. _ •- ^ 

Upon Richard's return from his captivity, he held a parliament at 
Nottingham ; whither William king of Scotland came, and demanded 
the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Wcftmoreland, and 
Lancaftcr, as his predeceflbrs had enjoyed the fame. Richard put him 
oiTfor the prefent with fair words, yet by advice of his council he granted 
William, by charter, the following honours and benefits for him and his 
fuccefi'ors, viz. " That whencvxr a king of Scotland was to be fummoned 
to ihe court of England, to do homage for the lands he held in England, 
he ihould be, at the river Tweed, rev;eived by the bifliop of Durham, 
r.d the llieriff of Northumberland, and they (hould condjicl him to the 
river Tees, where the archbifliop and (hcriff of York fhould receive 
him; and fo in like fort tlie biftiop, and flieriffs of the other (hire